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Full text of "Historical & descriptive account of the caricatures of James Gillray : comprising a political and humorous history of the latter part of the reign of George the Third"

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HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE 



ACCOUNT 



or THl 



CARICATURES 



or 



JAMES GILLRAY, 



GOMPBISINO 

A POLITICAL AND HUMOROUS HISTORY OP 

THE LATTER PART OP THE REIGN OF 

GEORGE THE THIRD. 



BT 

THOMAS WRIGHT, ESQ., F.S.A, 



9- 

▲KD 



R. H. EVANS, ESQ. 



LONDON: 
HENRT a. BOHN, TORK STREET, COVBNT GARDEN. 

1851. 



•G-s 



I 



LIFE OF GILLRAY. 

(Extracted from the sketch given in Stomley^s new edition oj 
* Bryan'« Dictiontury of the PcUnters,) 



\ 



James Gillray, the most eminent of English carica- 
turists, was born in 1757. His father, James Gillray, 
who was bom at Lanark, in Scotland, September 3, 1720, 
entered the army, and was present at the battle of 
Fontenoy, where he lost an arm. On his return to Eng- 
land, he became an out-pensioner of Chelsea Hospital, 
and filled the office of sexton to the Moravian burying- 
ground at Chelsea for forty years, and was buried there in 
1799. Like the illustrious Hogarth, and the celebrated 
engraver Sharp, young Gillray began his career as a letter 
engraver, but we have been unable to meet with any 
specimens of his work in that department. 

Being disgusted with this monotonous occupation, he 
ran away from his employer, joined a company of strolling 
players, and, after undergoing the various hardships which 
this course of life invariably entails upon its followers, 
returned to London, and became a student of the Boyal 
Academy, where he most energetically pursued his studies 
in the art of design. That he must have attained consider- 
able proficiency is evident from several plates which he 
engraved after his own designs, particularly two subjects 
from Goldsmith's Deserted Village," inscribed "The 
Village Train,'' and '^ The Deserted Village, published in 
1784. These are designed with great freedom and pic- 
turesque efiect, and have some resemblance to the earlier 
works of Stotbard. They are exceedingly well engraved 



VI LIFE OF GILLRAY. 

in the dotted manner, and though we are not acquainted 
with the name of his instructor they so much resemble 
the works of the unfortunate Byland, that we have little 
hesitation in asserting that he must have communicated 
his art to Gillray. Among other works of this class, and 
executed about the same time, are two portraits of William 
Pitt ; which, though admirable representations of the man^ 
are nevertheless somewhat approaching to caricature. He 
also engraved a few plates after Lady Spencer's drawings, 
and, either for the purpose of amusement or mystification, 
occasionally adopted fictitious names. On many of his 
earlier caricatures, he made use of a monogram composed 
of the letters J. S. interlaced, very much resembling that 
used by Sayer the caricaturist, probably with the intention 
^of misleading the public as to the real designer. 

Gillray appears to have continued working as an 
engraver long ailer his career as a caricaturist had com- 
menced, as, in 1792, he produced a large plate after 
Northcote, representing the delivery of the prisoners from 
the Bastille, inscribed, ^^ Le Triomphe de la Libert^, ou, 
L'elargissement de la Bastille/' and in 1794, *^ Marquis 
Comwallis receiving the Boyal Hostages at Seringapatam,'' 
after the same painter : probably the last of his produc- 
tions of this description. 

Admirable as are many of these works, it is as a caricatur- 
ist that Gillray isbest known. Inthisarthehasnorival; and 
the exquisite tact with which he seized upon points, both in 
politics and manners, most open to ridicule, is only equalled 
by the consummate skill and wit with which he satirized 
them. His earlier works are moi*e carefully than spiritedly 
executed, and look like the productions of an engraver only. 
The earliest of his undoubted caricatures, though many 
others antecedent have been with groat reason attributed 



LITE OF OILLBiLY* Yll 

to him, is dated 1779 ; it is probably a satire on the Irish 
Fortune-hunter, and is called *' Paddy on Horseback/' the 
so-called horse being a hull, on which he is riding with his 
face to the tail. But his improyement was rapid and ex- 
traordinary, and he soon attained a marvellous freedom 
both of design and in the management of the etching 
needle. It is believed he etched his ideas at once upon 
the copper without making a previous drawing, his only 
guides being sketches of the distinguished characters he 
intended to introduce made on small pieces of card which 
he always carried about him, and many of which we have 
seen. His caricatures are so numerous that it would be 
quite impossible to give any thing like a list of them in 
this sketch ; we shall, therefore, merely notice a few of 
the more important, arranging them according to the 
dates at which they appeared. 

A New Way to pay the National Debt. George IIL and his 
queen are coming out of the Treasury loaded with money, 
which is overflowing their pockets; on the right is the 
Prince of Wales in a very shabby condition, gratefully 
receiving money from the Due d' Orleans. April 21, 1786. 

Ancient Music, A capital caricature of the king and queen 
in ecstasy at a concert performed by the Ministers. May 
10, 1787. 

Monstrous Craws ; a powerful satire on the grasping avarice 
of George HI. and Queen Charlotte. May 28, 1787. 

March to the Bank. A capital etching, executed in the most 
masterly style. August 22, 1787. There are two states 
of this plate ; in the first, the female who is thrown down 
in front has less drapery. 

Market Day. Lord Thurlow, as a grazier, is attending 
Smithfleld Market, and examining the beasts, the heads 
of which represent the leading political characters of the 
day. May 2, 1788. 



Vm LIFE OF OILLfiA.Y. 

Election troopg bringing in their Accounte to the Fay Table; 
J. Oillrag, invt. et fecit, 1788. A satire on the means 
employed by ministers, unsuccessfully however, to frus- 
trate the election of Fox for Westminster. This we 
believe is the first caricature on which the name of Gillray 
appears. 
Frying Sprats : — Toasting Mvffins. 1791. Two small but 
very clever caricatures on the parsimonious habits of 
George III. and his queen. In the first the queen is 
represented carefully frying her own sprats ; and in the 
second the king is in the full enjoyment of toasting his 
own muffins. 
Anti'Saccharites, or John Bull and his Family leaving off the 
use of Sugar, 1792. The king and queen, from economical 
motives, are enjoying and praising their tea without sugar, 
while the princesses are evidently very much di^(gu8ted, 
and take no pains to conceal it. The royal family, it is 
said, were highly delighted with this caricature. 
A Connoisseur examining a Cooper. A very bold and happy 
idea, capitally carried out. George ILL is represented 
almost purblind looking with great attention at a minia- 
ture of Oliver Cromwell, which he holds in one hand, and 
has a candle in the other. The bitterness of this satire 
was occasioned by the disparaging observations the king 
made on the portraits Gillray had sketched during his 
tour in Planders with Louthcrbourg. The king had said, 
" I don't understand these caricatures." The exasperated 
artist made this drawing, and said, " I wonder if the royal 
connoisseur will understand this ?" 
Temperance enjoying a frugal Meal, and A Voluptuary under 
the Horrors of Digestion. 1792. Two most admirable 
productions, unsurpassed either in humour, design, or 
execution. The temperate habits of George III. in the 
former, and the Epicurean manners of the Prince of 
Wales in the latter, are portrayed with the most con- 
summate ability. 
Bengal Levee, from an original drawing made on the spot 
by an amateur. 1792. A very large and skUfully executed 
plate. ' 



LTFE OF aiLLBAY. IX 

The Dagger Scene, or the Flot discovered. 1792. The capital 
representation of a well-known scene in the House of 
Commons, in which Edmund Burke was the chief per- 
former. 

Fatigues of tJie Campaign in Flanders. 1793. The Duke of 
York luxuriating in the company of the Flemish frows, 
attended bj his soldiers, who are bringing in large bowls 
of punch. 

The Loyal Toast 1798. The Duke of Norfolk giving his 
celebrated toast, " The majesty of the people," at the 
Crown and Anchor Tavern, for which he was dismissed 
from his offices. 

The consequences of a successful French Invasion ; a set of 
four plates, in which the horrors to be expected are given 
with extraordinary spirit. No doubt these and other 
similar caricatures produced a great and powerful effect 
on the minds of the English public, inspiring the people 
to a determined resistance. 

The Cow-pock, or the wonderful effects of the new Inoculation. 
A very humorous burlesque on the popular opinions 
respecting Jenner*8 invaluable discovery. 

L^Assemhlee Nationale, or a grand co-operative Meeting at 
St. Anne*s Hilly (the residence of Charles James Fox,) 
respectfully dedicated to the admirers of a Broad-Bottom* d 
Administration. 1801. This we have no hesitation in 
asserting to be the most talented caricature that has ever 
appeared. The king is supposed to have been executed, 
the republic proclaimed, and Fox, as first consul, is 
holding his ievee at his house at St. Anne's Hill. All the 
leading Whigs are present, of whom the likenesses are 
most admirable, and in the right comer is seen a portion 
of the figure of the Prince of "Wales. This caricature 
gave so much offence to the prince that he offered a large 
sum of money for its suppression, which being accepted, 
he ordered the plate to be destroyed. It was the misfor- 
tune of the prince and those by whom he was surrounded 
to place reliance on each other; the plate was not de- 
stroyed, it was secreted, and still exists. It will be found 
in the collection published by Mr. Bohn. 



X LIFE OP GILLBAT. 

The King of Brobdingnag (sic) and Gulliver (George III. 

and Buonaparte) ; two plates. 1803 and 1804i. 
The Middlesex Election, 1801. Sir Francis Burdett dragged 

in his carriage to the poll bj the Duke of Norfolk, Charles 

Fox, and other leading Whigs. 
The Reconciliation between Oeorge III. and the Prince of 

WaleSy 1804. Admirably treated. 
The Life of William Cohhett, written by himself; eight 

satirical plates. 1809. 
Installation of the Chancellor of Oxford, (Lord Orenville,) 

Aug. 8, 1810 ; a large plate, and the last political engrav- 
ing having bis name. 
Other pieces not of a political nature^ but full of 
humour^ and sometimes severely satirical on the fashion- 
able friyolities of the time, wherein he did not spare the 
persons of the prime leaders of the ton, may be added : 

A PiC'Nie Orchestra, in which are introduced the portraits 

of the Marchioness of Buckinghamshire and Salisbury, 

Lord Cholmondeley, Charles Grenville, &c. 
Dilettanti Theatricals, in which the same characters are 

introduced. 
Slowing up the Pic-Nics ; the same parties assailed by 

Sheridan in the character of Harlequin, assisted by Mrs. 

Siddons and John Kemble. 
The Bulstrode Siren, Mrs. Billington and the Duke of 

Portland. 
Fush'pin. Duke of Queensberry and Miss Vanneck. 
Portraits innumerable of leaders of the fashions then in 

vogue, both males and females, with whose names the 

editor has been made acquainted, but which had better 

be consigned to oblivion. 
Twopenny Whist. The party consists of Betty Marshall, 

the assistant to Mrs. Humphreys, Mrs. Ti/mer, Mr. 

Mortimer, and a German of the name of Schotter. Betty 

Marshall is showing the trump card. 
Cockney Sportsmen, in four plates ; 1800. 
Elements of Skating, in four plates ; 1805. 
Bakers Progress at the University, five plates ; 1806. 



LIFE OF GILLBiLY. XI 

The last plate from the burin of Gillray is, A Barber^s 
Shop in Assize thne; it is dated May 15, 1818, but was 
probably engraved January 9th, 1811, the date figured iu 
the comer. It is from a drawing by Bunbury. 

Gillray 's works have been always highly esteemed ; some 
time since they were produced in a collected form, and 
have lately passed into the hands of Mr. H. G. Bohn, by 
whom they have been republished at a price that renders 
them generally attainable. 

Gillray was unfortunately an example of the imprudence 
that so frequently accompanies genius and great talent-^ 
his habits were in the highest degree intemperate. For 
many years he resided in the houses of his publisher 
Mrs. Humphrey, in New and Old Bond Streets, and 
lastly, in St. James's Street, by whom he was most 
liberally supplied with every indulgence. During this time 
he produced nearly all his most celebrated works, which 
were bought up with unparalleled eagerness, and circulated 
not only throughout England, but all over Europe. Though 
under a positive engagement not to work for any other 
publisher, yet, to satisfy his insatiable desire for strong 
drink, he now and then etched plates for Mr. Pores of Pic- 
cadilly, disguising, in some instances very successfully, both 
his style and handling. It has been whispered that there 
was a liaison between Gillray and Mrs. Humphrey not 
essential to their relation as designer and publisher ; it 
is due to the memory of the lady to contradict that 
slander ; such a liaison did not exist. The writer asserts 
this from information derived from persons of the strictest 
morals, who were intimately acquainted with Mrs. Hum- 
phrey for more than thirty years, and at whose family 
table Gillray and Mrs. Humphrey dined on Christmas day 
regularly for more than the last twenty years of his life, 
previous to his insanity. 



Xll LIFE OF OILLEAY, 

It has been before observed that the last of his works 
is dated 1811 ; soon after this he sank into a state of 
mingled imbecility and delirium, and once during a 
paroxysm attempted self-destruction, by throwing himself 
from an upper window of the house in St. James's Street, 
a fact which the writer of this perfectly well remem- 
bers, as he happened to be passing at the time, and 
witnessed the struggle between Gillray and the parties who 
prevented him. He at length expired in 1815, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. James, Piccadilly, near to 
the Rectory House. A flat stone is placed over his grave, 
on which is inscribed, " In Memory of Mr. James Gillray 
the Caricaturist, who departed this life 1st June, 1815, 
aged 58 years.*' 

There exists a specimen of his knowledge of the art of 
lithography. It represents a Domestic Musical Party ; tho 
mother is playing on the piano-forte, the husband stands 
behind her playing the flute, the children are singing. It 
exhibits considerable ability, and is excessively rare ; only 
one impression has come under my notice. He engraved 
on wood a medallion portrait of William Pitt, placed 
against a rustic monument overshadowed by tho branches 
of an oak, with an anchor and other emblems at bottom. 
(See vignette on the title-page of the folio volume.) He 
also engraved a few small woodcuts, among which are, 
A Woman Crying Fish, A Boy near a Cottage drinking, 
and A Beggar at a Door. Of these last, the only impres- 
sions we have seen are in the collection of Mr. Haviland 
Burke. 

GEORGE STANLEY. 



PREFACPL 



The history of Gillray's Caricatures, affords a remarkable 
instance of the vicissitudes of literary property. The En- 
gravings to which the present volume forms a descriptive 
accompaniment, belonged, for the most part, to the late 
Mrs. Humphrey, the well-known publisher of Caricatures 
in St. James's Street. For many years they produced her 
a considerable income, and were accordingly valued at a 
large sum — several thousand pounds. When the trade 
in them began somewhat to decUne, Mrs. Humphrey had 
occasion to raise money, and obtained a loan of upwards of 
a thousand pounds upon a deposit of the coppers. After 
vainly endeavouring for some years to sell these for suffi- 
cient to cover principal and interest, with a residue to 
herself, she put them up to auction, but bought them in 
for want of a sufficient bidding. Subsequently, she offered 
them, with consent of the lien-holder, to the present 
Publisher for eight hundred pounds, and actually refused 
five hundred. After the lapse of about three years she 
would have accepted the five hundred, or even less, but 
the time having then passed for expensive publications as 
a judicious investment, the Publisher declined any further 
ncgociation, and the coppers remained iv statu quo till the 
day of her death. The executors, probably not aware of 
what had passed, and unable to meet with a purchaser at 
the value of engravings, sold them for old copper, that is, 
for about as many shillings as Mrs. Humphrey had once 



XIV FBEFACE. 

ref ased pounds. By mere accident the Publisher heard 
of this transaction just in time to rescue them from the 
melting pot^ and the public in consequence are now pre- 
sented, for a few guineas, with a volume, which, under 
ordinary circumstances, would have cost four or five timea 
as much. 

Upon obtaining possession of these coppers, the Pub- 
lisher made diligent search for those which he found to 
be missing, and discovered a considerable number in dif- 
ferent places, but principally with Mr. Fores of Piccadilly. 
Among these were those capital and highly finished 
compositions, "The National Debt,*' "Ancient Music,'' 
" Monstrous Craws," " March to the Bank," " Wife and 
no Wife," " The Morning after Marriage," " Hopes of 
the Party," &c. After collecting together whatever 
plates he could meet with, the Publisher proceeded to 
arrange them in two divisions — the one Political, 
the other Humorous — each according to the date of 
publication. He then wrote out their respective titles, 
and identified the characters as far as his own knowledge 
and the information he could gain permitted^ and with the 
MS. thus &r prepared, sought an editor. 

Mr. Wright, who had just then published his " History 
of the House of Hanover, illustrated by Caricatures," 
kindly undertook the task, and is responsible for the 
embryo of most of the articles. His numerous avocations 
however rendering it impossible for him to carry out the 
labour of investigation to its full extent, Mr. B. H. Evans, 
long known as a bibliopole of high attainments, as well as 
for his energetic advocacy of political liberty and familiar 
knowledge of all that concerns the history of the Whig 
party, consented to lend his valuable aid. To this gen- 
tleman we are accordingly indebted for some very inter- 



PREFACE. XV 

eating articles^ especially those relating to Fox, Sheridan, 
Lord Holland, the Duke of Bedford, Duke of Norfolk, 
Grattan, Tiemey, &c. &c. Besides these, he has very 
successfully elucidated the plates relating to Boydell, 
the Ireland forgeries, the Gunnings, Lord Petre's dinner, 
&c. Among his more important contributions, the follow- 
ing deserve particular mention : Nos. 6, 96, 139, 154, 161, 
164, 173, 174, 182, 195, 198, 199, 201, 202, 207, 214, 
245, 253, 256, 259, 269, 293, 303, 305, 319, 329, 331, 335, 
343, 349, 351, 352, 356, 366, 368, 377, 378, 380, 382, 385, 
394, 441. 

Independent of the labours of his editors, the Publisher 
has taken every opportunity of consulting those who were 
likely to be versed in the political and social history of 
the period, or were collectors of Gillray's engravings ; and 
he has to thank his friend Mr. Wm. Smith the well known 
connoisseur of etchings, Mr. Haviland Burke, and Mr. 
Hawkins of the British Museum, all enthusiastic admirers 
and collectors of Gillray's Works, for several valuable 
communications. 

H. G. B. 



DESCRIPTION 

or 

GILLRAY'S CARICATURES, 



POLITICAL SERIES.— Plates 1 to 366. 



1. 

PADDY ON HORSEBACK. ^ Ma/rch 4th, 1779. 

During the year 1779, the trade of the Irish merchants 
was in a very depressed state, owing partly to the 
American war, and an outcry was raised for new com- 
mercial regulations for the relief of the sister island. The 
Irish, indeed, seemed inclined to imitate the proceedings 
of the merchants of Boston. The consequence was, that 
the question of relief for Ireland was very much agitated 
in England. This early production of Gillray seems to 
refer partly to the question thus agitated, and to the 
popular notion then prevalent that the Irish came into 
England as successful fortune-hunters, and that they were 
well received among the ladies. 

2. 
BANCO TO THE KNAVE. April 12th, 1782. 

WILKES. NORTH (m the centre). Uockingham. rox. keppel. 

DUNKING. duke of RICHMOND. SIR OBEY COOPER. 

LORD CHANCELLOR THURLOW. 

On the defeat of Lord North, and the formation of the 
Rockingham Administration at the end of March, 1782, 
Fox IS very evidently the gainer at this political game, 

y^^ 1 



OILLRAY's CABICATUBEd. 



while Lord North is completely bankrupt. The ex- 
premier was subject to a constitutional somnolency, which 
attacked him even on the Treasury Bench with irresistible 
force, and which neither the animated declamations of 
Fox, nor the pathetic invocations of Burke could always 
prevent. He seldom or never took notes, trusting to his 
memory for retaining the principal facts which occurred 
during the preceding discussion. Sir Grey Cooper, how- 
ever, one of the Secretaries of the Treasury, who com- 
monly sat on his left hand, supplied on particular occasions 
that deficiency, by giving the word or subject, ^Hhe Parole." 
Gillray has here bestowed upon him the sobriquet of 
Parole. The despair depicted on the features of the 
master is reflected on those of his dejected follower, who 
appears to be sunk in despondency at the loss of his occu- 
pation. Sir Grey Cooper is represented as saying, '' I 
want a new master,'^ and he got one the next year, when 
the Coalition Ministry was arranged, being appointed one 
of the Lords of the Treasury by the influence of Lord 
North. Lord Chancellor Thurlow, who retained his oflSco 
in both Administrations, is supposed to be the ^' shuffler ^^ 
seated with his back to the spectator. It is difficult at 
this distant period to identify the other characters, but no 
doubt they represent the leading politicians of the day. 

3. 
RODNEY INTRODUCING DE GRASSE. 

June 7th, 1782. 

DE GBASSE. ADM. BODNET. FOX. QEOBGE III. ADM. EEPPEL. 

Rodney's great naval victory of the 12th of August, 
1782, in which the French Admiral De Graase was taken 
prisoner and brought to England, occurred just at the 
moment of a change of Ministry. The Whigs, while out, 
had attacked bitterly the management of the Admiralty 
under Lord Sandwich, whose place, on the resignation of 
the Tories, was given to the Whig Admiral Keppel. The 



FOUTICAL SERIES. 3 

first act of the Whig Administration was to recall Bodney, 
and the order for his recall had departed from the British 
shores when the news of this victory arrived. The victor 
was rewarded with a very moderate pension^ and the 
lowest peerage^ a barony, bnt he was deprived of the 
command of the fleet. Fox and Keppel, on each side of 
the throne, here shew their embarrassment at the nnfor- 
tunate occnrrence of Rodne/s victory. 

4. 
ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON. June \Zth, 1782. 

POX. BODNEY. 

The allusions are the same as in the preceding plate. 
Fox's haste to i*eward the victorious admiral is a happy 
burlesque. The di-agon (France) is disgorging frogs (the 
diet for which our neighbours were then famed), compelled 
by the new St. George (Admiral Oeorge Rodney). 

5. 
THE CHURCH MILITANT. Sept. 5th, 1779. 

The allusion appears to be the zeal shewn by the Church 
in supporting the Government in the war against the 
American colonies, and in the new war against Spain, 
which broke out in the autumn of 1779. Comwallis Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, Markham Archbishop of York, and 
Butler Bishop of Oxford, all political partizans of Lord 
North, are probably among these clerical warriors. 

Horace Walpole, in a letter dated rather earlier, writes : 
— " Our Abbots and Whitgift« now see with what suc- 
cesses and consequences their preaching up a crusade 
against America has been crowned ! Archbishop Mark- 
ham may have an opportunity of exercising his martial 
prowess, I doubt he would resemble Bishop Crewe more 
than good Mr. Baker. Let us respect those only who are 
Israelites indeed.*' 

1 ♦ 



^M 



4 aiLLRAY^S CARICATUKE8. 

6. 

IRISH GRATITUDE. June 13/A, 1782. 

QRATTAN. E. s. PEBBT (Speaker of the Irish House of 

Commons). 

In 1782, on the 81st of May, the Irish Parliament 
Voted the sum of £50,000 for purchasing an estate, and 
erecting a mansion thereon, to be settled on Grattan, and 
his heirs, as a reward for his exertions in the cause of 
Irish independence. 

The circumstances attending this Parliamentary grant 
to the Right Hon. Henry Grattan were so extraordinary 
and unprecedented in the annals of our history, that wo 
shall give a rapid sketch of the events that preceded and 
produced it. 

In the year 1780, the resources of Great Britain seemed 
nearly exhausted by the long and unsuccessful war with 
America and France. Spain and Holland had recently 
joined her enemies. To crown her embarrassments, the 
armed neutrality of the Northern Powers of Europe was 
announced, which was little less than war in disguise. 
The invasion of Ireland was menaced. 

At this crisis was formed the celebrated body of Irish 
Volunteers, consisting of many of the nobility, persons of 
the largest landed property, merchants and tradesmen of 
Ireland. Their avowed object, at first, was to guard against 
the dangers of foreign invasion. It soon, however, became 
evident, that the Volunteers constituted an armed delibe- 
rative body, which it was almost impossible to control, and 
dangerous to disband. The peril was greatly increased 
by their invitations to all parts of the country to reinforce 
them with delegates. Even Ulster, the loyal and peaceable 
Ulster, furnished its quota. Lord Charlemont might be 
considered the organiser and director of the military move- 
ments, and Mr. Grattan the suggester and framer of their 
political demands. The Volunteers now declared their 
intention to confine their efibrts to two points; the defence 
of the empire, and the restoration of the Constitution. 



POUTTCAL SERIES. 5 

Bat in 1781^ they assumed a bolder tone^ and declared 
that nothing could or ought to satisfy Ireland, but com- 
plete legislative independence, and the solemn renunciation 
of Great Britain of any claim to legislative control. The 
most exciting language was used. Mr. Grattan declared 
he would not accept even Magna Gharta itself, if it were 
the gift of Great Britain. Mr. Flood exhorted them to 
secure their liberties : " They had the Constitution in 
their hands, they had the Constitution in their arms.'' 

The House of Commons voted an address to the King 
stating ^' No power on earth can bind them, but the King, 
Lords and Commons of Ireland, and they would not part 
with their liberties but with their lives.'' Even the Earl 
of Carlisle, the Lord Lieutenant, privately informed the 
English Ministers he could not answer for the safety of 
Ireland if some considerable concessions were not made 
to the people. The Ministers, however, seemed infatuated, 
and the British House of Commons was prorogued with- 
out any redress of Irish grievances. An explosion might 
now be reasonably expected, and a civil war might have 
taken place, when fortunately, early in 1782, Lord North's 
Administration was removed, and the Bockinghara Admi- 
nistration succeeded. Without loss of time, the Duke of 
Portland was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. The 
Marquis of Eockingham wrote a private letter to Lord 
Charlemont, assuring him that the Duke had received the 
most ample instructions on the part of his Majesty to make 
a complete renunciation of the Legislative authority of 
Great Britain, and to confirm the Legislative independence 
of Ireland. He conjured him by their ancient friendship, 
and still more by the patriotic love of his country to 
tranquillize Ireland, now all their grievances would be 
redressed. Mr. Fox wrote to Mr. Grattan to the same 
efiect. The answers to each letter were firm, but most 
courteous and conciliatory. 

On the 14th of April the Duke of Portland arrived in 
Dublin. On the 27th of May he opened both Houses 



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Kmf/rf^ fr/rn wi ir^/n mffH, nnd restored fto oneqiiiTOcal 
ff'^uU^ f/f^./* ** I \fiAuff(9 ihirrtf m nrp fine, who would not 
h',n4h Uf think UiAt % OnUsM^ child mi^t pomt to a 
*fM*i^ f/f rn//nnrfUftti, srvl mj^ that wm mjr father, jour 

I hi ihtm gHrcr n//tfco that on tho next daj^ he wonld 
r/i//r#; tm a (^frnmiiUnf to irtato what aam we shoold grant 
P/f this ifnrfiiiMfi fff an efitato, and boildiog a suitable 
9fa%uHu/u UfT our illrMtrious iH^nirfaetor* 

On May W, Mr. Ikgi^nal moved in the Committee, 
'^ihtii tUH),iH)^) lio gran tod to purchase an estate, and 
StuiUVtuyr a mansion for Ifenry (irattaUf Estj., and the heirs 

Hir Uttury Cavrnidish saifl, ''the nation could not bear 
nm.h n mnn, nor wouUl Mr. Orattun's own delicacy permit 
him Uf tuu'A^pi it. Half tho money moved for wonld 
ffun'.Unnii £2^KK) per annum, and £10,000 would be 
Miiftly siini<;ient to erw^X a house, and provide a proper 

Hir Hoylo lto<;}io observed, ''England rewarded the 
Ofiko of Marlborough, and she rewarded the Earl of 
i/hiifliiirif, hut we Imvo more abundant cause to reward 
tmr fjrriii jnitr!ot, arid if yesterday it was right to vote 
KIOO/HM) to Knglfind for restoring our rights,* surely this 
liny it is right to vote tho same sum to him who caused 
thit vtmUiriil'um," 

Mr. I {agonal then rose and said, " When he made tho 
fiiol inn, ht) r.ouhl not for tho dignity of tho nation think of 
a h<NM Ntittif htit as gentlonum diflored from him, and as it 
camn IVoin Mr. (Irattan's partictdar friends, ho should alter 
his iiiolion to £r>0,(K)0.'^ 

Mr. Conolly was happy to inform tho IIousOi "that the 
Lord LiouUuiant did nmst cordially coincide in their 

* Tint I limit' liAil votiul ao.OOO MCAmcn tor hia M»jc«ty*ii navy, and it was 
«iHlriilaliiMtiily iinnounnHlihaithi« VohinUenirhMrniUjronKAKod to contribute 
itu«trnlil lotvanln miiditf thai num. b«o llartly*! " Uf« of Charlomout,** 
vol II p. ll.i. 



8 GILLBAY^S CARICATURES. 

generous intentions^ so congenial to his own feelings, and 
that the memory of such great events might be per- 
petuated, he wished to relinquish to the nation's esteem 
that house in the park, which Parliament has lately 
purchased for the country residence of his Majesty's 
representative/' 

Rt. Hon. Col. Fitzpatrick (Secretary for Ireland), said, 
'^ The power of rewarding merit was one of the noblest 
branches of the Royal prerogative of the Crown. He 
could wish to have seen it come from the Royal hand. 
But as the merit of the man was unprecedented, he 
hoped that the present reward would not be admitted as 
a precedent in future.'' 

On the following day, May 31, the House agreed to the 
report from the Committee, ^' that an humble address be 
presented to his Grace the Lord Lieutenant, praying him 
to lay before his Majesty their address, that he would be 
pleased to order £50,000 to be issued and granted to the 
Rt. Hon. Henry Grattan, &c. &c., and that the House 
would make good the same."* 

Thus terminated this remarkable afFair, in which the 
House of Commons, and the Lord Lieutenant seemed to 
compete with each other in securing popularity, by the 
recognition of the services of Mr. Grattan, and their 
propositions for heaping honours on him. But Grattan 
would not accept any donative which did not emanate 
from the people, or their representatives in Parliament. 

We shall conclude our account with the following ex- 
cellent observation, extracted from Hardy's " Life of Lord 
Charlemont.'* Hume says '' that the Revolution of 1688, 
was accomplished by the first persons in the country, in 
rank and intellect, leading the people. Hence it ended 
in liberty, not in confusion. The Revolution in Ireland in 
1782, was formed in a similar manner." Vol. i. p. 387. 

The Corpoi-ation of Dublin rcciuested Mr. Grattan to 
sit for his portrait to adorn their Council Chamber. 
* Parliamentary Register of Ireland, vol. ii, p. 23. 



POLITICAL SEAIES. V 

7. 
GUY VAUX. No date. 

GEO. lU. DUKE OF BICHMOND. FOX. BCBKE. KEPPEL. 

SHELBUBNE. DUNNINQ. 

This caricature, which is not dated, relates to the intrigues 
of the Opposition to overthrow Lord North's Administra- 
tion in 1 782. Fox holds the dark lanthom in his left hand, 
and the barrel of gunpowder is under Lord Shelbume's 
left arm. 

8. 
THE JUBILEE. August 2nd, 1782. 

THE DUKE OF GBAFTON. GEN. CONWAY. LOBD SHELBUBNE. 

On the death of the Marquis of Rockingham, and the 
appointment of Lord Shelburne as the First Lord of the 
Treasury, Fox, who had aspired to the control of the 
Cabinet, with his adherents, Burke, Lord John Cavendish, 
&c. quitted oflSce, calculating that their example would be 
followed by the Duke of Grafton (who was appointed 
Lord Privy Seal), General Conway, the Commander-in- 
Chief, and other leading members of the administration. 
In this expectation they were disappointed, and in conse- 
quence the ensuing debate on Colonel Barrels pension was 
characterised by much personality and bitterness. To the 
attacks of Fox on the new First Lord of the Treasury, as 
about to bring forward dangerous and fatal measures, 
Conway replied, though with moderation : — ^^With solemn 
protestations he declared that he had not been able to dis- 
cover the slightest intention on the part of the new First 
Minister to abandon the principles upon which the admi- 
nistration was originally constituted.'' Barke, after treating 
Conway with great severity for trusting to Lord Shelbume's 
professions, compared the General to the little Red Riding 
Hood, who mistook a wolf for her grandmother. Gillray 
has here drawn the General as hood-winked, and led in 
triumph by the double-faced Premier. The younger mem- 



10 gillray's caricatures. 

bers of the new Cabinet are represented as rats^ in allusion 
to their alleged desertion of their principles and party. 

9. 
THE W— ST— R JUST-ASSES A BRAYING ; OR 
THE DOWNFALL OF THE E. 0. TABLE. 

August 26th, 1782. 

This appears to allude to some active measures taken at 
this period for the suppression of gambling in private 
establishments, while it was publicly tolerated on the 
Stock Exchange. We find the following paragraph in the 
Daily Advertiser, July 81, 1782 : — 

*' Late on Monday night Justices Wright and Addington visited, with a 
strong body of constables, several E. O. Tables at the west end of the town, 
and in the neighbourhood of Covent Garden, which they broke np, and took 
the persons they found at play, with the Masters of the Tables, into custody, 
and lodged them in Covent Garden Round-house. About the same time a 
detachment of civil officers visited a table in St MartinVle-Grand, which 
they broke into pieces. 

*' There were eight tables broken in the whole, and twenty persons appre- 
hended, who were examined yesterday at the Public Office in Bow Street, 
and were released on their giving bail never again to bo found at any of 
these tables." 

** Yesterday a noted E. O. Table was destroyed in a private court, near 
Queen Anne Street, Mary Bone, and one of the Proprietors taken in custody 
by the police officers." — August 24th. 

10. 

THE V COMMITTEE FRAMING A REPORT. 

August 12th, 1782. 

" Not Atkinson with stronger terror started, 

(Somewhat afraid, perchance, of being carted). 

When Justice, a sly dame, one day thought fit 

To pay her serious compliments to Kit, 

Ask'd him a few short questions about com. 

And whisper'd, she believed he was forsworn ; 

Then hinted, that he probably would find. 

That, though she sometimes winked, she was not blind.'* 

Pet£r Pindar. 
" Not pillories, obeying Law's stem voice, 

Can more rejoice 
To hold Kit AtkinHon*8 two ears.'' I bid. 



POLITICAL SEBIE8. 11 

On tho conviction of Christopher Atkinson, Member of 
Parliament for Heydon, Yorkshire, of peculation in his 
office of Corn-factor to the Victualling Board, a Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons, on which were many of 
his own friends, was appointed to examine into the charges 
against him. The portraits of the members of this Com- 
mittee are given in Gillray *s plate. The next year ^-tkinson 
was brought to trial in the Court of King's Bench for 
perjury, found guilty, and was in consequence expelled the 
House of Commons, December 4, 1784. He appealed to 
the House of Lords against his sentence, but it was con- 
firmed with the concurrencs of all the Judges, July 1, 1785 ; 
and in the same year, on the 25th of November, ho was 
pilloried in Mark Lane. 

This is the most highly finished of Gillray's early prints, 
and is very rare. The following verses, published to 
accompany it, are transcribed from an unique impression 
in the possession of Mr. Greorge Fores (son of the pub- 
lisher). The figures in the plate, no doubt, refer to a key, 
of which, however, no trace is now to be found. No. 7 is 
probably Bamber Gascoyne, junr. His house at Barking 
had two fronts, and was called Bifrons. He was a parti- 
cular friend of Atkinson's. 

THE COMMITTEE. 

A NEW SONG OF THE TEAS 1782. 

1. 
All yon who would gness at the word call'd Committee, 
Attend to my song, and I warrant I'll fit yon ; 
fiat of what yon shall hear pray don't speak like a monse, 
As it happened, indeed in the p********x (Parliament) House. 

Derry down, &c. 

2. 
It happened, I won't pretend how long ago, 
One A******if (Atkinson) wonld his Imtboritt shew ; 
When publicly charged by the Friends of the Nation, 
Of having been gniity of deep Peculation. 

Derry down, &c. 



12 oillray's caricatubes. 

3. 
^ I'm as gniltless/' sajs he, " as the child that's unborn, 
Of o'ercharging their malt, their oats, peas or their com ; 
Though com altogether, no donbt, they may be, 
I agreed with the V**^<'*«*g (Victualling) and had but mt Fek." 

Derry down, &c. 

4. 

As the mun spoke so fairly, what more could be done 
Than appoint a Committke to bring the case on ? 
But who could hare thought that this scandalous Elf 
Would haye sat on this yery Committee himself ? 

Deny down, &c. 

6. 
W***B***D (Whitbread ?) in the chair, attending all the rest, 
B**o**NX (Burgoyne) in a sensible speech them address'd ; 
When, somehow or other, old Bam, Air (Eyre), and K**kr (Kirke),* 
Conceiy'd that the whole was a poor piece of work. 

Derry down, &c. 

6. 
Bam bullied the eyidenoe — 'tis plain for hire, 
Assisted therein by his staunch Lawyer, Air ; 
Yet in priyate they said — and 'tis certainly true, — 
His cause was so bad, they could ne'er bring him throuoh. 

Dcrry down, &c. 



For burning his books, and his oath too denying. 

We all must agree was a new mode of lying ; 

His Lighterman, too, was in wickedness ripe, 

When he said, with his Books that he lighted hib Pipe. 

Deny down, &c. 

8. 
Though TwiTCHBRf appointed him unto that place. 
He was discharged from it with Shame and Diboraob. 
Take warning, my friends by his merited Fall, 
Lest yon lose a Plenty by grasping at all. 

Derry down, &c. 

* Bamber Gascoyne was one who appeared in Atkinson's fayour ; James 
Kirke, one of the Victualling Commissioners. 

f Lord Sandwich, who went commonly by the nick-name of Jemmy 
Twitcher. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 13 

9. 
For 80 was the Dog in the fable betray'd, 
Who let go the substance to snap at the shade ; 
At his loss, like a dog, he long may have repin'd, 
Unpitied by all honest Men in their mind. 

Derry down, &c. 

10. 
Then here*6 to Sir Philip,* (my friends, pnsh it round), 
And all the Committee who honest were found ; 
May each worthy member still stick to his tenet, 
While A******s trembles at the name of one B^NN^Trf (Bennett). 

Derry down, &c. 



11. 

GLORIA MTTNDI; or, THE DEVIL ADDRESSING 
THE SUN. July 22nd, (1782). 

FOX. LORD SHELBURNE. 

On the secession of Fox from the Shelburne Adminis- 
tration. Fox, in the character of the Evil One, his pockets 
emptied through his unfortunate propensity to gambling, 
looking with envy at Lord Shelburne in power, and re- 
gretting the lucrative place he had quitted. 

The title of this plate is in allusion to Satan's Address 
to the Sun in Milton's Paradise Lost. 



12. 
THE LORD OF THE VINEYARD. April 3rd, 1783. 

FOX. DUKE OF PORTLAND. LORD NORTH. 

On the celebrated Coalition, and the negociation with 
the Duke of Portland to form an Administration, after the 
dismission of the Shelburne Ministry. The Coalition 
Ministry, of which the Duke of Portland was the nominal 

* Sir Philip Jennings Clerk, one of the Committee. 

t Atkinson preferred a bill of indictment for perjnrj against Mr. Bennett, 
for the evidence given on his trial. The Grand Jarj, hovrever, threw out 
the bill with the strongest marks of indignation. 



14 oillray's caricatures. 

head, but which was represented by Lord North, as Home 
Secretary, and Mr. Fox, as Secretary for Foreign AflTairs, 
was announced on the 2nd of April, 1 783. 



13. 
JUDGE THUMB; or. Patent Sticks for Family 
Correction : warranted Lawful I 

November 27th, 1782. 

Alluding to an opinion publicly expressed by Judge 
BuUer, that a man might lawfully beat his wife with a 
stick, if it were not thicker than his thumb. A witty 
Countess is said to have sent the next day to require the 
measurement of his thumb, that she might know the 
precise extent of her husband's right. 

14. 
JACK A BOTH SIDES. July 17th, 1783. 

GEO ROE III. (as Justice in the cloud). shelburne. 

DUKE OF PORTLAND. FOX. 

Fox outweighing Shelburne in the political balance. 
On the political rivalry between Shelburne and Fox 
during the existence of the Coalition Ministry. 

15.— 16. 
WAR. J/arcAm, 1783. 

LORD NORTH. FOX. BURKE. 

NEITHER WAR NOR PEACE ! THE ASTONISH- 
ING COALITION. March Wi, 1783. 

FOX. LORD NORTH. BUREE. 

These two caricatures relate to the coalition against the 
Shelburne Administration, when Fox and Burke suddenly 
joined Lord North, whom, when Prime Minister, they had 



POLITICAL SERIES. 15 

attacked with extraordinary bitterness. In the first, it is 
War to the uttermost, — in the second, the picture is 
changed ; but, though it is no longer War, the insinuation 
is made that peace cannot have any real existence between 
such discordant materials. In the latter plate, the new 
confederates are attacking the preliminaries of peace. 

In Feb. 1783, while Lord North, in one of his most 
masterly speeches, was engaged in discussing a serious 
point in the preliminary Articles of Peace with America, 
a dog, which had hidden itself under the benches of the 
house, suddenly came forth and set up a hideous howl 
which, interrupting the speaker at such a moment, naturally 
excited a roar of laughter, and would have disconcerted an 
ordinary man. Lord North, however, having waited till 
the intruder was ejected, and preserving all his gravity, 
addressed the chair — '' Sir,'' said he to the Speaker, '' as 
the new member for Berkshire has concluded his argument, 
I will now, with your leave, resume mine.'' This circum- 
stance is alluded to by the appearance of the dog in the 
second of these plates. 

17. 
AHITHOPHEL IN THE DIIM;PS. July 50th, 1785. 

CHARLES JAMES FOX. 

A satire on the weakness of Fox's party in the Parlia- 
ment which had been elected in the summer of the pre- 
ceding year, after the overthrow of the Coalition Ministry. 
No less than a hundred and sixty members of the former 
Parliament were thrown out in this struggle, gaining for 
themselves the sobriquet of Fox's Martyrs, and the small 
party of the opposition who remained were left to persist 
in a hopeless struggle against the ministerial measures, 
but the noise they made tended to keep up and increase 
the popular agitation without. It was this circumstance 
which provoked the Tory party to attack them with ex- 
treme bitterness. 



16 OILLRAY^g CARICATURES. 

18. 

A NEW WAY TO PAY THE NATIONAL DEBT, 
DEDICATED TO M. NECKER. April 2l8t, 1786. 

QUEEN. GEO. III. PITT. PRINCE OF WALES. DUKE OF ORLEANS. 

Mucli scandal was raised in tho spring of 1786 by the 
refusal of the King and his Minister to relieve the Prince 
of Wales by paying off his heavy accumulation of debt. 
The King and Queen are represented, with their then pro- 
verbial avarice, as gathering in for themselves and hoard- 
ing up the riches of the treasury, dispensing a share of it 
only to their German favourites, while the Heir apparent 
is left in rags and poverty to seek assistance of a foreign 
prince. The motto on his crest (which is seen on the wall 
just above him) is '' ich starve" in place of ^'ich dien,*' 
The Duke of Orieans, who was proverbial for his riches, 
and who had formed an intimacy with the Prince of Wales, 
was in England at the time the question alluded to was in 
agitation, and offered tho Prince a loan of a considerable 
sum to relievo him in his difficulties. . Some of the Princess 
friends, fearful of the consequences of such a transaction, 
persuaded him to decline the offer. 

19. 
HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE. March, 1787. 

MARQ. OF LANSDOWNE. DUKE OF RICHMOND. COLONEL BARRE. 

On the defeat of the project for fortifying the coast, 
brought forward by the Duke of Richmond, who held the 
office of Master-General of the Ordnance. This print 
alludes to an altercation between the Duke of Richmond 
and the Marquis of Lansdowne (Lord Shelbume had 
received this title in 1784), in tho course of the debate on 
the Commercial Treaty, in the House of Lords, at the 
close of February, 1787. The Marquis is in the act 
of cramming the physic, i,p. the Duke's fortifications. 



POLITICAL 8EEIE8. 17 

down his throat. The letter F. on the spoon is the first 
stone^ the others are ready at hand. 

On the right hand Colonel Barre is introduced as an 
experienced oflScer, well versed iD the science and practice 
of war. On the appointment of General Wolfe to the 
command of the army of Canada, he requested Barr6 might 
be his Adjutant-General, and he always placed the greatest 
reliance on his judgment. At the battle of Quebec, he 
was by the side of General Wolfe, and received a severe 
wound in his head. His left eye was rendered useless. 
Some years after he became quite blind, and he is here 
led in by a veteran companion in arms. In the debate on 
the Duke of Richmond's Fortifications, he shewed the 
total inefficiency of the plan, and adverted to what England 
had done at former periods, particularly by Elizabeth at 
the time of the Spanish Armada. She profited by the 
collective wisdom of her most experienced military and 
naval officers whom she ordered to prepare a plan adequate 
to the crisis. He ridiculed the inexperience of the Duke of 
Richmond, and asked if he had ever commanded an army, 
or led one to victory? — Hansard* s Debates, vol. xxv. 
p. 386. 

On the left hand, at the top, is a plan of the Fortifica- 
tions of Cherburg. This alludes to the conclusion of the 
Marquis of Lansdowne's Speech on the Commercial 
Treaty :^" As to Cherburg, he thought that representa- 
tions ought to have been made with regard to the works 
going on there, and that it might have been done in 
prudent, wise, and proper terms.*' — Hansard, vol. xxvi. 
p. 560. The Marquis here touched a chord in unison with 
the public feeling. The destruction of the fortifications 
of Cherburg has always been a favourite object with the 
English. ''In 1756,*' says Malto Brun, *'the English 
made themselves masters of it, plundered the inhabitants, 
and razed the fortifications.'* As the only post possessed 
by France in the Channel, great pains and cost have been 

2 



18 gillbay's caricatures. 

expended by France within the last twenty years, in re- 
pairing the fortifications, and securing the haven. 

The Duke of Richmond's plan was rejected in the Com- 
mons by the casting vote of the Speaker. 

" In Richmond's Dnko we see oar own John Bull, 
Of schemes enamoured, and of schemes the gull.'* 

Rolliad. 

20. 

ANTICIPATION, OR THE APPROACHING FATE 
OP THE FRENCH COMMERCIAL TREATY. 

January I6fh, 1787. 

PITT. DUKDAS. PEPPER ARDEN. MACDONALD. 8UEB1DAN. 

BURKE. FOX. LORD NORTH. 

On the violent opposition in the House of Commons to 
the French Commercial Treaty. The chief speakers in 
defence of the treaty were Pitt, Dnndas (who then filled 
the office of Treasurer of the Navy), and the Attorney and 
Solicitor General (Pepper Arden and Macdonald). It was 
fiercely attacked by Lord North (whoso slow, heavy bulk 
couches down in the right hand corner, while he tears the 
treaty savagely) Fox, Burke, and Sheridan. The names 
of the Ministerial dogs are marked on their collars. The 
inscription on Pittas collar is " Fawning Billy,^^ intimating 
that he had crouched to France, and been overreached. 
On Sheridan's collar is Sc. for Scand. 

21. 
A NOBLE LORD, ON AN APPROACHING PEACE, 
TOO BUSY TO ATTEND TO THE EXPENDI- 
TURE OP A MILLION OF PUBLIC MONEY. 

March 12th, 1787. 

THE MARQUIS OP LANSDOWKE (jiORD SHELBURNE). 

The insinuation intended to be conveyed, is that the 
Marquis of Lansdowne availed himself of his priority of 
intelligence respecting the Preliminaries of Peace with 



»""i 

/ 



POLITICAL SERIES. 19 

America, signed at Paris (whicli the French courier has 
secretly brought him), and speculated largely in the Funds. 
They rose very considerably on the public announcement 
of peace. The Marquis is represented as paying off the 
Jews and other money lenders, to whom he was supposed 
to be under great liabilities, from the profit. In 1787, 
the Marquis strenuously defended the Commercial Treaty 
with France, and Gillray took the opportunity of reviving 
the scandal current in 1783. 

It is a very singular coincidence, that the public scandal* 
of the day charged the Earl of Bute, when Prime Minister, 
with having erected his splendid mansion in Berkeley 
Square out of the money secretly given him by the French 
Government for the large concessions made to them by the 
Peace of Paris in 1763 ; and that a similar scandal accused 
the Earl of Shelbume, when Prime Minister, of having 
paid for the decorations and furniture of the same house 
out of the profits of his speculations in the Funds on the 
signature of the American Preliminaries at Paris in 1783. 

22. 
THE BOARD OF CONTROUL ; OR, THE BLESS- 
INGS OF A SCOTCH DICTATOR. Mar.20th,l787. 

DQNDAS. PITT. LORD SYDNEY. 

Pitt is playing at push-pin with Lord Sydney (the 
Secretary of State for Home Affairs), while Dundas is 
managing, at his own will, the affairs of India. A party 
of the needy countrymen of the latter are claiming his 
patronage, in allusion to some partiality he was said to 
have shewn. The two pictures above allude to the India 
Bills brought foi-ward respectively by Fox and Ktt — the 
former, it was pretended, acted towards the Company the 
part of the highwayman, while Pitt acted as the cunning 
thief. On the ground, the claims of Sir Elijah Impey, 
Major Scott, and others, are thrown asfde in neglect. 

* See Wraxall's Uistorical Memoirs, toI. 2, from page 66 to 71. 

2 * 



20 gillray's caricatures. 

23. 
ANCIENT MUSIC. May lOth, 1787. 

1. PITT. 2. KINO. 3. QUEEN. 4. MAD. SCHWELLENBERQ. 
5. MISS JEPPS. 6. SIR WATKIN W. WYNN. 7. MR. ASH- 

BRiDQB {a kettle drummer of great celebrity). 8. mad. 

MARA. 9. JOSHUA BATES. 10. DUKE OF RICHMOND. 11. 
MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE. 12. COLONEL BARR:^. 13. SIR 
J. MAWBEY. 14. ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 15. SOLICITOR- 
GENERAL. 16. DUNDAS. 17. LORD LOUGHBOROUGH. 18. 
THE CHANCELLOR (tHURLOW). 

« Discord, who makes a King delight in Ode, 
Slight Sqoare of Hanover for Tottenham Boad ; 
Where with the taste sublime of Goth and Vandal, 
He orders the worst works of heavy Handel ; 
Encores himself till all the audience gape, 
And suffers not a quaver to escape." — Petxr Pindir. 

A satire upon the taste which George III. affected for 
music, so often ridiculed by Peter Pindar. It is explained 
by the names of the Courtiers, &c., whose discordant 
notes give such delight to the royal ear. 

24. 

MONSTROUS CRAWS AT A NEW COALITION 
FEAST. May 29th, 1787. 

THE QUEEN. PRIKCE OF WALES. QEOBOE III. 

On the Supplies, the great sums required for the Privy 
Purse, and the demand for money to pay the debts of the 
Prince of Wales, whose affairs were at this moment in great 
embarrassment. The King and Queen were always accused 
popularly of devouring the money of the nation with great 
greediness. 

25. 
A MARCH TO THE BANK. Aug^cst 22nd, 1787. 

During the riots occasioned by Lord George Gordon in 
1 780, serious apprehensions were entertained for the safety 



POLITICAL SERIES. 21 

of the Bank. Since that period Government has assigned 
the Bank a military guards which is stationed every even- 
ing in the interior of the buildings^ and remains till busi- 
ness is resumed in the morning. The Directors keep a table 
for the commanding officer. This humourous and very 
clever print refers to their daily march up the Strand, 
Fleet Street, and Cheapside. Marching two abreast along 
these crowded thoroughfares, they jostled from the pave- 
ment all who came in their way. The annoyance to the 
public became so great, that about this time (1787), it was 
loudly protested against ; and the evil was at length miti- 
gated, by an order from head-quarters, that they should in 
future march only in single files, as they do at the present 
day. 

26. 
BLACK DICK TURNED TAILOR. Febr. 4th, 1788. 

LOBD HOWE. 

On some new regulations issued by Lord Howe, then 
First Lord of the Admiralty, for the uniforms of Naval 
Officers, and on some promotions and plans of reform in 
his department, which were not very popular. The words 
put into his mouth refer to the public complaints made 
against him of passing over veterans in the service to 
promote juniors. The matter was brought before both 
Houses, and a motion for enquiry negatived by an un- 
usually small majority. 

27. 

THERE^S MORE WAYS THAN ONE. VUle Coali- 
tion Expedients. February 18th, 1788. 

FOX. PITT. THURLOW. 

Pitt and Thurlow were alarmed at the increasing popu- 



22 oillrat's caricatures. 

larity of Pox at this period. The latter, by mounting on 
the charges against Warren Hastings, and other popular 
questions, is very near reaching the grapes that are sus- 
pended from the sign of the Crown — the sweets of office. 



28. 

DIDO FORSAKEN. SIC TRANSIT GLORIA 
REGIN^. May 2l8t, 1787. 

DUNDAS. prrr. mrs. fitzherbert. fox. prince of 

WALES. NORTH. BURKE. 

An allusion to the debate in the House of Commons on 
the application for the payment of the Prince of Wales's 
debts, when the Prince's friends, in his name, denied his 
presumed marriage with Mrs. Fitzherbert. Mr. Rolle, 
Member for Devonshire, however, had declared the sub- 
ject ''affected the Constitution in Church and State,'' 
and that he would not consent to any grant of money for 
the Prince till all doubts were removed. Mr. Fox replied, 
that he had the immediate authority of the Prince to 
contmdict the report of the marriage in the fullest and 
most unqualified terms ; and that the Prince was ready 
to attend in the other House, as a Peer of Parliament, 
and answer any questions that might be put to him. Mr. 
Pitt then declared himself satisfied. Mrs. Fitzherbert 
never forgave Fox. It was commonly said, that she aspired 
to sit on the Throne, and it was believed that she in- 
fluenced the Prince in favouring the claims of the Catholics, 
which is indicated by the implements in the foreground. 
Fox, Lord North, and Burke, are carrying the Prince away 
from her, while Pitt and Dundas are blowing from her 
head the coronet of Princess of Walee, and the crown of 
Queen; and the forsaken and disappointed lady is prej)arod 
to follow the example of Virgil's Dido, when deserted by 
the faithless ^neas. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 23 

29. 
AMSTERDAM IN A BAM'D PREDICAMENT ; OR, 
THE LAST SCENE OP THE REPUBLICAN 
PANTOMIME. November Ut, 1787, 

EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA. CATHARINE OF RUSSIA. THE SULTAN. 
PRINCE OF ORANGE. LOUIS XVI. OF FRANCE. OEOBOE III. 

On the revolution in Holland, in the summer and autumn 
of 1787, and the triumph of the Prince of Orange over the 
Republicans, who are here figured as bloated frogs. The 
spectators of this strange drama are — on the right, in the 
upper box, the King of France, protesting against the 
intermediation of Prussia and England ; and below him, 
the King of England, ready to attack him if he interferes. 
On the left, the violent Empress of Russia (Catharine), 
who is anxious to attack the Turk below, and the Empe- 
ror of Austria, who is supporting her in setting him at 
defiance. 

30. 
BLOOD ON THUNDER FORDING THE RED 
SEA. March let, 1788, 

WARREN HASTINGS. THURLOW. 

On the Trial of Warren Hastings. Lord Thurlow was 
the principal supporter of Warren Hastings in his perse- 
cution, and is said to have received direct encouragement 
from George III. He is here represented carrying Hastings 
through the sea of blood which he was said to have shed 
iu India, and on which are floating the bodies of the mas- 
sacred, whoso fate was so pathetically described in the 
glowing declamations of Burke. 

81. 
THE POLITICAL BANDITTI ASSAILING THE 
SAVIOUR OF INDIA. 1788. 

BUKKE. WARRBN HASTINGS. LORD NORTH. FOX. 

WaiTcn Hastings assaulted by Burke, Lord North, and 



24 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

Fox, who instituted and conducted the attack against 
him in the House of Commons. Peter Pindar alludes to 
the subject in his '' Ode to Edmund/' i. p. 412. 

« Much ed\fied am I bj Edmund Burke : 
Well pleased I see his mill-like mouth at work ; 
Grinding away for poor old England*! good. 

at * * * * * 

'< Now may not Edmund's howlings be a sigh, 

Pressing through Edmund's lungs for loaves and fishes, 
On which he Icmg hath looked with longing eye, 
To fill poor Edmund's not o'er-burden'd dishes ?" 

** Give Mun a sop, forgot will be complaint ; 
Britain be safe, and Hastings prove a saint." 

82. 
WIFE OR NO WIFE ; OR, A TRIP TO THE CON- 
TINENT. March 27th, 1788. 

LORD NORTH. BUKEE. PRINCE OF WALES. 

MRS. FITZHERBERT. COLONEL HANGER. FOX. 

On the secret marriage said to have taken place between 
the Prince of Wales and Mrs. Fitzherbert. Fox is giving 
away the bride ; while Burke in the disguise of a Jesuit, 
is performing the ceremony. There are several allusions 
to the Romanism of the lady. Lord North, who appears to 
have acted as the driver in their " trip,** has fallen asleep. 
They are said to have been married by the Rev. Samuel 
Johnes, younger brother of Colonel Johnes, of Hafod, 
translator of Froissart, Ac. He was descended on the 
maternal side from the Knights of Ilerefordshiro, whoso 
name he assumed some years after. Ho is now Vicar of 
All Hallows, Barking, and Rector of Welwyn, Herts. 

33. 
THE MORNING AFTER MARRIAGE; OR, A 
SCENE ON THE CONTINENT. A2>r!I bth, 1788. 

PRINCE OF WALES. MRS. FITZUEKBERT. 

A sequel to the foregoing print. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 



25 



34. 

QUESTIONS AND COMMANDS; OR, THE MIS- 
TAKEN ROAD TO HEREFORD: A SUNDAY 
EVENING^S AMUSEMENT. February llth, 1788. 

DUKE AND DUCHESS OF GLOUCESTER. PRINCE WILLIAM OF 

GLOUCESTER. 

This appears to allude to some churcliman seeking pre- 
ferment through petticoat influence. The see of Hereford 
became vacant in 1788, and Butler, who had been collated 
to the see of Oxford, by his political friend and patron. 
Lord North, much against the will of the Oxonians, was 
about this period, translated to Hereford by the Pitt 
Ministry, it is said to appease the dissatisfaction of the 
University. It appears that Butler was a native of 
Hamburgh, and had never taken a degree in either of 
the English Universities. Hence the cold reception he 
met with at Oxford. 

35. 
THE WESTMINSTER HUNT. 

LORD NORTH. THURLOW. GEORGE III. BURKE. SIR PHILIP 
FRANCIS. FOX. SHERIDAN. WARREN HASTINGS. 

Thurlow riding on the King, and whipping back the 
hounds, who had set upon Hastings. The two sentinels 
at the gate appear to be Pitt and Lord Sydney. 

36. 
MARKET DAY. ''Sic itur ad astra/' May 2nd, 1788. 

GEORGE III. WARREN HASTINGS. EARL OP DERBY. DUNDAS. 
PITT. THURLOW. FOX. BURKE. SHERIDAN. LANSDOWNE. 

A satire on the supposed venality of Parliament. Thur- 
low, who was believed to be the great buyer in the House 
of Lords, has a full fold behind him, in which we perceive. 



26 GILLRAT^S CARICATUBES. 

among other countenances, those of Lord Sydney and the 
Duke of Grafton, on each side of Thurlow, Lord Amherst, 
Lord Sandwich, and others. On the extreme right stands 
the Marquis of Lansdowno. In the centre of the picture 
appears Lord Derby, distinguished by his pigtail and nose, 
and below him the Duke of Norfolk. Even the King is 
represented as to be bought, and on the left, Warren 
Hastings is seen as the butcher riding oflF with his Majesty 
in the shape of a calf — referring to the Warren Hastings 
affair. ITie cattle in Thurlow^s fold are making a deter- 
mined attack on a watch box, and overthrowing the 
celebrated trio. Pox, Burke, and Sheridan. Pitt and 
Dnndas are quietly enjoying themselves at the sign of the 
Crown, heedless of the bustle below. 



37. 

ELECTION TROOPS BRINGING IN THEIR 
ACCOUNTS TO THE PAY-TABLE. Aug, 14, 1788. 

MAJOR TOPHAM. PITT. 

On the Westminster Election, which closed on the itli 
of August, 1788, in which Lord Hood was brought for- 
ward by the Court, in opposition to Lord John Townshend, 
the Whig candidate, who gained the day. The Government 
was said to have employed every kind of corruption to 
support their candidate; and wo have here its various 
agents applying for their pay, but turned away by the 
Minister from the front door, that they may receive their 
reward indirectly through the back-door from George 
Rose. The leader of the gang is Captain Topham, the 
proprietor and editor of The World, which had been the 
active supporter of the Government on this occasion. The 
other characters explain themselves. The sailors were 
brought up to support Hood, their Adminvl, and were 
particularly riotous in their zeal for the cause. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 27 

38. 

A PIG IN A POKE. Whist, Whist. Dec. 10th, 1788. 

SIR JOSEPH MAWBEY. SIR PHILIP FRANCIS (?) MR. THORNHILL (?) 

Supposed to be some allusion to losing a political game. 
The principal person is Sir Joseph Mawbey, an eminent 
distiller, at Vauxhall, Member for the County of Surrey, 
and Chairman of the Quarter Sessions. He entered Par- 
liament as a Foxite, but on the Coalition being turned out, 
he transferred his support to Pitt. The Opposition wits 
then levelled the keenest shafts of ridicule against him. 
The Rolliad took the lead. We will present the reader 
with a pungent extract, which, no doubt, furnished Gillray 
with the hint of this print : — 

<* A sty of pigs, though all at once it squeaks, 
Means not so much as Mawhej when he speaks. 
And histoiy says he never yet had bred 
A pig with snch a yoice, or such a head ! 
Except, indeed, when he essays to joke I 
And then his wit is truly pig-in-poke." 

Our author concludes his description of this great 
senator with the following distich : — 

" Such adaptation ne'er was seen before, 
His trade a hog is, and his wit — a boar." 

"It has been proposed to us to amend the spelling of 
the last word thus — bore, this improvement, however, as 
it is called, we reject as a calumny.^' 

Sir Joseph Mawbey having quarrelled with his steward, 
Wilkinson, claimed £30 as a balance due to him. The 
steward denied this, and Sir Joseph arrested him for it. 
He offered to release him on payment of £20, and after- 
wards for £10. Both sums being refused, he released 
him. Wilkinson then brought an action against him, and 
recovered £150 damages. This oppressive transaction 
is probably alluded to in the inscription, " Burn justice,'^ 
and " you have brought your pigs to a fine market." 



28 OILLBAY^S CARICATURES. 

30. 
STATE JUGGLERS. May 16th, 1788. 

QUEEN. GEOBOE III. PITT. WABBEN HASTINGS. THUBLOW. 
DUNDAS. MABQUIS OF LANSDOWNE. LOBD SYDNEY. LOBD 
DEBBY. BUBKE. FOX. DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

In this ludicrous performance^ the King and Queen are 
balancing on the sign of the Crown, in the characters of 
Punch and Judy, the Queen rejoicing over a snuff-box, 
presumed to be a bribe from Warren Hastings. Beneath 
them Pitt is drawing ribbons of honour from his mouth, 
Thurlow is vomiting forth his usual volley of profitless 
oaths, and Warren Hastings, in the middle, is throwing 
out a countless quantity of gold. A number of persons in 
front are openly scrambling for ribbons or money ; while 
Fox, lifted up by Burke, and assisted by the Duke of 
Norfolk, is trying to catch his share of the latter com- 
modity on the sly. The sweep is intended sarcastically 
for the Bight Hon. Frederick Montagu, who was to have 
been one of the Commissioners for India, if Fox's East 
India Bill had passed. 

40. 

THE VISIT TO PICCADILLY ; OR, A PRUSSIAN 
RECEFnON. July 12th, 1792. 

SIB WATKIN W. WYNN. DUCHESS OF TOBK. LADY WYNN. 

On the reported intrigue between the l^ince of Wales 
and Lady Wynn, and the refusal of the Duchess of York 
to receive the latter. Lady Wynn was the wife of Sir 
Watkin W. Wynn, and sister of the Marquis of Buck- 
ingham and Lord Grenville. To render the allusion more 
palpable, she is drawn as a Welch Goat, with a striking 
likeness of her own face, and the Prince of Wales' feathers 
on her head. Sir Watkin always took a prominent part 
in the affairs of the principality. 



POUTICAL SERIES. 29 

41. 

THE VULTUEE OP THE CONSTITUTION. 

Jamuiry Srd, 1789. 

PITT. 

On the Regency Bill, as proposed by Pitt in 1 798, when 
Greorge III. was first seriously attacked by his mental 
malady. Pitt had placed so many restrictions on the 
Prince of Wales in this Bill, that it was popularly said he 
had grasped the Crown for himself, while he tore the 
feathers from the Princess Coronet. 

42. 

LORD CHANCELLOR THURLOW. June 27, 1789. 

One of the best portraits of the celebrated Lord Chan- 
cellor. 

43. 

THE BOW TO THE THRONE, ALIAS THE BEG- 
GING BOW. May 6th, 1788. 

GEORGE III. WAEREN HASTINGS. THE QUEEN. PITT. THURLOW. 

Warren Hastings is here personating the Begum, or 
Princess of Oude (one of the personages who figures pro- 
minently in the charges against the ex-Governor of India) 
receiving the adorations of his worshippers. The Queen 
stoops lowest of all in her eagerness for the good things 
of India : she grasps a bag of money in one hand, while 
under her other arm is the box with the celebrated dia- 
mond sent by the Nabob of Benares. The King carries 
off his share in a more surreptitious manner. Hats of 
all kinds held out behind the principal worshippers, 
shew the eagerness of every class for its share in the 
spoils. This print is a parody on a caricature by Sayer, 
published on the first of May, and entitled " The Princess's 
Bow, alias the Bow Begum/' Sayer's print represents 
the Eastern Princess seated in the place here occupied by 



30 aiLLRAY's CARICATURES. 

Hastings, and receiving the homage of Burke, Fox, and 
Sheridan ; Sir Philip Francis, the bitter enemy of Hastings, 
seen beneath her seat, says, ** I am at the bottom of all this \" 
while on the wall above hangs a picture illustrative of the 
old saying, '^ Parturiunt mantes, ncufcitur ridiculus mus," 



44. 

JOHN BULL BAITED BY THE DOGS OF EXCLSK. 

Ajml 9th, 1790. 

ORENVILLK. DUNDAS. RICHMOND. THURLOW. JENKINSON 

(afterwards LORD LIVERPOOL), pepper arden. lordsydnky. 

DUKE of GRAFTON. CAMDEN. PITT. GEORGE ROSE. 

Referring to the remarks made by Sheridan on Pitt's 
Excise Laws in the beginning of April, 1790, arising out 
of a petition for a repeal of the excise on tobacco, which 
had been taken up as the occasion for an attack on 
Government by the Opposition. The dogs with which 
John Bull is baited are known by their collars ; Pitt is 
setting them on, while George Bose is busy new painting 
the inscription over the back-door of the Treasury. 



45. 

SMELLING OUT A RAT ; OR, THE ATHEISTICAL 
REVOLUTIONIST DISTURBED IN HIS MID- 
NIGHT CALCULATIONS. December 3rJ, 1790. 

BUBKE. DB. PRICE. 

Dr. Price, a Unitarian preacher, who had delivered a 
sermon before the Revolution Society, which served as a 
sort of guiding-star to the English admirers of the revolu- 
tion in France, is disturbed in his secret study by the 
apparition of the long nose of Edmund Burke. Burke 
had at this time become suddenly an eloquent declaimer 



POLITICAL SERIES. 31 

against the revolutionary principles which had been pro- 
pagated on the other side of the water, as well as against 
the liberal principles in religion and politics advocated by 
the Opposition in this country, and he had in consequence 
separated himself from the party with whom he had so 
long acted. He had lately published his " Reflections on 
the Revolution in France." 

4G. 

THE LANDING OF SIR JOHN BULL AND HIS 
FAMILY AT BOULOGNE-SUR-MER. May 31, 1792. 

Etched by Gillray, from a Sketch by Bunbury. It is a 
satire on the annoyances to which John Bull was exposed, 
even in time of peace, if he ventured to the Gallic shore. 

47. 
THE FUNERAL PROCESSION OF MISS RE- 
GENCY. April 29th, 1 789. 

BLUE AND BUFF TRAIN BEARER. THE PISMIRE MARQUIS 

(LOTHIAN). LORD STiLLETTO (lord moira). A remnant of 
1745, or the would-be-Chancellor (lord Loughborough). 

Weltjie, Clerk of the Mails, the hair-dressing Second Monmers, the 

Dishclouts, (the pimp. rival Jacobins (She- 

Princess Cook.) ridan and Fox.) 

Chief Mourner, the Unfledged Noyiciates The body of the de- 
Princess of W — , of St. Giles's ; or, ceased, supported by 
(Mrs. Fitzherbert.) Charley's delight six Irish Balls. 

Unfledged Noriciates Ignatius Loyola, Apozem, Clerk and 

of St. Giles's. (Burke.) Apothecary, 

(J. Hall.) 

On the overthrow of the Regency Bill by the recovery 
of the King. The Irish Bulls refer to the vote of the Irish 
Parliament, requesting the Prince to assume the Regency 
without any restrictions as far as regarded Ireland. Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, who, in spite of the public denial, was still 
believed to have been married to the Prince, is lamenting 



32 qtllrat's caricatures. 

her disappointed ambition. The pismire Marquis is the 
Marquis of Lothian. The first act of George III. on his 
recovery was to dismiss the Duke of Queensberry from his 
situation of a Lord of the Bedchamber, and deprive the 
Marquis of Lothian of the command of his regiment. 

Gillray took the hint for tliis print from a tract on tho 
Regency, entitled *^ The Death, Dissection, Will, and Fu- 
neral Procession of Mrs. Regency, with Odes, Songs, 
Funeral Dirge, &c. Printed at the Logographic Press, 
for John Walter, 1789.^' He improved one part of the 
printed tract by converting the six Irish giants, who bear 
the body, into six Irish bulls. "The PuUaloo PuUalo 
ogh '' in their mouths are from the Irish howl song, in 
the printed tract. 

48. 
BANDELURES. February 28th, 1791. 

PRINCE OF WALES. MRS. FITZHERBERT. SHERIDAN. 

An allusion to some one of the scandalous stories of 
the day, relating to Mrs. Fitzhcrbert. The Prince is 
playing listlessly, with a Bandelure, one of the fashionable 
toys of the day for idling away time. 

49. 
BARBARITIES IN THE WEST INDIES. 

April 23rd, 1791. 
On a debate in the House of Commons on the 18th of 
April, 1791, upon Wilberf creeps motion for the abolition 
of the Slave Trade. The opponents of the measure 
insisted that the instances of cruelty towards slaves in 
tho West Indies, adduced by Wilberforco and his sup- 
porters, were generally much exaggerated, and that in 
many instances they were ridiculous inventions. One of 
the latter is burlesqued in this plate. It is sufficiently 
explained in the inscription beneath. Francis was one of 
the warm supporters of Wilberforce on this question. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 33 

50. 

LIEUTENANT - GOVERNOR GALLSTONE IN- 
SPIRED BY ALECTO; OR, THE BIRTH OP 
MINERVA. Fchruary 15th, 1790. 

The personage here satirized was Philip Thicknesse, 
Governor of Landguard Fort, a writer well known at the 
time this plate was published, for the bitterness of his 
personal quarrels, and the violent effusions to which they 
gave rise. He was the author of a Sketch of the Life of 
the celebrated landscape painter, Gainsborough, whose 
failings he exposes somewhat more than might be ex- 
pected from a friendly biographer. Various other writings 
are alluded to with sufficient distinctness in the plate. 

51. 
TAMING OP THE SHREW — KATHARINE AND 
PETRUCHIO.— THE MODERN QUIXOTE; OR, 
WHAT YOU WILL. April 20th, 1791. 

PITT. CATHARINE OF RUSSIA. DUMOUEIEZ. 

On the attempted intermediation of Great Britain, 
backed by Prussia and Holland, between Russia and 
Turkey, in the spring of 1 791. Austria and France are 
giving encouragement to the Empress Catharine. Turkey, 
which was suffering severely, takes shelter behind Pitt 
and his supporters, who have ridden rather roughly the 
Hanoverian horse. 

52. 

THE IMPEACHMENT; OR, THE FATHER OF THE 
GANG TURNED KING'S EVIDENCE. 

May, 1791. 

SHERIDAN. BURKE. FOX. 

On the violent quarrel between Burke on the one hand, 
and Pox and Sheridan on the other, in the debates in the 
House of Commons on the 6th and 1 1th of May, nfter 
which Burke separated entirely from the party with which 

3 



34 GILLRAY^S CAUlCATLIiEH. 

he had so long acted. The party of Fox and Shcridiin 
were looked upon, and looked upon themselves, as Burke's 
political disciples ; and the Tories, who rejoiced in this 
quarrel, represented him as turning evidence against them, 
and impeaching his own political children. 

53. 

GUY VAUX DISCOVERED IN HIS ATTE^fPT TO 

DESTROY TUE KING AND THE HOUSE OP 

LORDS: HIS COMPANIONS ATTEMPTING TO 

ESCAPE. May Uth, 1791. 

FOX. BURKE. SHERIDAN. 

Another caricature on the same subject as the preced- 
ing. At this time Gillray worked for the rival publishers. 
Fores and Humphreys, who respectively published these 
prints ; at a subsequent period the Caricaturist bound 
himself to work only for the latter. 

Fox is here, by a pun upon his name, represented under 
the character of Guy Vaux, Burke, who in the preceding 
print had turned King's evidence, is laying open the plots 
of his late colleagues. The other accomplices, Sheridan, 
&c., are saving themselves by flight. Sheridan seceded 
from the Opposition fur a short time after the quarrel in 
the House of Commons, on the subject of the French Re- 
volution ; it was his violence which had partly embittered 
the dispute. 

THE RIGHTS OF MAN. May 23a?, 1791. 

A satire upon Thomas Paine, who had been a tailor, or, 
more properly speaking, a stay-maker, in Norfolk, had 
then been an exciseman, and subsequently made his re- 
treat to America, whence he returned to Europe to take 
a violent part in the revolutionary struggle, in supi)urt of 
wliich he had recently published his '* Rights of Man.'^ 
Ciillray was not acquainted with Paino's personal appear- 



POLITICAL SERIES. 85 

ance^ but he represents him here under the conyentional 
figure which he had adopted for all French Bepnblicans. 

55. 
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY PETRIFIED. THE 
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY REVIVIFIED. 

June 28th, 1791. 
This is a clever and a rather celebrated caricature, on 
the dismay with which the violent democrats in Paris were 
struck when they were informed of the King^s flight, and 
on their joy at the arrival of the intelligence of his arrest 
at Varennes. 

56. 
ALECTO AND HER TRAIN AT THE GATE OP 
PANDEMONIUM ; OR, THE RECRUITING SER- 
JEANT ENLISTING JOHN BULL INTO THE 
REVOLUTION SERVICE. July Uh, 1791. 

SHERIDAN. FOX. LORD STANHOPE. 

On the supposed design of the party headed by Fox and 
Sheridan to enlist the people of England in the same revo- 
lutionary cause which now flourished in Prance. The 
Crown and Anchor Tavern, in the Strand, was the grand 
place of meeting of the Revolution Society. Lord Stan- 
hope, who rendered himself remarkable by his strong 
democratic principles, was supposed at this moment to be 
hesitating in the part he was to take in politics. Lord 
Stanhope married Lady Hester Pitt, daughter of the first 
Lord Chatham, and sister to William Pitt, the Minister. 

52. 

THE HOPES OP THE PARTY PRIOR TO JULY 
14th. Prom such wicked Crown and Anchor Dreams, 
GOOD Lord deliver us. July \Wi, 1791. 

HORNE TOOKE. GEO. III. FOX. SHERIDAN. DR. PRIESTLEY. 
SIR CECIL WRAY. THE QUEEN. PITT. 

The result which, it was supposed, the deliberations at 

3 * 



V 



36 uillray'ss caricatures. 

the Crown and Anchor portended. Sir Cecil Wray, the 
opponent of Fox in the Westminster Election of 1781, 
had now joined the Opposition ; he was accused of limiting 
his household very strictly in the article of small beer, and 
this had been a subject of jokes and caricatures without 
end at the Westminster Election. The 14th of July was 
the day of the dinner at Birmingham, in celebration of the 
anniversary of the French Revolution, alluded to more 
particularly in the following caricature. 

58. 
A BIRMINGHAM TOAST, as given on the Uth July, 
BY THE Revolution Society. Juh/ 29///, 1791. 

8HEBIDAN. DR. PEIESTLEY. SIR CECIL WRAY. 

FOX. HORNE TOOKE. DR. PRICE. 

On the dinner in commemoration of the French Revolu- 
tion, held at Birmingham, on ITiursday the 1 kh of July, 
1791, which gave rise to the celebrated Birmingham riots, 
in which so much property was destroyed. Some of the 
more prominent of the Liberal party arc here placed round 
the table, while Priestley, with the holy chalice and salver, 
is giving a toast, which their opponents said was the one 
most agreeable to their principles. A sample of Priestley's 
Puritans are seen behind. Dr. l^rice^s congregation at 
Haekney is alluded to by the picture suspended against 
the wall, as the sort of congregation that was to be intro- 
duced into St. Paul's. 



^'... 



AN EXCRESCENCE — A FUNGUS — ALIAS, A 
TOADSTOOL UPON A DUNGUILL. Dtc20, 1791. 

WILLIAM pirr. 
The upstart thing which the Opposition said was at this 
timo engnifting itself upon the Crown, and becoming 
superior to the Crown itself — a political mushroom, 
springing up on the hot-bud of royal favour. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 37 

60. 

THE SOLDIER'S RETURN; OR, RARE NEWS 
FOR OLD ENGLAND. November Uth, 1791. 

THE DUES AND DUCHESS OF TORE. 

On the marriage of the Duke of York with the Princess 
Frederika, eldest daughter of the King of Prussia, which 
took place at Berlin, on the Ist of October, 1791. The 
royal couple arrived at Dover, on their way to London, on 
the 21st of the same month. The beauty of the Duchess, 
her diminutive foot, and the money she brought to her 
husband, were common subjects of conversation at the 
time this caricature was published. 

61. 
THE INTRODUCTION. November 22nd, 1791. 

DUKE AND DUCHESS OF 70BE. THE QUEEN. OEOBOE UI. 

The Duke and his Prussian Bride are here received by 
George and his Queen, who seem to be exclusively in- 
terested in the tempting burthen, of which she is the 
bearer. A Prussian guard — one of the old King of 
Prussians tall corps — is the carrier of the rich dower. 

62. 
THE YORK MINUET. December Uth, 1791. 

DUCHESS OF TOBE. DUEE OF TORE. 

Another print on the subject of the Duke of York's 
Marriage. The Duchess was celebrated for the smallness 
of her foot, which this dance is intended to exhibit to 
advantage. 

63. 
THE YORK REVERENCE ; OR, CITY LOYALTY 
AMPLY REWARDED. December 27th, 1791. 

DUCHESS OF YORE. DUEE OF YORE. 

On the reception of the Address congratulatory on the 



88 oillrat's caricatures. 

marriage of the Duke of York^ presented to the Duke and 
Duchess^ on the 19th of December, 1791, by the Lord 
Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriffs, and Common Council of the 
City of London. It is difficult to say which of the Royal 
Pair excels in the condescension with which the City 
Address is here received and acknowledged. The reve- 
rence of the Duchess is so extreme, as to entitle it to the 
honour of knighthood. 

64. 

FRENCH DEMOCRATS SURPRISING THE ROYAL 
RUNAWAYS. June 27th, 1 791 . 

LOUIS XVI. THE DAUPHIN. MARIE ANTOINETTE. 

A burlesque upon a very serious event, the arrest of 
the unfortunate Louis XVI. and his family at Varennes, 
on the 22nd of June, 1791, after their flight from Paris. 

66. 

THE KNAVE WINS ALL. MODERN HOSPI- 
TALITY; OR, A FRIENDLY PARTY IN HIGH 
LIFE. March SUt, 1792. 

LADT ARCHES. PB. OF WALES. LADT BUCKINOHAHSHIBE. FOX. 

A satire on the gambling propensities of the age, which 
were the bane of private society, and to which the Prince 
of Wales and his friend Fox were both victims. Lady 
Archer (an old and faded beauty, celebrated for having 
her face enamelled), at whose house this party is supposed 
to be held, was well known as a victimizer. 

66. 
FRYING SPRATS, the queen. Nov. 28th, 1791. 

67. 
TOASTING MUFFINS, geobqb hi. Nov. 28th, 1791. 
These two subjects form a bitter satire on the econo* 



POLITICAL SERIES. 39 

mical and domestic habits of George III. and liis Queen* 
It was a bold stretch of the Liberty of the Press, which 
thus exposed to public view the private failings of Majesty. 
With such habits, we are not surprised to see that the 
Queen's savings exceed the capacity of her pocket. 

68. 
WEIRD SISTERS— MINISTERS OF DARKNESS- 
MINIONS OP THE MOON. December 23rd, 1791. 

DXJNDAS. PITT. THUELOW. 

The plate is a parody on Puseli's painting of the 
" Weird Sisters.^' 

" Among the political caricatures which appeared in the 
shops of the capital about this time, was a print repre- 
senting the Chancellor, Pitt, and Dundas, in the characters 
of the ' three weird sisters,' wildly, but characteristically 
attired, standing on a heath, intently gazing on the full 
moon. Her orb appears half enlightened, half eclipsed. 
The part averted, which remains in darkness, contains the 
King's profile. On the other side, resplendent with light, 
and graciously regarding the three gazers, was portrayed 
a head of the Queen. The circumstance of Dundas being 
thus ranked with Pitt and Thurlow, sufficiently indicates 
the degree of political consideration which he attracted, 
and how much higher he stood in the public estimation, 
as a man possessed of power or influence, than any of the 
remaining Cabinet Ministers. He was, in fact, far supe- 
rior to either of the Secretaries of State in real weight 
and consequence." — WraxalVs Posthumous Memoirs ^voL 3, 
pages 309-310. 

69. 
THE PACIPIC ENTRANCE OP EARL WOLF 
INTO BLACKHAVEN. Januanj 20th, 1 792. 

LORD LONSDALE. 

The Wolf hero represented was Sir James Lowthcr, of 



40 GILLBAY^S CARICATURES. 

great celebrity in the history of borough-mongering, and 
especially in connection with the town of Whitehaven, 
the place here alluded to. Gillray's caricature refers 
to a dispute between this nobleman and the town of 
Whitehaven, in consequence of which his Lordship sus- 
pended the working of his coal mines, and the townsmen 
were thus induced to make an abject submission. It is 
the subject of Peter Pindar's '^Epistle to the Earl of 
Lonsdale.'^ 

Peter Pindar, in this and several other poetical effu- 
sions, had attacked the Earl with his usual wit and caustic 
severity. Lord Lonsdale brought an action against him 
for a libel. Peter was alarmed, and made the most 
humble submission. Lord Lonsdale consented to stop 
the proceedings on a promise that he would never again 
mention him in his writings. 

*' The reader (says the KoUiad) will not forget the 
declaration of this great man, that he was in possession 
of the Land, the Fire, and the Water of the Town of 
Whitehaven. 

" E'en by the Elements his Power confessed. 
Of Mines and Boroughs Lonsdale stands possessed. 
And one sad serritnde alike denotes, 
The slave that labours, and the slave that votes.** 

Junius calls him the contemptible Tyrant of the North. 
By the influence of Sir James Lowther, Mr. Pitt obtained 
his first seat in Parliament in 1781. This was done in 
compliance with the request of the Duke of Rutland, with 
whom Pitt had formed an intimate friendship, when they 
were follow students at Cambridge. In return for this 
obligation, Mr. Pitt, when he became Prime Minister in 
1 784, elevated him to a seat in the House of Peers by the 
title of Earl Lonsdale, thus overleaping the two inferior 
stages of the peerage. It might have been supposed, that 
this remuneration was fully ailequate to his pretensions 
and services. But on the Gazette being published, his 



POLITICAL SERIES. 41 

name appearing at the bottom of the list of newly created 
Earls^ he threatened to reject the Earldom, and means 
were with diflScnlty found to allay his irritation. On his 
Law-agent's Coat is inscribed Black- Stone. 



70. 
A UNIFORM WHIG. November 16fA, 1791. 

EDMUND BURKE. 

Burke, in his new-bom loyalty, is leaning against a 
pedestal, on which the bust of George III. is placed. In 
his reverie he is contemplating his expected pension in per- 
spective as a reward for his Reflections on the French Revo- 
lution. On one side the Advocate of Liberty is in rags, 
with empty pockets ; on the other, leaning upon a more 
substantial prop, his rags have disappeared, and his pockets 
are overflowing. 

71. 
HER ROYA.L HIGHNESS THE DUCHESS OP 
YORK. April 10th, 1792. 

This is understood to be an excellent portrait of the 
Duchess of York, who has already figured in several of the 
preceding Caricatures. 

72. 

A SPHERE PROJECTING AGAINST A PLANE. 

Janiuiry 3rd, 1792. 

PITT. LADY BUCKINOHAMSHIBB. 

The Sphere is said to represent Lady Buckinghamshire, 
and there is probably an allusion to some forgotten rumour 
of the day. 



42 gillray's cakicatukes. 

73. 
THE BOTTOMLESS PITT. March I6th, 1792. 

WILLIAM rriT. 
This is another satire on the personal appearance of the 
Minister, and is said to give a very accurate idea of his 
general manner when speaking. In the warmth of debate 
he had let fall an unguarded j)hrase, which was tortured 
by the wits of the day into a joke upon his person. 

74. 
PATRIOTS AMUSING THEMSELVES ; OR, 
SWEDES PRACTISING AT A POST. 

April 19//1, 1792. 

OEOBGB III. FOX. PRIESTLEY. SHEfilDAN. 

On the designs which the Tories attributed to the Oppo- 
sition, or, as they called them, the Revolutionary Party in 
England, who they believed, or pretended to believe, wero 
willing to imitate the example of the Swedish regicide, 
Ankerstrom. The faces of the revolutionaiy triumvimto 
are more coarsely burlesqued tlian is usual with Gillray. 
The post at which they are practising is very ingeniously 
worked into a rough contour of King George. 

75. 
TUE BISHOP OF A TUN\S BREECHES ; OR, THE 
FLAMING EVEQUE PURIFYING THK HOUSE 
OF OFFICE. May Uth, 1792. 

TALLEYRAND. 

The person most prominent in this picture is the cele- 
brated Talleyrand, who was Bishop of Autun, and was 
now signalizing himself by his pretended zeal in the cause 
of the revolution. It is a satire on the supposed influence 
of the revolutionary movement in Franco upon England, 
and the allusion is no doubt to an event which occurred in 



POLITICAL SERIES. 43 

the May of 1 792 in London, when the House of Commons 
narrowly escaped being burnt. A pair of corduroy breeches 
was found thi*ust into the ceiling above the water-closet 
in a state of combustion, which excited considerable sus- 
picion of a design to destroy the Parliament House, but 
no incendiary was ever discovered. 

76. 

DESIGN FOR THE NEW GALLERY OF BUSTS 
AND PICTURES. Mwrch 17th, 1793. 

FOX. 

In 1791, Pitt in conjunction with Prussia and Holland, 
had prepared a powerful armament to compel the Empress 
Catharine to give up Ockzakow, which she had seized. 
Fox so successfully opposed the Russian armament that 
Pitt found himself compelled either to resi;^n, or abandon 
the armament. He did not hesitate to assert that, Russia 
was indebted for the retention of her conquest to the 
opposition he had encountered in the House. The Em- 
press Catharine was highly gratified with the resnlt, which 
she attributed to the powerful eloquence of Fox, and 
placed his bust in her Gallery between those of Demos- 
thenes and Cicero. The Court party delighted in stig- 
matizing Fox as the modem Cataline. The verses from 
the Poetry of the Anti-Jacobin were added after its 
original publication. 

77. 
MALAGRIDA DRIVING POST. March 16th, 1792. 

DUNDAS. PITT. THB ICABQUIS OF LANSDOWNE. 

FOX. SHERIDAN. 

On a report spread at this time that a change of Minis- 
try was at hand, and that the Marquis of Lansdowne (who, 
as Lord Shelburne, had obtained the nickname of Mala- 
grida), would be called to the head of affairs. His Lord- 



44 GILLRAV'S CARICATURES. 

ship is driving in all haste to St. James's, as Pitt and 
Dundas are hurrying away ; and behind are the chiefs of 
the Opposition, eager to share in the good fortune of the 
successful candidate for power. 

78. 
ANTISACCHAEITES ; OR, JOHN BULL AND HIS 
FAMILY LEAVING OFF THE USE OF SUGAR. 

March 27th, 1792. 

QEORQE III. THE QUEEN. THE PRINCESSES. 

The Royal Pair sotting an example of economy, which 
appears by no means agreeable to all the family. Peter 
Pindar is said to have composed a poem on this subject, 
which ho destroyed before it was printed. 

79. 
SCOTCH HARRY'S NEWS; OR, NINCUMPOOP 

IN HIGH GLEE. May 2Srd, 1792. 

GEORGE III. THE QUEEN. DUNDAS. 

On the arrival of intelligence of the great success of 
the English arms in India, and of the conclusion of peace 
with Tippoo Saib. The Indian Affairs were Dundas's 
special and favourite department. 

80. 

VICES OVERLOOKED IN THE NEW PROCLA- 

MATI ON. May 24//i, 1 792. 

Avarice, Drunkenness, Gambling, 

KING AND QUEEN. PRINCE OF WALES. DUKE OP YORK. 

Debauchery, 

DUKE OF CLARENCE AND MBS. JORDAN. 

A satire on the Royal Family, which requires no expla- 
nation, further than to state that it is a parody on a Royal 
Proclamation which had recently appeared. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 45 

81. 

AUSTRIAN BUGABOO FUNKING THE FRENCH 
ARMY. May 12fh, 1792. 

On the war which had just broken out between France 
and Austria, and some reverses which. the former had at 
first sustained in their hostilities against the Emperor in 
Flanders. It is hardly necessary to say that the exultation 
expressed in this caricature was of very short duration. 

82. 
THE FALL OF THE WOLSEY OF THE WOOL- 
SACK. May 2Uh, 1792. 

GEOEGE III. THDRLOW. LOED GRENYILLE. PITT. 

Early in 1792, Mr. Pitt had introduced a Bill for the 
continuance of the Sinking Fund, and a clause enacting 
that in every future loan, a sum should be appropriated for 
its redemption. This Act passed the Commons with gene- 
ral approbation. In the House of Lords it encountered a 
most unexpected opposition from the Lord Chancellor. 
He inveighed against it with the greatest acrimony and 
personality, ridiculing the presumption of attempting to 
bind future Parliaments. '^ None but a novice, a syco- 
phant, a mere reptile of a Minister, would allow this Act 
to prevent his doing what the circumstances of the country 
might require at the time. The inaptitude of the project 
is equal to the vanity of the attempt." Thurlow's speech 
made so great an impression on the Lords, that the 
Minister's measure was only carried by a majority of six. 
The next day. May 16, Mr. Pitt required his dismissal, 
to which the King assented, but for the convenience of 
public business, ho was allowed to retain the seals, till the 
close of the Session, June 15. Thurlow was astounded at 
the King's ready acquiescence, and said to his friend. Sir 
John Scott (afterwards Lord Eldon), " I did not think that 
the King would have parted with me so easily. As to that 



46 qillivly's caricatures. 

other man, he has done to me just what I should have 
done to him, if I could/' Lord Grenville, who had received 
a number of lucrative appointments, is represented as 
suggesting that the Chancellorship might with propriety 
be added to them. 



83. 
A GOOD SHOT; OR, BILLY RANGER, THE 
GAMEKEEPER, IN A FINE SPORTING COUN- 
TRY. Febrvary Ist, 1792. 

LORD GRENVILLE. 

William Wyndham Grenville, who had been elevated to 
the peerage as Baron Grenville, in 1 790. On the 18th of 
July, 1 792, he married the Hon. Anne Pitt, sister of Lord 
Camelford. He was himself first cousin to William Pitt, 
and at this time he held, among other lucrative offices, 
those of Ranger of St. James's and Hyde Parks, and 
Secretaiy of State for Foreign Affairs. His supposed 
eagerness for place and emolument is the object of satire 
in the present caricature. 

84. 

A CONNOISSEUR EXAMINING A COOPER. 

June 18th, 1792. 

GEORGE III. 

The King examining Cooper's portrait of Oliver Crom- 
well. The parsimonious manners of the Monarch are 
satirized in the save-all, by means of which he uses up the 
last fragment of the candle. 

Gillray had recently accompanied Loutherbourg the 
painter into France, to assist in making sketches for his 
grand picture of the Siege of Valenciennes. After their 
return, the King, who made great pretensions to taste, 
desired to look at their Sketches. Uo was already pro- 



POLITICAL SERIES. 47 

judiced against Gillray for his Political Caricatures, aud 
not understanding the rough style in which he had made 
his spirited sketches of French oflBcers and soldiers, he 
threw them down contemptuously, with the mere hasty 
observation, "I donH understand these caricatures !" while 
he expressed the greatest admiration at Loutherbourg's 
more finished and intelligible drawings of landscapes and 
buildings. Gillray, who was mortified at the neglect shewn 
towards himself, and was not at this time pensioned by 
the Court, revenged himself by publishing the picture of 
the Monarch contemplating the features of the great 
enemy of Kings, who was an object of particular abhor- 
rence to George III., and observed, *'I wonder if the 
Royal Connoisseur will understand this ?" 

85. 
A VOLUPTUARY UNDER THE HORRORS OP 
DIGESTION. July 2nd, 1792. 

THE PRINCE OP WALES. 

A bitter satire on the Heir to the Throne, who was at 
this time celebrated for his voluptuousness, and for the 
pecuniary diflBculties in which he was constantly involved, 
in consequence of his expensive habits. The picture is 
full of allusions, which tell their own story. 

86. 
TEMPERANCE ENJOYING A FRUGAL MEAL. 

July 28th, 1792. 

THE QUEEN. OEORQE III. 

This plate is properly a companion to the former, and is 
no less severe on the saving and parsimonious habits of 
the King and Queen, than the other on their son's extra- 
vagance. It is one of Gillray 's finest works, and it is 
hardly necessary to point out the admirable manner in 
which every little accessory is made to bear upon the 
general subject. 



48 gillray's caricatures. 

8(5.* 
SIN, DEATH, AND THE DEVIL. June 9th, 1792. 

PITT. THE QUEEN. LORD THURLOW. 

On the quarrel between Pitt and Thurlow, which ended 
in the dismissal of the latter from the Chancellorship. It 
was said that the Qaeen's influence at this time kept Pitt 
in power, the King hesitating for some time between his 
attachment to Thurlow and his sense of the value of Pitt's 
services. Pitt, in the character of Death, shelters himself 
under the Crown, and combats with the Sceptre. Satan's ^ 
weapon, the Chancellor's mace, is breaking in the struggle. 
The hell hoimds bear the visages of Dundas, Grenville, 
&c. This is without doubt one of the boldest pictorial 
parodies that was ever published : it is said to have given 
gi'eat offence at Court, and not without reason. 

87. 
UN PETIT SOUPER A LA PARISIENNE ; OR, A 
FAMILY OF SANS-CULOTTES REFRESHING 
AFTER THE FATIGUES OF THE DAY. 

Septcinher 2Wi, 1792. 
On the horrible massacres perpetrated by the Parisian 
mob in the September of 1792. It is one of the first of 
the series of prints by which the Caricaturist contributed 
BO much towards the hatred with which the English people 
were beginning to look upon the French Revolutionists. 

88. 

THE RECEPTION OF THE DIPLOMATIQUE AND 
HIS SUITE, AT THE COURT OP PEKIN. 

Sepfemhcr UWj, 1792. 

THE EMPEROR KIEN LONG. LORD MACARTNEY. MR. HilTTNER. 

SIR QEORQE STAUNTON. 

A caricature on Lord Macartney^s Embassy to China, 
and on the little which the Ambassador and his govern- 
ment arc presumed to have known of the manners and 



POLITICAL SERIES. 47* 

tastes of the people they were desirous of conciliating. 
The sabject afforded frequent occasion to Peter Pindar for 
the exercise of his wit. Chinese etiquette is^ that extreme 
prostrations should be made before the Emperor, which 
it was intimated Lord Macartney would not conform to. 
The whole contour of the Emperor is indicative of cun- 
ning and contempt. The German face bringing in the 
cage is, no doubt, intended for the late Mr. Hiittner, of 
the Foreign Office, who accompanied Lord Macartney, 
as interpreter, and published his own account of the 
Embassy, in German, Berlin, 1797. 

As soon as Lord Macartney had declined to make the 
required prostrations, as unbecoming the Representative 
of his Sovereign, he was dismissed from the presence of 
the Emperor without the least ceremony. On his return 
to his residence he was ordered to quit Pekin the second 
day after receiving the notice. He represented that so 
short an interval was insufficient to make the nesessary ar- 
rangements for the journey, and urgently solicited a respite 
of only two days, this however was peremptorily refused. 

^neas Anderson, an attach^ to Lord Macartney^ s 
Embassy, also published an account, in which he gives 
this vivid description of the treatment the Embassy expe- 
rienced at Pekin. " We entered Pekin like Paupers, re- 
mained in it like Prisoners, and departed from it like 
Vagrants." 

89. 
THE BENGAL LEVEE. November 9th, 1792. 

1. COL. BOSS.* (2. & 3. unknown.) 4. mr. wiLTON.f 

5. COL. ACHMUTY.]; (6. UnknOWU.) 7. MB. BLAQniEBB.§ 
8. XB. GINETTI.|| 9. MB. MILLEB. 10. LOBD COBNWALLIS.^ 

The amateur artist from whose sketch Gillray etched 

* The first figure, hand in pocket 

t The slender figure, with hanging seals. % '^^ stout figure in centre. 
§ Taking snuff. § CouTersing witli Mr. Miller. 

% In the back ground, his right hand on his star. 

4 



48* gillray's caricatures. 

this print is said to have been General Stevenson. It re- 
presents the Levee of the Governor-General, Lord Com- 
wallis, at the Government House, Calcutta, and contains 
portraits of all the persons of any note then employed in 
the pubUc service in India ; but, though evidently por- 
traits, few of them can now be recognized. The figure to 
the extreme right, in the background, is Earl Comwallis. 
Sir John Shore, afterwards Lord Teignmouth, succeeded 
Lord Comwallis, as Gt)vemor- General of India, in 1792, 
and is probably among the persons here represented, but 
we do not recognize him. 

90. 
THE SLOUGH OP DESPOND; vide THE PATRIOT'S 
PROGRESS. January 2nd, 1793. 

FOX. 

The horrors committed by the Revolutionists in France 
during the year 1792 had, in the beginning of 1793, pro- 
duced a strong feeling in England, and strengthened Pitt's 
Ministry, while it was a proportionate discouragement to 
the Opposition. There were several secessions from the 
Whig party in consequence of the alarm which the pro- 
ceedings of the French Patriots created in this country, 
and the seceders went by the name of the Alarmists. In 
the debate on the Address, in which Fox's splendid elo- 
quence shone even more than usual, his party was in a 
very small minority, and he is here represented as almost 
lost in the despondency in which the weakness of his party 
had involved him. It is a clever parody on the sufferings 
of the Christian pilgrim in John Bunyan's Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress. 

91. 
TOM PAINE'S NIGHTLY PEST. Bee. lOth, 1792. 

vox. TOM PAINK. DR. PRIESTLEY. 

In the December of 1792, Paino, who was in France, 
and therefore out of the reach of tjhe law^ was prosecuted 



/ 



/ 



POLITICAL SERIES. 49 

and found guilty of a libel contained in the second part 
of his " Rights of Man/' He is here represented on his 
couch of poverty, dreaming of the punishments which 
awaited his political crimes. At the time when this print 
was published, the prosecution had been made known, 
but the trial and condemnation ouly took place on the 
18th of December. 

92. 
A SMOKING CLTJB. February IWiy 1793. 

LOUOHBOROUQE. PITT. POX. SHERIDAN. DUNDAS. 

The two chiefs of the opposing parties in politics 
smoking each other, while the Lord Chancellor Lough- 
borough (who had succeeded Thurlow on the Woolsack) is 
cogitating between the Whig and Tory, having acted with 
the former party, previous to taking office under the latter. 

93. 
JOHN BULL BOTHERED; OR, THE GEESE 
ALARMING THE CAPITOL. Dec. 19th, 1792. 

PITT. 

On the alarm which the organs of Government spread 
through the country, when the English Minister was 
dragging us into war with France in 1 793. Poor John 
Bull appears to be sadly divided and "bothered'^ by the 
continual representations of the two parties who wished 
to lead him, as we see by his two cockades, and by the 
contents of his pockets. The '^ Pennyworth of Truth'* 
was an anti-revolutionary tract, distributed through the 
country with great diligence by the " LoyaP* Societies. 
The doubts on the propriety of using his anns seem still 
to predominate in John Bull's mind, although he allows 
himself to be led by his "measter'* Billy. 

94. 
FRENCH LIBERTY— BRITISH SLAVERY. 

December 2}st, 1702. 
A burlesque comparison of the glorious condition of 

4 * 



50 gillray's caricatures. 

France under its so-called Freedom, and the wretched state 
of John Bull, under his regime of tyranny and taxation ! 

95. 
SANS-CULOTTES FEEDING EUROPE WITH THE 
BREAD OF LIBERTY. Jamtanj I2th, 1793. 

SHERIDAN. FOX. 

The war against Franco was represented as being ren- 
dered necessary to hinder the propagandism of republican 
principles, which the French were endeavouring to impose 
upon every country either by hostile invasion, or by en- 
couraging the people to rise against their existing Go- 
vernments. The French Directory had proclaimed all 
Kings and Princes tyrants, and offered fraternization and 
assistance to all people who were wishful to shake off 
their yoke. This print exhibits the various ways in which 
this design was attempted to be carried into effect in 
Holland, Savoy, Germany, Italy, and England. In our 
country, it is the two great leaders of opposition. Fox 
and Sheridan (represented in what the Caricaturists 
pictured as the literal costume of the San-culottes) who 
undertake to accustom John Bull to the new diet. 

96. 

THE DAGGER SCENE; OR, THE PLOT DIS- 
COVERED. Deceviber SOth, 1 792. 

DUNDAS. PITT. POX. SHERIDAN. M. A. TAYLOR. BURKE. 

This print commemorates an extraordinary piece of 
theatrical eflfect played off by Burke in the House of Com- 
mons, on the 28th of December, 1792. It was the debate 
on the introduction of Lord Grenvillo's Alien Act. Burke 
spoke in support of the Ministerial measure, and to heighten 
the effect of one of his eloquent declamations against 
French atrocities, and English imitations of them, and on 
the spirit which he said was abroad in this country, he drew 
out a Brummagem dagger, which he had brought with 



POLITICAL SERIES. 51 

him into the Honse, and kept concealed on his person till 
the critical moment of exhibition, when he threw it on the 
floor. He insinuated that certain members of the House 
were acquainted with the purpose for which such instru- 
ments were being manufactured. The effect, for the 
moment, is said to hare been quite .extraordinary. The 
Opposition, however, treated the exhibition with derision, 
rather than with alarm ; the dagger was itself probably 
of a rather equivocal form, and Sheridan said : '^ You 
have thrown down a knife, where is the fork V* which 
electrified the House with laughter. 

Since the above was in print, the publisher has been 
favoured (by his friend, Mr. Evans) with a detailed and 
more accurate account of the remarkable circumstance in 
question, which is here subjoined. 

Towards the close of the year 1792, an extraordinary 
influx of foreigners into England took place. The Minis- 
ters professed to feel the greatest alarm and consternation 
at so large an ingress of persons from a country which 
had so recently overturned its Government, imprisoned 
its King, and in which the flame of Liberty was excited 
by the torch of sedition. The militia was called out. 
Parliament was summoned to meet at the unusually 
short notice of thirteen days. Ministers called on Parlia- 
ment to arm the Government with an Alien Act to enable 
it to send out of the country persons endeavouring to 
abuse the hospitality of England. The Bill passed the 
House of Lords, and on the second reading in the Com- 
mons, on the 28th of December, Mr. Dundas explained its 
principles and details, and declared Ministers had no other 
object than to secure the safety and tranquillity of the 
country. The Bill was opposed by Mr. Fox as an unne- 
cessary innovation. Ministers already possessed adequate 
powers to expel any foreigners attempting to violate the 
public peace, and believed the measure originated in their 
inveterate hostility to the rising spirit of Freedom now 
spreading through France, and their desire to suppress all 



52 gillrat's caeicatubes. 

communication with that country by every moans in their 
power. This called up Burke, who declared, that so con- 
vinced was he of the overwhelming necessity of the mea- 
sure, that he would rather abandon his best friends, and 
join his worst enemies, than withhold his support of the 
Bill. He descanted with consummate eloquence and 
energy on the multifold horrors and atrocities of the 
Trench Eevolution. He mentioned the circumstance of 
three thousand daggers having been bespoke at Birming- 
ham, by an Englishman, of which seventy had been deli- 
vered. It was not ascertained how many of these were to 
be exported, and how many were intended for home con- 
sumption. [Here Mr. Burke drew out a dagger, which 
he had kept concealed, and with much vehemence of action 
threw it on the floor.] " This/' said he, pointing to the 
dagger, " is what you are to gain by an alliance with 
France : wherever their principles are introduced, their 
practices must follow. You must guard against their 
principles ; you must proscribe their persons." He then 
held the dagger up to view, which he said never could have 
been intended for fair and open war, but solely for mur- 
derous purposes. " It is my object to keep the French 
infection from this country; their principles from our 
minds, and their daggers from our hearts/' After a few 
other sentences, he added, '^ While they smile, I see blood 
trickling down their faces; I see their insidious purposes; 
I see that the object of all their cajoling is — ^blood. I now 
warn my countrymen to beware of these execrable philoso- 
phers, whose only object it is to destroy every thing that 
is good here, and to establish immorality and murder by 
precept and example." 

The late Lord Chancellor Eldon, in the latter part of his 
life, used to shew a dagger, as the identical one thrown 
down by Burke on the floor of the House. The late Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (Dr. Howloy) assured the present 
Earl of Kldon that his grandfather's memory had misled 
him, and that the actual dagger was in the possession of 



POLITICAL SERIES. 53 

the son of the late Sir James Bland Burgess. With a 
laadable desire of ascertaining the truths he applied to Sir 
James's son^ Sir Charles Montolieu Lamb (he having taken 
that name by permission ander the King's Sign Manual 
in 1821), who furnished the following statement: '"The 
history of it is, that it was sent to a manufacturer at Bir- 
mingham as a pattern, with an order to make a large 
quantity like it. At that time the order seemed so suspi- 
cious, that instead of executing it, he came to London, and 
called on my father, at the Secretary of State's Office, to 
inform him of it, and he left the pattern with him. Just 
after, Mr. Burke called, in his way to the House of Com- 
mons, and upon my father mentioning it to him, borrowed 
the dagger to shew in the House. They walked down to 
the House together, and when Mr. Burke had made his 
speech, my father took it again, and kept it as a curiosity.'' 
Ab this dagger is become a matter of historical inte- 
rest, by being mentioned in every life of Burke, and 
many historical memoirs of the times, the reader may be 
curious to see the present Lord Eldon's exact description 
of it. '' The dagger is a foot long in the blade, and about 
five inches in the handle, of coarse workmanship, and 
might serve either for a dagger or a pikehead.^' 

97. 
THE BLOOD OF THE MURDEEED CRYING FOR 
VENGEANCE. February 16th, 1793. 

LOUIS XVI. 

On the execution of Louis XVI. by the French Revolu- 
tionary Government, on the 21 st of January, 1793. A 
finely engraved plate, which helped to disgust the English 
with the revolutionary proceedings. 

98. 
A DEMOCRAT; OR, REASON AND PHILOSO- 
PHY. March Ut, 1 793. 

vox. 
This coarse satire upon Fox, and his supposed leaning 



54 oillray's caricatures. 

towards the Sans-culottes of France^ is said to liave been 
one of the few caricatures against that Statesman which 
really gave him offence. The attacks upon Fox's party, 
on the ground of their presumed revolutionary principles, 
were never carried to such an extent as at the moment 
when this print was published. Oa ira is the burthen of 
the most democratic song of the day. 

99. 

THE CHANCELLOR OF THE INQUISITION 
MARKING THE INCORRIGIBLES. 

March 19th, 1793. 

BURKB. 

Gillray was at this time rather indiscriminate in his 
attacks, and he here caricatures the violent zeal with which 
Burke supported the party in whose ranks he now com- 
bated with as much severity as he had just caricatured Fox. 
Burke, popularly characterized as " the Jesuit,'' for his open 
advocacy of the Catholic claims in Ireland, is named to 
the Chancellorship of this new Inquisition. The object 
of ridicule was the Ministerial measures against the politi- 
cal clubs and societies, and it is hardly necessary to say 
that the '^ Black List'' is a parody on a passage in Shake- 
speare's Richard III. 

100. 
FATIGUES OF THE CAMPAIGN IN FLANDERS. 

May 20th, 1793. 

THE DUKE OF TORE. 

The British Foot-guards in Flanders. The Duke, who 
was in command of this expedition, which, though at this 
time promising success, ended in so meiny disasters, is 
enjoying the good things of the land. It is a satire on 
the mode in which the English army was pretended by 
some people to be carrying on the war. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 55 

100*. 

*' Aaide he tam*d 
For envy, yet with jealous leer malign 
Ey'd them askance/' 

12th, 1782. 

LORD 8HELBURNE. PITT. FOX. 

On the secession of Fox and his party from the Shel- 
burne Administration ; one of GiUrny's earlier Political 
Caricatures^ inserted here out of its date for the conve- 
nience of arrangement. It is another parody on Milton. 



101. 
DUMOUEIER DINING IN STATE AT SAINT 
JAMESES, ON THE 15th OF MAY, 1793. 

March SOth, 1793. 

PRIESTLET. FOX. HEAD OF PITT. SHEBIDAN. DXJMOUBIEB. 

On Dumourier's desertion from the service of the 
French Republic. He was at this time understood to be 
on his way to England, and, in the belief of his Republican 
and *' Sans-culottic" principles, this is the repast it is pre- 
tended was to be dressed up for him. The three great re- 
volutionists, as they were represented by the Tories, acting 
as cooks — Priestley, the enemy of the Church ; Fox, the 
enemy of Pitt ; and Sheridan, the enemy of the Crown. 

Dumourier arrived in England in June, and he imme- 
diately received notice from the Secretary of State to quit 
the kingdom in forty-eight hours. His presence appears 
to have been dreaded. 

102. 
BRITANNIA BETWEEN SCTLLA AND CHA- 
RYBDIS. April 8th, 1793. 

PRIESTLEY. FOX SHERIDAN. PITT. 

A beautiful allegory, rather than caricature, on the 
politics of Pitt's administration at this time, who is repre- 



56 oillrat's caricatures. 

sented as steering the helm of State in an even course 
between the two extremes^ keeping his course direct to 
the haven of public safety. The whirlpool of Charybdis 
represents the undue influence of the Crown. The dogs 
of Scylla bear the faces of the well-known trio struck 
with the political anathema^ Priestley^ Fox^ and Sheridan. 

103. 

JOHN BXJLPS PROGRESS. JOHN BULL HAPPY. 

JOHN BULL GOING TO THE WARS. JOHN 

BULL'S PROPERTY IN DANGER. JOHN 

BULL'S GLORIOUS RETURN. June Srd, 1793. 

On the warlike politics of the year 1793, and on the 

little profit John Bull seemed likely to gain by his military 

mania. 

104. 
FLANNEL ARMOUR .—FEMALE PATRIOTISM. 

November I8th, 1793. 
StiD war ! As the winter of this year approached, the 
ladies of Great Britain, in their solicitude for the comforts 
of the British soldiers, amid the rigours of the climate and 
season, manufactured clothing of all descriptions in flannel 
to be sent over to the army in Flanders. It was a subject 
on which the press launched out multitudes ofjeux d^esprit, 
some of them not particularly delicate. This clever print 
was one of the most efiective satires on the zeal of the 
ladies, and is said to have had no small effect in cooling 
it. There is much point in the two dilapidated and 
neglected pictures of Hannibal and Charles XII., warriors 
especially celebrated for the contempt with which they 
faced the rigours of winter. 

105. 
THE HEROIC CHARLOTTE LA CORDfi UPON 
HER TRIAL. July 29th, 1793. 

On the death of the French democrat, Marat, by the 



POLITICAL SERIES. 57 

hand of Charlotte Corday, on the 13th July, 1793. She 
was immediately brought to trial by the Revolutionary 
Tribune, condemned, and executed. An interesting ac- 
count of her will be found in Lamartine's '' History of 
the Girondists/' {Bohn's Library, vol. 3, p. 53.) 

106. 
BLUE AND BUFF CHARITY; OR THE PATRI- 
ARCH OF THE GREEK CLERGY APPLYING 
FOR RELIEF. June 12th, 1793. 

J. HALL. DR. PBIB8TLET. LORD STANHOPE. SHERIDAN. 

MICHAEL ANOELO TATLOR. HORNE TOOKB. FOX. 

Fox's private circumstances had become at this time so 
embarrassed, that he was obliged to forego even the trifling 
luxuries of life, and he was meditating on the necessity of 
retiring from the political stage. But his friends inter- 
fered, and in the summer of 1793, they held a meeting at 
the Crown and Anchor, to take his affairs into considertion, 
and a large subscription, with which he was relieved in his 
present need, and an annuity which was purchased for him, 
shewed Fox's popularity. His enemies turned the dis- 
tresses of the leader of the Patriots into ridicule : he is here 
represented as receiving the charity of the Committee in 
the shape of a shower of unpaid bonds, dishonoured bills, 
and other similar documents from which they had relieved 
him. Sheridan figures as the Sans-culotte highwayman ; 
and Liberty Hall, as he was called, the ci-devant apothe- 
cary, has in his pocket a bottle of poison for " W. Pitt.*' 
Blue and buff were the colours of Fox's party, 

107. 
A PARIS BELLE. February 26th, 1794. 

A fancy portrait of a fair patriot of Paris under the 
" Reign of Terror." It is a mere etching by Gillray, after 
a drawing by another person ; but whether " Miss Mary 
Stokes" be a real name or a mere pseudonyme, it is now 
impossible to say. 



58 GILLBAT^S CARICATURES. 

108. 

A PARIS BEAU. February 26th, 1794. 

A companion to the former plate^ by the same artist. 

109. 
A FRENCH HAILSTORM ; OR, NEPTUNE LOSING 
SIGHT OF THE BREST FLEET. Dec. 10, 1793. 

LORD HOWE. 

On Lord Howe's inactivity, who was accused of remain- 
ing idle in Torbay, while he ought to have been looking 
into Brest harbour, to watch the movements of the French 
fleet coUected there. The popular cry represented the 
English Admiral as being bribed by French gold to re- 
main inactive ; and among the common toasts at political 
dinners was, ''Lord Howe — let him be toasted in Port /" 
Gillray has here represented him as driven into the port of 
Torbay by a hailstorm of money. A few months after, 
the great naval victory of the Ist of June, 1794, restored 
Lord Howe to universal popularity. 

At this time the disasters experienced by the Allies on 
the continent in every quarter had very much damped the 
warlike ardour of the people of England, and this altered 
feeling will be seen in several of the caricatures which 

follow. 

• 

110. 

PANTAGRUEL'S VICTORIOUS RETURN TO THE 

COURT OF GARGANTUA, AFTER EXTIR. 

FATING THE SOUP-MEAGRES OF BOUILLE 

LAND. February 10th, 1794. 

THE DUKE OF TORK. GEORGE III. PITT. THE QUEEN. 

A rather severe satire on the great results which were 
expected from the expedition to Flanders, under the Duke 
of York, and on his inglorious return. The Duke arrived 



POLITICAL SERIES. 59 

in London on his return on the 7th of February, 1794. 
The condition in which he here appears shews the opinion 
popularly entertained of his conduct in the war. While the 
King, who was warmly attached to the amusements of the 
chase, is represented in a costume which would make us 
believe that he thought more of hunting than of State 
affairs, Pitt is employed in considering the means of raising 
money for the expenditure which the Duke^s expedition 
has entailed, and of which he is reckoning up the items ; 
while we see the Queen, in an apartment behind, busy 
sacking her treasures. Pitt has not forgotten an expression 
which Burke had incautiously applied to the populace in 
one of his speeches a little before this time — 'Hhe swinish 
multitude'* — and which now became a sort of watchword of 
party. On the 24th of February, 1793, a bookseller named 
Eaton, was tried, but acquitted, for the publication of a 
pamphlet, entitled, " Hog^swash ; or. Politics for the 
People.*' The term was frequently used at a subsequent 
period. 

111. 
FRENCH TELEGRAPH MAKING SIGNALS IN 
THE DARK. January 26th, 1 793. 

FOX. 

A satire on Fox's supposed predilection for revolutionized 
France, and on the wish he was accused of entertain- 
ing, that the democratic principles triumphant in that 
country should be transplaated to England. He had been 
an uncompromising opponent of the warlike measures of 
the Ministry, who did not hesitate to accuse him of wishing 
to betray his country to the enemy. 

112. 
THE BLESSINGS OF PEACE— THE CURSES OF 

WAR. January 12th, 1795. 

A print published with the design of warning the people 
against allowing Britain to be exposed to the same calami- 
ties with which the countries were already visited wherever 
the French arms had penetrated, and of raising their indig- 



60 



qillray's caricatures. 



nation against the aggressive policy which now prevailed 
in the revolutionary Government of France. 

113. 

THE GENIUS OF FRANCE TRIUMPHANT; OR, 

BRITANNIA PETITIONING FOR PEACE. 

February 2nd, 1795. 

FOX. LORD STANHOPE. SHERIDAN. 

On the continued outcries of the party headed by Fox 
and Sheridan for pacific overtures to France. It is in- 
sinuated that the only way in which Britain could obtain 
peace at this time would be by a very humble submission 
to the frightful idol which France had set up. 

Lord Stanhope, who was violent in his liberal principles, 
had now taken the place of Priestley, with Fox and Sheri- 
dan^ in the political triumvirate. 

114. 

THE ERUPTION OF THE MOUNTAIN ; OR, THE 

HORRORS OF THE BOCCA DEL INFERNO. 

July 25th, 1794. 

LORD LAUDERDALE. FOX. GENERAL FOX. SHERIDAN. 

D. OF NORFOLK. M. A. TAYLOR. EARL OF DERBY. LORD STANHOPE. 

It was a very ancient superstition at Naples, when a 
dangerous eruption of Mount Vesuvius threatened the 
surrounding country, to carry out the head of St. Januarius 
in solemn procession as a sure method of appeasing the 
mountain. The so-called English Sans-culottes, iastead of 
Neapolitan lazzaroni, are here carrying forth the head of 
their great leader, the political Januarius, who was supposed 
to be the only person able to conciliate France, and thus 
to appease the great revolutionary eruption. Sheridan, as 
Cardinal, is officiating in the holy office ; Lord Lauder- 
dale is the bearer of book, bell, and candle ; General Fox, 
the cur which always smelt fire ; M. A. Taylor and Lord 
Derby are trainbearers ; the Duke of Norfolk carries the 
cap of liberty on his marshal's staff ; and Lord Stanhope, 
with his incendiary torches, brings up the rear. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 61 

On the 30th of June, in this year, the Opposition, in 
both Honses of Parliament, had moved resolntions expres- 
sive of a wish for peace. 

115. 

THE LOVER'S DREAM. January Uth, 1795. 

KBS. FiTZHEBBEBT, and other favourites, sheridan. fox. 

GEOBQE III. THE QUEEN. PRINCE OF WALES. PRINCESS 
CAROLINE. 

On the negotiations for the marriage of the Prince of 
Wales with the Princess Caroline of Brunswick, which 
was solemnized on the 8th of April, 1795. It was popu- 
larly expected that this marriage would wean the Prince 
from his old vices, and here we see his hunters, his mis- 
tresses, his gambUng companions, and his bacchanalian 
propensities, all disappearing before the dazzling prospect; 
which, however, as it was soon discovered, was but a 
dream. 

116. 

THE PROPHET OP THE HEBREWS — THE 
PRINCE OP PEACE CONDUCTING THE JEWS 
TO THE PROMISED LAND. March 5th, 1795. 

XABQUIS OF LANSDOWNE. FOX. SHEBIDAN. LOBD STANHOPE. 

RICHABD BBOTHEES, the Prophot. 

Richard Brothers, who had been an officer in the royal 
navy, and had subsequently become deranged, terrified the 
weaker part of the public in the earlier part of 1795, by 
his pretended prophecies, deduced from the Revelation, 
concerning the French Revolution, the restoration of the 
Jews, and the destruction of London. He was apprehended 
by two King's messengers, and brought before the Privy 
Council for examination, on the 10th of March, and was 
subsequently confined in Fisher's Lunatic Asylum, Isling- 
ton. The bundle of the elect who are here carried on the 



62 qillray's caricatures. 

back of the prophet to the sans-culottic paradise are easily 
recognized as chief leaders of the Opposition in Parlia- 
ment^ Lansdowne and Stanhope in the Lords^ and Fox 
and Sheridan in the Commons. 

On March 31, Mr. Halhed, a distinguished Oriental 
scholar, formerly in the civil service of the East India 
Company, brought Brothers^s case before the House of 
Commons, in a very temperate and eloquent speech. He 
avowed himself a believer in his Prophecies and Mission. 
He understood that he had been apprehended on the 10th, 
on a charge of high treason, founded on the following 
passage in his book. '' The Lord God commands me to 
say to you, George III. King of England, that immediately 
on my being revealed in London to the Hebrews, as their 
Prince, and to all nations, as their Governor, your Crown 
must be delivered unto me, that all your power and autho- 
rity may cease." The House knew what various explana- 
tions were given to different portions of the Revelation, 
and this he contended was a fair and legitimate interpreta- 
tion, however painful and insulting to the King. He 
assured the House that Brothers was a most quiet and 
peaceable man, and the same could be attested by the 
numerous persons of quality and fortune who frequented 
his house. He moved his book lie on the table. No per- 
son being found to second the motion, it fell to the ground. 

117. 
LEAVING OFF POWDER; OR, A FRUGAL 
FAMILY SAVING THE GUINEA. March 10, 1795. 

On Pitt's tax upon hair-powder, which the Minister 
fondly imagined would bring an immense sum to the 
revenue, but the only effect of which was to cause the use 
of hair-powder to be discontinued. The tax was one 
guinea for each person using hair-powder ; hence those 
who continued the powder were jocosely termed '' guinea- 
pigs." 



POLITICAL SERIES. 63 

118, 

PATRIOTIC REGENERATION ; viz. PARLIAMENT 
REFORMED, A LA FRANCOISE, — THAT IS, 
HONEST MEN (i. e. OPPOSITION) IN THE 
SEAT OF JUSTICE. March 2nd, 1795. 

IB8EIKE. FOX. SHEBIDAN. MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE. 

LORD STANHOPE. PITT. LORD LAUDERDALE. LORD DERBY. 
DUKE OF GRAFTON {OU a COTOUet)* THE DUKE OF NORFOLK 

{on a coronet). 

On the motions for Reform in Parliament. A scene in 
the imaginary new democratic House of Commons. Fox 
is in the chair as President. Lord Stanhope, as pnblic 
accuser, and Lord Lauderdale, as executioner, are bringing 
Pitt to the bar, who is accused of treason to the country ; 
Sheridan is the Secretary of the House, and Erskine the 
Republican Attorney-General ; Lord Lansdowne is busily 
occupied in weighing the Crown by the new Freuch weight. 
Derby, Grafton, and Norfolk, are warming their hands at 
a fire, in which they have cast the Holy Bible and Magna 
Charta. This is a specimen of the extravagant exaggera- 
tions in which political party too often indulged. 

119. 

LIGHT EXPELLING DARKNESS— EVAPORATION 
OF STYGIAN EXHALTIONS; OR, THE SUN OF 
THE CONSTITUTION RISING SUPERIOR TO 
THE CLOUDS OF OPPOSITION. 

PITT. SHERIDAN. FOX. LORD STANHOPE. LORD LAUDERDALE. 
DUKE OF GRAFTON. LORD DERBY. DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

LORD LANSDOWNE. M. A. TAYLOR. ERSKINE. 

Pitt riding triumphant over the Opposition, drawn by 
the Horse of Hanover and the Lion of Britain. Tho 
leaders of Opposition are dispersing in the shade; tho bats 
below are easily recognized as Lord Lansdowne, M. A. 
Taylor, and Erskine. 

5 



\ 



64 oillray's caricatures. 

120. 
AFFABILITY. February 10th, 1795. 

QUEEN. GEORGE III. 

A satire on the famiUar and undignified demeanour of 
the King in private life. He was said to stroll about in 
the neighbourhood of his farm near Windsor, and accost 
the labourers familiarly. Peter Pindar alludes to this in 
the following lines : — 

** Then asks the farmer's wife, or fanner's maid, 
How manj eggs the fowls have laid ; 
What's in the oyen, in the pot, the crock ; 
Whether 'twill rain or no, and what's o'clock : 
Thns from poor hoyels gleaning inforfruUiont 
To serre as fatnre treasure for the nation — " 

and in various other places. 

^ 121. 

A TRUE BRITISH TAR. May 28th, 1795. 

THE DUKE OF CLARENCE. 

A satire on the Sailor-Prince, who was a great lounger 
in Bond-street, and whose connection with Mrs. Jordan 
was at this time the grand subject of scandal. 

122. 

THE REAL CAUSE OF THE PRESENT HIGH 
PRICE OF PROVISIONS. May llth, 1795. 

DUKE OP NORFOLK. DUKE OF BEDFORD. DUKE OF GRAFTON. 

LORD LAN6D0WNE. SHERIDAN. FOX. GREY. 

ERSKINE. LORD STANHOPE. 

In the bitterness of party animosity, it was pretended 
that the Whigs assisted the French in obtaining provisions 
from this country, and that they thus increased the scarcity 
and consequent deamess of provisions at home, which was 
at this time a subject of great discontent throughout the 



POLITICAL SERIES. 65 

country. Fox, dressed as the Commissioner-General of 
the French armies, is negociating the purchases, while 
Erskine attends as his Secretary, and Sheridan and Grey 
carry the money. The Duke of Bedford is making a good 
market of his meal ; the Duke of Norfolk brings in a 
basket of dumplings ; Grafton is driving the live stock to 
the coast; and Stanhope is the steersman of the boat 
which is to carry them on ship-board. 

123. 
POLONIUS. May 18th, 1795. 

KINO. QUEEN. LORD SALISBURY (CHAMBERLAIN.) 

The Marquis pf Salisbury, by Gillray designated Polo- 
nius, held the office of Lord Chamberlain at this period. 

124. 
JOHN BULL GROUND DOWN. June Ut, 1 795. 

PRINCE OF WALES. BURKE. DUNDAS. PITT. 

John Bull is here turned into money by a rather rough 
process. The Prince's creditors, jockeys, Jews, pro- 
curesses, and mistresses, are but ill satisfied with all that 
can be ground out of poor John. Pitt acts as the remorse- 
less grinder ; and Burke is among the scramblers. The 
Crown sheds its rays on the labours of the Minister, the 
inscriptions on which express the peculiar sympathy which 
the King was supposed to feel for grinder and grinded. 

The immediate subject of this caricature was the settle- 
ment of the Prince's revenue on his marriage with Caro- 
line of Brunswick. 

125. 
GOD SAVE THE KING, IN A BUMPER; OR, 
AN EVENING SCENE, THREE TIMES A WEEK, 
AT WIMBLETON. May 27th, 1795. 

DUNDAS. PITT. 

■ 

Pitt and Dundas were celebrated for their convivial pvo- 

5 * 



I 



66 gillrat's caricatures. 

pensities^ and Wimbleton, the residence of Pitt, was the 
usual scene of their most profound potations. 

126. 

BLINDMAN'S BUFF; OR, TOO MANY FOR 
JOHN BULL. June 12th, 1795. 

PITT. RUSSIA. AUSTRIA. JOHN BULL. 

HOLLAND AND FRANCE. 

On the subsidies and aids granted so lavishly by the 
English Government to the Continental Powers in arms' 
against France. Prussia and Austria are picking John's 
pockets, while France and Holland are treating him with 
derision. Poor John, blindfold in the midst of his ene- 
mies, knows not whither to turn to avoid them, while his 
ruler betrays him into their hands. The loan granted by 
the British Government to the Emperor of Austria had 
excited very animated discussions in the House of Com- 
mons at the end of May and beginning of June of this year. 

127. 

PRESAGES OF THE MILLENIUM; WITH THE 
DESTRUCTION OF THE FAITHFUL. 

Juneitlt, 1795. 

PITT. DUNDAS. LOUOHBOROUQH. LORD KENYON. BURKE. 
LAKSDOWNE. SHERIDAN. WILBERFORCE. FOX. DUKE 
OF NORFOLK. EARL STANHOPE. DUKE OF QRAFTON. 

On the motions for peace with France, in the session of 
1795, and on Pitt's constant victories over the Opposition. 
Wilberforce had brought forward the motion for peace in 
the House of Commons. Pitt, as Death, is riding some- 
what roughly the White Horse of Hanover ; the h'ttle 
figure urging him on alludes to the Prince of Wales, and 
the revenue, 125,000 settled upon him on his marriage. 
The pigs, of course, are the " swinish multitude." It is 



POLITICAL SERIES. 67 

a bold parody on the book of Revelation. Halbed was 
one of the behevors in, and supporters of, the prophet 
Brothers. 

128. 
WHAT A CUR TIS ! June 9th, 1795. 

ADMIRAL CURTIS. LORD HOWE. 

Admiral Sir Roger Curtis is satirized for his supposed 
obsequiousness to the dark-countenanced hero of the 
Ist of June, whom the sailors generally knew best by the 
nickname of '^ Black Dick.'* Both these faces are said to 
be admirable portraits, and the one in the chair especially 
was remarked for its accurate resemblance, in figure and 
manner, to Lord Howe. 

129. 

A KEEN-SIGHTED POLITICIAN WARMING HIS 
IMAGINATION. • June ISth, 1795. 

LORD ORSNYILLE. 

This is a satirical picture of Lord Grenville, who at a 
later period joined in the celebrated Broad Bottom Minis- 
try. The position with regard to the fire appears to have 
been a favourite one with his Lordship, 

130. 

THE BRITISH BUTCHER SUPPLYING JOHN 
BULL WITH A SUBSTITUTE FOR BREAD. 

July &th, 1795. 

JOHN BULIm PITT. 

The deamess of com, and the increasing scarcity of pro- 
yisions and high price of bread, led to much rioting in the 
months of June and July, 1795. The Minister is said to 
have sent some recommendations to the Lord Mayor 
which were represented as implying principles like those 



68 OILLRAY's CABICA'lUBES. 

expressed in this print. The foDowing lines are printed 
beneath the plate : — / 

Billy the Butcher^s Advice to John Bull. 

Since bread is so dear (and you say you must cat), 
'For to save the expense you most li?e upon moat ; 
And as twelvepence the quairtorn you can*t pay for bread, 
Get a crown's worth of meat, — ^it will serve in its stead. 

John Bull presents a picture of starvation, which is not 
usual with him. 

131. 
THE SLEEP-WALKER. Navember Ut, 1795. 

PITT. 

The allusion of this Caricature is not very clear. By 
some it is supposed to refer to back-door influence, and 
to interviews between the favourite Minister and his 
Master which took place at an advanced hour after the 
honest part of the community were in bed. By others it 
is thought to exhibit the force of habit in Mr. Pitt, who 
even m his sleep seems to fancy himself proceeding to 
the House of Commons, to participate in the debates. 

132. 
THE REPUBLICAN ATTACK. November Ut, 1795. 

PEPrER ARDEN. DUNDAS. GRENVILI*E. LOUGHBOROUGH. 
GEORGE m. EARLS ONSLOW AND WESTMORELAND. PITT. 
GRAFTON. STANHOl'E. LAUDERDALE. SHERIDAN. FOX. 
L.VN8D0WNE. 

On the outrageous attack upon the King by the mob, 
when he was proceeding to open Parliament, on the 29th 
of October, 1795. The satirist has chosen to represent 
the leaders of the Opposition in Parliament, under the 
character of rioters. The royal carriage, driven somewhat 
furiously by Pitt, is ruuuing over BritAunia. The cries of 
the real mob were for cheap bread and peace, and in their 



POLITICAL SERIES. 69 

rage the populace added, " No King V' and " Down with 
George V* The window of the state carriage was broken 
by a stone or, as was said, from a shot from an air-gun. 

133. 
SUPPLEMENTARY MILITIA, TURNING OUT 
FOR TWENTY DAYS. November 25th, 1796. 

HOFPNEB. 

A satire on the extraordinary efforts to make a military 
appearance against the invasion threatened by the French 
in 1796. Hoppner, the Painter, is in the centre, with a 
pallet marked R.A. 

184. 

COPENHAGEN HOUSE. November IGth, 1795. 

GALE JONES. THELWALL. 

On the great meeting in Copenhagen Fields, on the 13th 
of November, 1 795, called by the London Corresponding 
Society, to petition the King and both Houses of Parlia- 
ment against the Bill for the protection of the King^s 
person, which had been brought in after the outrage of 
the 29th of October. The speaker in the rude rostrum to 
the right is understood to represent the celebrated Thel- 
wall; on the hustings, to the left. Gale Jones. The other 
speakers at this meeting were Hodson and John Binns. 

135. 

SUBSTITUTES FOR BREAD; OR, RIGHT 
HONOURABLES SAVING THE LOAVES AND 
DIVIDING THE FISHES. December 2Uh, 1795. 

LOUGHBOEOUGH. LORD GEENVILLB. DITNDAS. 

PEPPER ARDEN. PITT. 

Another satire on the want of sympathy supposed to 
have been shewn by Ministers in the year of scarcity, 
1795. The Ministers themselves are here finding a golden 



V 



70 gilleay's caricatures. 

Bobstitate for bread. They are devouring the fishes 
without the loaves. 

136. 

THE REPUBLICAN RATTLESNAKE FASCINAT- 
ING THE BEDFORD SQUIRREL. Nov. 16, 1795. 

DUKB OP BEDFORD. FOX. 

On the political influence exerted by Fox over Francis, 
Duke of Bedford, who had become one of the most 
zealous of the popular party. 

137. 

RETRIBUTION— TARRING AND FEATHERING; 
OR, THE PATRIOT^S REVENGE. 

November 26th, 1795. 

SHERIDAN. PITT. FOX. 

On the opposition to the Bill against Seditious Meetings, 
and the rough manner in which the Whigs in Parliament 
treated the Minister. It is hardly necessary to point out 
the sort of tar with which the two leaders of the popular 
party are tarring and feathering their grand opponent. 

138. 
HANGING. DROWNING. November 9th, 1795. 

FOX. PITT. DUNDAS. 

Another allusion to the love of the two Ministers for 
the bottle. It represents the different feelings with which 
different parties in this country were supposed to have 
looked upon the decline of Republican principles in 
France at this time. 

139. 

THE CROWN AND ANCHOR LIBEL BURNT BY 
THE PUBLIC HANGMAN. Nov. 28th, 1795. 

JOHN REEVE. PITT. SHERIDAN. SR8EINE. FOX. 

^4^ *'^® centre of this print, it will be seen, is No Lords, 



POLITICAL SERIES. 71 

no Commons^ no Parliament^ damn the Bevolution^ and 
the Royal Stamp. 

While the Ministers were exulting in their triumphant 
majorities^ during the progress of the passing the Treason 
and Sedition BiUs^ an incident occurred which not a little 
discomposed their satisfaction. On the 23rd of November^ 
the day appointed for the second reading of the bill against 
Seditious Meetings^ Mr. Sturt rose and claimed precedence 
to lay before the House a gross breach of privilege^ and a 
libel^ which struck at the very roots of the constitution. 
He held in his hand a pamphlet^ written by John Beeves^ 
Esq., a well-known agent and supporter of Ministers^ a 
gentleman who held a place under Government^ and was 
chairman qf the Ijoyal Association^ held at the Grown and 
Anchor, for bringing to punishment the authors of Hbels 
and the attendants at seditious meetings. The pamphlet 
was entitled, " Thoughts on the English Government/' 
from which he would read the following passages — ''With 
the exception of the advice and consent of the two Houses 
of Parliament, and the interposition of juries, the Govern- 
ment and the Administration rest wholly and solely on the 
King and those appointed by him. In fine the Govern- 
ment of England is a monarchy. The monarchy is the 
ancient stock from which have sprung those goodly 
branches of the legislature, the Lords and Commons, that 
at the same time give ornament to the tree, and afford 
shelter to those who seek protection under it. But these 
are still only branches, and derive their origin and nutri- 
ment from their common parent. They may be lopped off, 
and the tree is a tree still, shorn indeed of its honours, but 
not like them, cast into the fire. The Kingly Oovemment 
may go on in all its functions unthout Lords or Commons, as 
it has heretofore done for years together, and in our times 
it does so during every recess of Parliament, but without 
the King the Parliament is no more.^' He was surprised 
that " at the Whig Club, gentlemen of liberal education, 
acknowledged taste, and high station in society, should so 



72 gillray's caricatures. 

often allude to the Revolution. The mention of the Re- 
volution could not sound very grateful to the royal ear.'* 
Mr. Pitt avowed the passages read could not be justified, 
but before he could form a decisive judgment, he must 
read the whole, and examine the context. Windham also 
admitted the improper tendency of the extracts, but fancied 
the real cause of offence was the loyal conduct of Mr. 
Reeves in his praiseworthy attempts to put down sedition. 
A Member proposed the libel should be burned by the 
common hangman. The debate was adjourned to the 
26th, and on its resumption it was ordered to be prosecuted 
by the Attorney-General, as a gross and scandalous libel. 
Chagrined, but not dismayed, by this contre tcmpa, Pitt 
then moved the second reading of the obnoxious bill 
against Seditious Meetings. 

The Whig Club had held an extraordinary meeting at 
the Crown and Anchor, November 11, and passed a series 
of resolutions, strongly condemning the arbitrary enact- 
ments of the two bills, and recommendinjg the people to 
meet and petition against them. This appeal was enthu- 
siastically responded to throughout the kingdom. 

140. 
THE DEATH OF THE GREAT WOLF. 

December nth, 1795. 

SIB C. LONG AND BROTHER. LOUOnBOROUGH. MARQUIS OP 
BUCKINGHAM. WYNDHAM. BURKE. PITT. PEPPER ARDEN. 
LANSDOWNE. DUNDAS. WILBERFORCE. D. OP RICHMOND. 

A parody on West^s picture of the Death of Wolfe. On 
the attack upon Pitt, in the House of Commons, in the 
December of 1795, on the occasion of the Estimates. The 
dying hero (Pitt) is supported by Dundas, who offers him 
a farewell glass ; and by Burke, whose '^ Reflections*' are 
now upon his pension. The Chancellor figures as a Mo- 
hawk savage. Sir C. Long and his brother, as the two 
runners: Lord Grenville, supported by Wyndham: old 



* POLITICAL SERIES. 73 

Pepper Arden, known by his nose and wig ; and Wil- 
berforce and Richmond (the latter carrying his leathern 
ordnance on his back), a weeping couple ; are all easily 
recognized. 

141. 
THE ROYAL BULLFIGHT. November 2l8t, 1795. 

PITT. LANSDOWNE. POX. SHERIDAN. GEORGE III. 

DERBY. STANHOPE, &C. 

Pitt, mounted on the Hanoverian Horse, is again en- 
countering the British Bull, which he has already severely 
wounded. An allusion to the fierce Parliamentary debates 
of the November of 1795. The King and Royal Family 
occupy the upper row of seats, while the features of the 
Opposition Members are traced indistinctly in those 
below. The satire is explained by the inscription at the 
foot of the plate. 

142. 

THE PRESENT ATIPN ; OR, THE WISE MEN'S 
OFFERING. January 9th, 1796. 

FOX. SHERIDAN. PBINCE OF WALES. 

On the birth of the Princess Charlotte, which took 
place on the 7th of January, 1796. 

143. 
A HACKNEY MEETING. February Ist, 1796. 

POX. BYNG. MAINWARING. 

Never during the reign of George III. not even during 
the American or French wars, were the public meetings 
80 universal, and so respectably attended, as against the 
two bills for the protection of the King's person, and 
against Seditious Meetings, passed by Ministers in con- 
sequence of the outrage against the King at the opening 



74 OILLRiY^S CAEICATURES. 

of Parliament in October, 1795. The restrictions as 
originally proposed were so stringent, that a meeting even 
in a private house, exceeding fifty, could not take place 
without giving notice to a magistrate, who might attend 
if ho thought proper, and at his pleasure order the meeting 
to disperse, and any person not obeying was to be guilty 
of felony. The Sheriff of Middlesex summoned the free- 
holders to assemble at the Mermaid, at Hackney, on 
November 21, but the house could not contain a third of 
the number assembled, and they adjourned to the green 
adjoining the house. The Duke of Norfolk opened the 
proceedings, and told the meeting they must not be mis- 
led by the specious titles of the bills, '' 1 dare say, if the 
High Priest of the Spanish Inquisition was to come 
among us to introduce his system of inquisition here, he 
would call it an act for the better support and protection 
of religion ; but we have understandings that are not to 
be deceived in this way.*' The meeting returned thanks 
to Mr. Byng for his opposition to the measure, and ordered 
their petition to be presented by both their Members. 
Mainwaring, the ministerial Member, candidly stated in the 
House of Commons, that the meeting was most numerously 
and respectably attended, and that the requisition to the 
Sheriff had been " signed by three Dukes, one Marquis, 
two Earls, and several most respectable freeholders.'' 

144. 

PITY THE SORROWS OF A POOR OLD MAN. 

February 26th, 1796. 

BUREE. DUEB OF BEDFORD. 

A view of the entrance to Bedford House, which for- 
merly stood in Bloomsbury Square. The Duke had made 
some strong observations in the House of Lords on what 
the Whigs considered as Burke^s apostasy from his party, 
which produced a printed letter addressed by the old 
Jesuit, as the Caricaturist termed him, to the Duke, in 



POLITICAL SERIES. 7o 

his own exculpation, in which he made a strong appeal to 
his former friendship with his uncle, Lord Keppel. This 
caricature alludes to a construction put upon the letter by 
some of Burke's enemies. 

145. 
THE DOG TAX. April 12th, 1 796. 

SHERIDAN. FOX. PITT. DUNDAS. 

The dog-tax was one of the novelties of the year 1796, 
and was the subject of much complaint and satire in and 
out of Parliament. It was proposed by Mr. Dent, the 
banker, and celebrated book collector, in a speech so re- 
plete with bitterness against the nuisance of dogs, that 
"Windham declared he could almost fancy ActaBon was 
revived, and revenging his injuries by a ban against the 
whole canine race. Dent ever after went by the sobri- 
quet of Dog Dent. 

The distinction between the dogs which were to pay 
the tax, and those which were to be exempt, was especially 
a subject for jokes. Gillray has here given us his picture 
of the dogs which were to bo paid for by the public, and 
those which were '' not paid for.'' The two Ministers 
were, in fact, expensive dogs. 

146. 
DEMOCRATIC LEVELLING; ALLIANCE A LA 
FRANCOISE; OR, THE UNION OP THE 
CORONET AND CLYSTER-PIPE. March 4th, 1796. 

lARL STANHOPE. HIS DAUGHTER. POX. MB. TATLOB. 

SHEBIDAN. 

This print may seem at first sight a cruel invasion of the 
privacy of domestic life, and to exceed even the bounds 
usually allowed to caricaturists. But the extraordinary 
violence of Lord Stanhope's political conduct justified the 
severity of the satire. Lord Stanhope had become Presi- 
dent of the Revolution Society, and in his speech, in the 
House of Lords, April 4, 1 794, quoted nearly the whole of 



76 oillbay's caricatures. 

the eighth cliapter of the First Book of Samuel, in order 
to prove that kings were considered by the sacred writers, 
and by God himself, as a curse upon mankind. He de- 
clared again on May 2, in the House of Lords, that he 
was a Jacobin. On all occasions he professed such utter dis- 
regard for the mere distinctions of rank, that he was 
satirized by the Tories as the very ne phis ultra of Sans- 
culottes, in which character he is here represented. Fox 
and Sheridan are introduced as the officiating ministers 
in this republican alliance. 

The real facts of the case respecting the marriage are — 
Lord Stanhope's daughter. Lady Lucy E4ichael, eloped 
with Mr. Thomas Taylor, the family apothecary, residing 
at Seven Oaks, Kent. Her father, notwithstanding the 
levelling principles he professed, refused to be recon- 
ciled to her. Her uncle, Mr. Pitt, requested Mr. Taylor 
to relinquish his business; and gave him a place under 
Government. Lord Chatham also countenanced his niece 
and her husband. He appointed their eldest son, William 
Stanhope Taylor, one of his executors, who, in conse- 
quence, came into possession, and edited in conjunction 
with Captain Pringle, the interesting Correspondence of 
the great Earl of Chatham, 4 vols. 8vo. 

Mr. Pitt, on his death-bed being asked by the Bishop 
of Lincoln (Dr. Tomline), if he had any wish to express, 
adverted in his reply to his three nieces, the daughters of 
the Earl of Stanhope, by his eldest sister, for whom he 
had always manifested the sincerest aflfection, he said, '* I 
could wish a thousand or fifteen hundred a-year to be 
given them, if the public should think my long services 
deserving of it.^^ Parliament voted £40,000 for the 
payment of his debts, and George III. granted an annuity 
of £1200 to the nieces. Lady Lucy Rachael died in the 
year 1814, and wo see by the Report on Pensions made 
to the House of Commons in 1838, an annuity of £100 
was granted to each of her seven sons. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 77 



147. 

THE GENERA OF PATRIOTISM ; OR, THE 
BLOOMSBURY FARMER PLANTING BED- 
FORDSHIRE WHEAT. February ird, 1796. 

DUKE OP BEDFORD. SHERIDAN. POX. LORD LAUDERDALE. 

The Duke of Bedford, the Republican farmer, is sowing 
his fields with gold, which, under the genial rays of the 
sun of Democracy (Fox), is growing up into French 
bonnefs-rouges and Jacobin daggers. The lightning of 
ministerial influence appears to be destroying the crop. 
Fox smiles at the influence which he is said to have 
exerted over the Duke's gold, which was believed to be 
expended rather lavishly in supporting his party. Sheri- 
dan drives the plough, while Lord Lauderdale urges on 
John Bull here yoked to it. 

148. 

JOHN BULL AND HIS DOG FAITHFUL. 

April 20th, 1797. 

PITT. FOX. JOHN BULL. SHERIDAN. GREY. 

John Bull, by taxes, loans, and a variety of other mis- 
haps, into which fche dog (Pitt) to whose guidance he has 
intrusted himself has led him, is reduced to a very lament- 
able condition, and is sorely persecuted. Fox is the dog 
licensed to bark at the '' faitiif uP' leader ; Sheridan, the 
dog licensed to bite, has seized the wrong leg ; and Mr. 
Grey (the Greyhound), seems to harbour a design against 
his garments. Blind John is walking very near the edge 
of a precipice. The expenses of Government were 
obliged to be met by a heavy loan, one of those which 
contributed to John Bull's back the overwhelming 
national debt. 



78 gillray's caricatures. 



149. 

THE WINE DUTY; OR, T^E TRIUMPH OP 
BACCHUS AND SILBNUS; WITH JOHN 
BULL^S REMONSTRANCE. April 20th, 1796. 

DDNDAS. PITT. JOHN BULL. 

A parody on a well-known picture. The necessities of 
tlie year 1796 gave rise to many expedients for multiply- 
ing taxes ; and John Bull seemed destined to be deprived 
of all the enjoyments of life to satisfy his two jovial 
Ministers. The love of Pitt and Dundas for the juice of 
the grape was proverbial. 

150. 

THE DISSOLUTION; OR, THE ALCHTMIST 
PRODUCING AN -^THERIAL REPRESENTA- 
TION. May2l8t, 1796. 

PITT. 

On the intention to dissolve Parliament, announced in 
the Speech from the Throne which closed the Session of 
1796. Pitt, the political Alchymist, with his Treasury 
coals (the gold of the nation), and his royal alembic, is 
dissolving one Parliament (where there is opposition) to 
produce another which will bo more subservient to him. 
He is seated on one of his own new barracks, the subject 
of some warm debates in the Parliament which was now 
to be dissolved. 

151. 
THE HUSTINGS. May 21st, 1796. 

FOX. 

One of the popular questions of which it was protended 
Fox would take advantage on the hustings at the new 
elections. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 79 



152. 

THE DAILY ADVERTISER. January 23rd, 1797. 

pitt's head. pox. 

Fox travestied into a newsman, brings melancholy in- 
telligence. The satire is founded on one of Dundas's 
speeches in the House of Commons, in which he made a 
rather bitter reply to the popular orator's attacks upon 
Ministers, and characterized him sneeringly as a ^^ Daily 
Advertiser.'' The Daily Advertiser was at this time one 
of the Opposition papers. 

153. 

A PROOF OF THE REFINED FEELINGS OF 
AN AMIABLE CHARACTER, LATELY A 
CANDIDATE FOR A CERTAIN ANCIENT 
CITY. no date, {circa 1780-1) 

On the left of the print is a gentleman with a horse- 
whip in his right hand; with his left he has hold of 
the ear of a lady, whose bonnet and feathers he has 
knocked off, and is threatening to horsewhip. He is say* 
ing, " Pro Bono Patri^ -/' on his left is a man calling out, 
" I'll support you.'' On the right of the print the clergy 
in canonicals are drawn up, shocked at the violence of the 
proceeding. A cathedral is seen shadowed at a distance. 

This evidently alludes to some election squabble in a 
cathedral city. The lady was probably an active can- 
vasser for the rival candidate. 

We have made extensive inquiries respecting this 
spirited print, but we have not been able to obtain even a 
Burmise of the person alluded to. In the absence of all 
positive information, we will ourselves hazard a conjec- 
ture. Whoever the person was, he must have been 
eccentric, a sportsman, and a representative or candidate 

6 



80 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

for a cathedral city. These three characteristics were 
combined in the person of Mr. Charles Turner, created a 
baronet by the Marquis of Rockingham in 1782. He 
represented the city of York in Parliament from 1768 till 
his death in October, 1783. Sir N. Wraxall, who sat in 
the House of Commons with him, describes him *' as one 
of the most eccentric men who ever sat in Parliament.'' 
'' Sir Charles had many peculiarities of character, dress, 
language, and deportment, in all which he was truly 
original. He never wore any coat, except one of a green 
colour, with tally-ho buttons, for he was a decided sports- 
man.'' (See Wraxall's Historical Memoirs, vol. 3, p. 24.) 
When Coke of Norfolk, in February, 1782, brought in a 
Bill for the revisal of the Grame Laws with a view to pre- 
vent poaching, Sir C. Turner stigmatized the whole code of 
Gkme Laws as tyrannical and disgraceful to the country. 
'^ If I had been a poor man, I am convinced that I should 
have been a poacher, in defiance of the laws. I wish to 
Bee the Game Laws revised, and stripped of more than 
half their severity. My wish, nevertheless, is by no 
means an interested one ; for every shilling I possess is in 
land, and I am a sportsman as well as other gentlemen." 
(Ibid. vol. 3, page 25.) On the 7th of May, 1782, Pitt 
brought forward his motion for Parliamentary Reform. 
"Sawbridge seconded, and Sheridan supported Pitt's 
motion ; but Sir Charles Turner, by his originality, and 
blunt simplicity of diction, as well as of sentiment, 
attracted more attention than either the one or the other. 
He said, in his opinion, the House of Commons might be 
justly considered as a parcel of thieves, who having stolen 
an estate, were apprehensive of allowing any person to 
see their title deeds, from the fear of again losing it by 
'ch an inspection." (Vol. 8, p. 84.) 
Oi the E(oya)l R(egiste)r, a satirical work written by 
Fox w, author of the Diaboliad, Dr. Syntax's Tour, &c. 
electiois character is thus drawn. ''Mr. C T 



POLITICAL SERIES. 81 

is the Marplot of his own party, and in his Parliamentary 
capacity demands the pity of his friends, the contempt of 
the wise, and makes himself a laufs^hing-stock for the 
crowd/' (Royal Register, vol. 7, p. 129.) 

The Gentleman's Magazine, in recording his death on 
the 23rd of October, 1 783, says, " of whom more shall be 
said hereafter.'' But we have not been able to trace any 
farther notice of him in that valuable repository. 

154. 

THE CANEING IN CONDUIT STREET; DEDI- 
CATED TO THE FLAG OFFICERS OF THE 
BRITISH NAVY. October Ist, 1796. 

LOED CAJCKLPORD. CAPTAIN VANCOUVER'S BBOTHBB. 

CAPTAIN VANCOUVER. 

On an attack made by Lord Camelford upon Captain 
Vancouver, under whom he had served in the Navy, and 
on whom, meeting him accidentally in Conduit Street^ he 
thus retaliated for the severity he had experienced from 
him when under his command. There are in the carica- 
ture various insinuations against the Captain's probity. 

Lord Camelford was bom February 26, 1775. In his 
spirit and temper, when a boy, there appeared something 
which, though vigorous and manly, was peculiar and un- 
manageable. In compliance with a predilection of his own, 
he was suffered, at an early age, to enter the royal navy as 
a midshipman. Being a seaman of an extremely adven- 
turous spirit, he, by his eager choice, accompanied the late 
Captain Vancouver in the Discovery, in a part of his 
voyage round the worlds In consequence of his refractori- 
ness and disobedience of orders, he put Captain Vancouver 
to the necessity of treating him with a severity of disci- 
pline, which he could not endure. 

He accordingly quitted the Discovery in the Indian Seas, 
and entered on board the Resistance, commanded by Sir 

6 * 



82 gillray's caricatures. 

Edward Pakenham, by whom he was appointed lieutenant. 
During his absence from England his father died, and he 
consequently succeeded to the title and family estates. On 
his return home, in October, 1 796, he sent a challenge to 
Captain Vancouver " for the ungentlemanlike treatment'* 
he alleged he had received while under his command. The 
Captain replied, that his Lordship's misbehaviour had 
obliged him to resort to the measures of which he com- 
plained, and that the steps he had taken were absolutely 
necessary for the preservation of discipline. At the same 
time, the Captain oflTered to submit the business '' to any 
one officer, and if it should be considered that he was 
accountable to Lord Camelford, as a private gentleman, for 
such official conduct towards him, he would not hesitate a 
single moment to give the required satisfaction.'' This 
method of settling the dispute was by no means congenial 
to the fiery disposition of Lord Camelford, who now 
threatened the Captain with personal chastisement. Nor 
was it long before an opportunity presented itself for the 
execution of his menace. Captain Vancouver, finding his 
offer of a reference rejected, and himself threatened with 
personal insult, felt himself compelled to have recourse to 
the laws of his country for protection, and for this purpose 
was on his way to the Lord Chancellor's Office, accom- 
panied by his brother, Mr. Charles Vancouver, when he 
was met by Lord Camelford, in Conduit Street, who aimed 
several blows of his cane at him, which were averted by 
his brother. The insult being thus offered. Lord Camel- 
ford retired. This occurrence is said to have pressed on 
the spirits of that meritorious officer, and to have hastened 
his death, which took place on May 10, 1798. 

It would be extremely unjust to the memoiy of Captain 
Vancouver to attach the slightest imputation of cowardice 
to his refusal of the challenge of Lord Camelford. He 
only acted in conformity with the regulations of the 
service. Many distinguished officers have done precisely 



POLITICAL SERIES. 83 

the same. No one ever questioned the personal courage 
of Earl St. Vincent. When he commanded the fleet 
blockading Cadiz^ in 1798, the Prince George launch 
was captured. He immediately issued a general order, 
stating that, '^ It was painful to him to pass censure on 
many of the officers who commanded the gun-boats this 
morning, and recommended that the Captains should send 
no one on that important service but such as were of ap- 
proved firmness/^ Rear- Admiral Sir J. Orde considered 
this to convey a censure on two of his Lieutenants, Dufiey 
and Nowell, and required a modification of the order, or 
that they should be brought to a Court Martial. A pe- 
remptory refusal was given. Other circumstances excited 
the irritability of Sir J. Orde. Finally, Lord St. Vincent 
dispatched Sir Horatio Nelson (afterwards Lord Nelson) 
on the Nile expedition. Sir J. Orde indignantly remon- 
strated against the appointment of an officer who was his 
junior. Earl St. Vincent replied, that as ho was respon- 
sible for the conduct of the squadron, it was only 
reasonable he should nominate the officer who enjoyed his 
confidence, that his plans would be carried into complete 
execution. On Lord St. Vincent^s return to England, in 
1799, Sir J. Orde sent Captain Walrond with a challenge 
to him ; but he declined by letter, " on the ground of not 
being personally responsible for his public measures.^' 
See Captain Brenton's Life of Earl St. Vincent, vol. i. 
p. 374 to 409. 

Lord Camelford fell a victim to his own impetuosity in 
the 29th year of his age. He received a mortal wound on 
the 7th of March, 1804, in a duel he had provoked with 
Captain Best. He would have died unregretted, being 
considered overbearing and insulting in his general con- 
duct ; but on opening his will, two codicils were found 
written with his own hand the night before the fatal duel; 
the one evincing a generous feeling towards his antagonist, 
the other marking the eccentricity and waywardness of 



84 QILLBAY^S CARICATURES. 

mind^ which perhaps unconsciously influenced many of 
his actions. " In the present contest I am fully and 
entirely the aggressor, as well in the spirit as the letter of 
the word ; should I therefore lose my life in a contest of 
my own seeking, I most solemnly forbid any of my friends, 
or relations, let them be of whatever description, from in- 
stituting auy vexatious proceeding against my antagonist; 
and should, notwithstanding the above declaration on my 
part, the law of the land be put in force against him, I 
desire that this part of my will may be made known to the 
King, in order that his royal heart may be moved to ex- 
tend his mercy towards him/' 

" I wish my body to be removed as soon as may be 
convenient to a country far distant, to a spot not near the 
haunts of men, but where the surrounding scenery may 
smile upon my remains. It is situated on the banks of 
St. Lampierre, in the Canton of Berne, and three trees 
stand on the particular spot. The centre tree to be taken 
up, and my body being there deposited, immediately re- 
placed.^' He leaves £1000 to the proprietors of the spot 
described. He desires his relations will not go into 
mourning for him. 

155. 
PROMISED HORRORS OF THE FRENCH IN- 
VASION; OR, FORCIBLE REASONS FOB 
NEGOCIATING A REGICIDE PEACE. 

October 20th, 11^6. 

THE PRINCE AND HIS BROTHERS. JENKINSON AND CANNING. 

FOX. M. A. TAYLOR. PITT. THBLWALL. LORD 

GRENVILLE. DUKK OF BEDFORD (Bull). BURKE. ERSKINI. 
DUKE OF ORAFTON. MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE. DUKE OF 
NORFOLK. LORD DERBY. DUKE OF RICHMOND'S HEAD. 

LORD LAUDERDALE. LORD STANHOPE. CARU8LE. PEPPER 
ARDEN. HEAD OF WINDHAM. SHERIDAN. HEAD OF 

DUNDAS. 

The threats of a French invasion became serious in the 



POLITICAL SERIES. 83 

year 1796, and caused mucli alarm throughout the coun- 
try. In this animated picture, the horrors of the French 
Revolution are parodied on a rather extensive scale. The 
Whigs are taking full revenge on their Tory rivals. Fox 
is scourging Pitt. The Bedfordshire ox (the Duke of Bed- 
ford), urged on by the Radical Thelwall, is tossing Burke ; 
while Lord Stanhope, behind him, is balancing the head 
of Lord Grenville against his more bulky part. At 
Brookes's, the Whig club-house, there is rejoiciug — Derby, 
Norfolk, and Grafton, are exulting at the scene before 
them ; Lansdowne, in command of the guillotine, holds 
forth in triumph the Chancellor's wig, while Erskine 
exhibits on a platter the heads of Lord Sydney, Wind- 
ham, and Pepper Arden. Sheridan, below, is taking 
shelter in the grand nest of Whiggery, with what he has 
plundered from the treasury. The scene at White's, on 
the other side, is of a different character. The Hevo- 
lutionists have forced their way in ; they are tossing the 
murdered Princes from the balcony ; the B. 0. table and 
the cards are broken and scattered ; Jenkinson (afterwards 
Lord Hawkesbury) and Canning are suspended to the 
lamp ; and we see the head of Richmond floating down 
the gutter of blood. Little M. A. Taylor struts between 
the legs of Fox, as a bantam cock, on the fatal axe. 
Other allusions explain themselves. In the distance is 
seen St. Jameses Palace in flames. 

156. 
GLORIOUS RECEPTION OF THE AMBASSADOR 
OF PEACE, ON HIS ENTRY INTO PARIS. 

October 28th, 1796. 

LORD MALMESBUBY. 

In the autumn of 1796, a general wish for peace pre- 
vailed throughout the country. The arms of France were 
triumphant in Italy and Germany, and the whole conti- 
nent of Europe was awed by the successful progress of 
her generals. In England, the commercial interest had 



86 gillray's caricatures. 

suffered by the depression of trade^ and tlie other classes 
of society felt the unusual weight of the increased taxation. 
To appease the spreading dissatisfaction^ Mr. Pitt deter- 
mined to open a negotiation for peace with the Republic 
of France, by which, either a satisfactory peace might be 
obtained, or the nation reconciled to the continuance of 
the war. The Portland party in the Cabinet was adverse 
to any overtures being made, and predicted a failure from 
the arrogance of the enemy, inflamed by their recent suc- 
cesses. Mr. Burke enforced these views by his '' Letters 
on a Regicide Peace,'' a work exhibiting all the mighty 
powers of his splendid genius, combining every topic 
which argument, wit, eloquence, and rhetorical skill, could 
suggest to shame his countrymen out of the unworthy 
fears occasioned by the reverses of the war, and to stimu- 
late them to new exertions. He did not disguise, nor 
gloss over the difficulties of the crisis, nor the disasters of 
our allies. He freely admitted the calamitous events which 
had followed one upon another in a long, unbroken^ 
funereal train. He saw in these, however, only additional 
motives to more vigorous exertions. Austria was defeated^ 
but not dispirited, and was prepared to renew the contest 
with increased energy, and the determination of a people 
fighting for their independence. Mr. Pitt's resolution to 
negotiate was unshaken, and Lord Malmesbury was sent 
as ambassador to Paris. He arrived at Calais on the 21st 
of October, and was courteously received by the consti- 
tuted authorities. As he passed through the towns and 
villages, the inhabitants generally expressed hopes that his 
mission would terminate successfully, and such seemed to 
be the general sentiments. "At Bvreux (a post on the 
English side of St. Denis), a deputation from the Pois- 
sardes, and another from the Miisique et Tambours du 
Directoire, as they styled themselves. They opened the 
carriage doors; the Poissardos made a speech in their 
way, and gave mc nosegays, * en attendant dcs Lauriers,' 



POLITICAL SERIES. 87 

as they said^ and ended by embracing me and my com- 
panion.* The musicians were equally violent, but both 
ended by asking for money.*' — Lord Mahnesbury's Diary, 
vol. iii. p. 268. 

''At Ecouen,t a deputation from the Poissardes of 
Paris, and another from the National Music (to use their 
own method of styling themselves) met me. They pre- 
sented me with nosegays, and insisted on embracing me 
and my companions. They, and the musical deputation, 
vied with each other in their wishes for my success ; 
but as they both ended by asking for money, their sin- 
cerity may justly be questioned.'' — Diary, vol. iii. p. 271. 

Lord Malmesbury reached Paris, October 22. The next 
day he writes to Lord Grenville : — '' My coming into 
Paris was attended with nothing remarkable. I was suf- 
fered to drive very quietly through the streets to my hotel, 
and have been allowed to remain in it very quietly since 
my arrival." Delacroix, Minister for Foreign Affairs, was 
the person appointed by the Directory to conduct the 
negotiation with the English ambassador. The reader of 
the present day will be amused, and perhaps surprised, by 
the subjoined extracts from Lord Malmesbury's first de- 
spatches to Lord Grenville. He really seems to have 
thought that the Republican minister must necessarily be 
a man of ferocious manners, unacquainted with the usages 
of polished society, or diplomatic etiquette ; for he thinks 
it necessary to introduce into his public despatches the 
following paragraph : — " I went to M. Delacroix at the 
appointed hour. He received me as I have always been 
received before under the same circumstances, and gave 
me the upper place in the room." — Lord Malmeshwry's 
Diary, vol. iii p. 272. 

Again: — "I went to him dressed in His Majesty's 
uniform. He appeared to have taken as much pains to 

* George Ellis, Esq. 

t A small town, twelve miles distant from Paris. 



88 OILLRAT^S CABICATUBES. 

be well dressed^ as a man at his time of life^ and in the 
present fashion of his country, could do/* — "There 
cannot, however, be a doubt, that he was ordered to re- 
ceive me in the manner he did, which was unexcep- 
tionable/* — ^Vol. iii. p. 274. It is only necessary to add, 
that the negotiation dragged on for about two months, 
when Delacroix peremptorily insisted on Lord Malmesbury 
delivering in his ultimatum. Lord Malmesbury requested 
first to communicate with his own Government. M. 
Delacroix, thereupon, sent his passport, with orders to 
quit Paris within forty-eight hours, as he seemed only a 
passive agent, and not furnished with sufficient powers to 
bring the treaty to a termination. 

157. 

OPENING OP THE BUDGET; OR, JOHN BULL 
GIVING HIS BREECHES TO SAVE HIS 
BACON. November 1 7 th, 1 796. 

FOX. JOHN BULL. PITT. BUBEE. LORD GRENVILLE. 

DUNDAS. 

On the heavy taxation of the year 1796, and the demand 
for voluntary contributions, which were forced from poor 
John Bull by the continued alarm of a French invasion. 
Dundas, Grenville, and Burke, are busy helping them- 
selves, while Fox, excluded from his share in the regular 
way, is calling in the assistance of his friends, the Sans- 
culottes of France, who were supposed to be preparing 
their invasion at Brest. 

158. 

BEGGING NO ROBBERY; i.e. VOLUNTARY 
CONTRIBUTION; OR, JOHN BULL ESCAPING 
A FORCED LOAN. Deceinher lOih, 1796. 

JOHN BULL. PITT. BUBKE. LORD GRENVILLE. DUNDAS. 

Another caricature on the voluntary loan, and other 



POLITICAL SERIES. 89 

methods of raising the revenue. It is a parodj on a well- 
known scene in Gil Bias. The trio of banditti, Dondas, 
Grenville, and Burke, who were the great supporters of 
the cry of alarm which terrified John Bull into parting 
quietly with his money, are bravely supporting their chief. 
As this is the last time the name of Burke occurs in the 
series of Gillray^s Prints, we are persuaded our readers 
will be gratified by the insertion of the following extract 
of a private letter from Canning to his friend George 
Ellis, dated 13th July, 1797, announcing the death of 
Burke. ''Burke is dead. It is of a piece with the 
peddling sense of these days that it should be determined 
to be imprudent for the House of Commons to vote him 
a monument. He is the man that will mask this age, 
marked as it is in itself by events to all times.'' Fox in 
the debate on the Quebec Bill on May 6, 1791, having 
lamented in the most affecting terms his difierence with 
Burke, '* his Master, for so he was proud to call him,'' 
thus speaks of the advantages he had derived from his 
association with this wonderful man : '' That all he ever 
knew of men, that all he ever read in books, that all his 
reasoning faculties informedt him of, or his fancy sug- 
gested to him, did not give him that exalted knowledge, 
that superior information, which he derived from the 
instructions, and learned from the conversation of his 
Bight Hon. Friend. To him he owed all his fame, if 
&me he had any." 

159. 
END OF THE IRISH INVASION ; OR, THE DE- 
STRUCTION OF THE FRENCH ARMADA. 

January 20th, 1 797. 

PITT. DUNDAS. GBENVILLE. WINDHAM. FOX. SHERIDAN. 
DB. LAWRENCE. BRSEINE. HALL. M. A. TATLOB. THEWLALL. 

On the French expedition to Bantry Bay, at the end of 
1 796. Pitt, Dundas, Qronville, and Windham are the four 



90 gillray's caricatures. 

winds which blow up the storm to destroy the invaders. 
Fox, as the carved figure at the head of the Revolution, 
is represented as influencing the United Irishmen. The 
crew of the jolly-boat are Sheridan, Liberty Hall, Erskine, 
M. A. Taylor, and Thelwall, who, it is insinuated, were all 
approvers, at least, of the Irish rebellion. 

160. 
THE GIANT FACTOTUM AMUSING HIMSELF. 

January 21«f, 1797. 

PITT. CANNING. WILBERFORCI. DUNDAS. ERSKINE. 

SHERIDAN. FOX. WINDHAM. II. A. TAYLOR. 

Pitt is seated with his legs astride the top of the 
Speaker's Chair. The air of consequence with which he 
sits is strongly depicted in his countenance, and through- 
out the whole figure. With his left foot he has crushed 
the Opposition. His right foot is supported by Dundas 
and Wilberforce, and is extended to be submissively 
kissed by the Ministerial followers, foremost of whom is 
Canning, who is pointed out to special notice by '* The 
Trial of Betty Canning*' hanging out of his pocket. Pitt 
is playing at cup and ball with his right hand. The 
ball is a globe to denote his influence over foreign 
countries, as well as at home. On his left side is a docu- 
ment labelled '^ Resources for supporting the War,'' with 
a collection of coin, evidently destined for foreign sub- 
sidies. On his right side are various of&cial returns of 
volunteers, seamen, regulars and militia. He is thus 
prepared to carry on the war abroad, and maintain tran- 
quilhty at home. 

161. 
THE LION'S SHARE. January 2nd, 1797. 

Sir John Jervis is seated at a table, contemplating 
" Hints on St. Eustatia Prize Money," borrowed from Sir 



POLITICAL SERIES. 91 

George Rodney's conduct in 1781, which he seems to pro- 
pose as a model for himself. He cannot raise his eyes 
without encountering the view of Martinique. Behind 
him is '^ St. Vincents.'^ The following narrative will 
illustrate the other allusions, and elucidate a transaction 
warmly canvassed at the period. 

In the latter part of the year 1793, the English Govern- 
ment decided upon sending an expedition to attack the 
French West India Islands, and reduce them to submis- 
sion. Sir John Jervis was appointed to command the 
naval force, and Sir Charles Grey received the command 
of the troops which accompanied it. The armament 
sailed from St. Helen's on the 26th of November; Mar- 
tinique was the first object of attack; a capitulation 
having been proposed to the inhabitants, but not acceded 
to, it was, after some resistance, carried in a gallant style. 
The neighbouring island of St. Lucia, about six leagues 
south of Martinique, was next assailed and captured. 
The surrender of Guadaloupe followed in April, and Great 
Britain was thus put in undisturbed possession of all the 
Leeward colonies. These triumphs accomplished, the Com- 
manders returned to England, and received the Thanks 
of the House of Commons on the 20th of May, 1794. 

The satisfaction, however, was of short duration. The 
West India Merchants accused the Commander-in-chief 
of having been guilty of most oppressive and tyrannical 
conduct towards the inhabitants of the conquered islands, 
and of having levied illegal and unheard-of contributions 
to gratify his avarice and enrich himself, contrary to the 
promises he had held out. At length on the second of 
June, 1795, Mr. Barham brought the subject before the 
House of Commons by a motion for the production of the 
proclamations issued at Martinique, " to levy a contribu- 
tion on the proprietors of the estates," or to use the un- 
precedented expression of one of them, '* to raise a sum of 
money adequate to the value of the conquest,'^ and for 



92 gillray's caricatures. 

this purpose requiring a specification of the property of 
the inhabitants^ and if not complied with^ to order and 
enforce a general confiscation/' Mr. Barham said^ that 
delay might be imputed to him in bringing forward his 
motion ; but he would anticipate and answer the objection 
by stating that application had been made to Ministers in 
August last^ but no answer obtained until April. He con- 
tended that the resistance made did not justify the severity 
practised at Martinique^ an islai\d strongly fortified and 
capable of the greatest resistance^ the contest lasted 
twenty-three days, and only eighty-four men were said to 
be lost. Guadaloupe held out for eight days^ St. Lucie 
three days, and was said to be taken without loss. Mr. 
Manning, an eminent West India merchant, seconded this 
motion, and attacked Sir J. Jervis with great asperity ; 
acquitting Sir Charles Grey of any intentional infliction of 
oppression. He arraigned the proceedings as contrary to 
the instructions given by Government, contrary to Act of 
Parliament, and contrary to the Law of Nations I The 
first instance of contribation had taken place at St. Lucia, 
a sum of three hundred thousand pounds was imposed, 
which was afterwards reduced to an hundred and fifty 
thousand pounds, of this only thirty thousand pounds 
had been levied, a plain proof that the original imposition 
was felt to be exorbitant. It had been said no com- 
plaints had been transmitted. The reason was obvious, 
no Notary could be found to draw up a remonstrance 
without the risk of being expelled from the islands. 

Mr. Grey (the son of Sir C. Grey) made a powerful 
reply. He insisted the Mover and Seconder had con- 
founded capitulation and conquest. The former was an 
arrangement made to avoid the necessity and sanguinary 
consequences of the latter, and if rejected, no claim could 
be preferred in mitigation to the conquerors. With re- 
spect to one Commander in whose conduct he was deeply 
interested (Sir C. Grey) and to whose character the Hon. 



; I 



POLITICAL SERIES. 93 

Mover had stated there did not exist the smallest reproach^ 
and whose conduct he attributed to inadvertence or mis- 
information^ he would only say if he did not absolutely 
reject praise from such a quarter, he considered it of no 
value. It had been broadly stated, that every thing done 
at St. Eustatia in the former war had been done in the 
late expedition, and if Mr. Burke had continued a Member 
of the House, that Gentleman would have denounced it 
with the same indignation ; but he ought to have recol- 
lected that Mr. Burke had subsequently declared, if he 
could find a bald spot on the head of Lord Rodney, he 
would cover it with laurel. With respect to the proclama- 
tion, he would not deny it was carelessly worded ; as soon 
as the Commander-in-chief found it was considered oppres- 
sive, he had himself annulled it — it had never been acted 
on, and it had been disavowed by the Secretary of State. 
Mr. Secretary Dundas most ably vindicated the proceed- 
ings of the Commanders. '^ With regard to the easiness 
of the conquest, he differed widely from those who seemed 
to underrate the value of the services performed, and he 
contended that the resistance which the British forces met 
with fully justified every proceeding that had taken place." 
He asked, " Did what had taken place at St. Vincent's 
proceed from these proclamations, or was it not from the 
insurrection of the Caribs, aided by Jacobin principles, 
that devastation had followed in that island ?" He then 
moved the previous question, which was carried by sixty- 
seven against seventeen. Not content with this, Mr. 
Dundas rendered the triumphs of the Commanders still 
more complete by immediately moving, *^ That this House 
retains the cordial sense, which they have already expressed 
in their Vote of 20th May, 1 794, of the distinguished 
merit and services of Sir Charles Grey and Sir John Jervis 
in the conquest of the French West India Islands/' See 
Hansard's Debates, Vol. 32, p. 54 to 74. Captain Bren- 
ton's Life of Earl St. Vincent, and GifTord's Life of Pitt. 



94 oillray's caricaturks. 

This repetition of a Vote of Thanks was indeed a triumph^ 
there was no precedent for it in the annals of Parliament, 
and none has ever since occurred. 

The Corporation of London voted the Freedom of the 
City to these eminent Commandei's^ which was presented 
to them by the Chamberlain (Wilkes), who addressed them 
in an elegant speech^ concluding with these words, ** Per- 
mit, Gentlemen, the City wreaths to be mixed with the 
laurels you have &irly won, and which a general applause 
must more and more endear to you. These sentiments of 
gratitude pervade the country in which we Hve, while they 
animate the metropolis of our empire. They give a fuU 
indemnity against the slanderous breath of envy, and the 
foul calumnies of the envenomed serpent-tongue of 
malice, which in these latter times has scarcely ceased to 
detract from and endeavour to wound superior merit.*' 
See Chamock's Biographia Navalis, vol. 6. p. 412. 

162. 
THE TREE OF LIBERTY MUST BE PLANTED 
IMMEDIATELY. February llth, 1797. 

FOX. THELWALL. LAUDERDALE. BRSEINE. WILKES. 

LORD DERBY. HORNE TOOKE. H. A. TAYLOR. COL. HANQEE. 
LORD STANHOPE. SHERIDAN. 

The heads of the Opposition cut off, as the only measure, 
According to the violent Tories, which would insure the 
salvation of the country. 

163. 
THE REPUBLICAN HERCULES DEFENDING 
HIS COUNTRY. February \\)th, 1797. 

POX. 

Upon the declaration of Fox, in his speeches at this 
time of threatened invasion, that, so far was he from 
wishing well to the enemies of his country, he would be 
one of the first to take up arms in its defence. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 



95 



164. 
THE NUPTIAL BOWER. February ISth, 1797. 

PITT. HON. GATHABIKS ISABELLA EDEN. 
POX, THE EVIL ONE, PEEPING AT THE CHABMS OP EDEN. 

Whoever is acquainted with the personal character of 
Mr. Pitt, only from the narrative of his biographers, will 
conclude that he was cold, stiflF, and unbending; " Indocilis 
privata loqui,*' incapable of descending from his dignity, 
and unwilling to indulge in the relaxation of familiar con- 
versation, and the pleasures of domestic life. He is here 
represented in a more amiable point of view, a successful 
suitor for the hand of a fair lady and conducting her to 
'' the nuptial bower.*' ^' The tattle of the town (says 
Burke in a letter to Mrs. Crewe, dated Dec. 27, 1796), is 
of a marriage between a daughter of Lord Auckland and 
Mr. Pitt, and that our statesman, our premier des hommes, 
will take his Eve from the Garden of Eden. It is lucky 
there is no serpent there, though plenty of fruit.'' (See 
Burke's Correspondence as published by Earl FitzwiUiam, 
vol. 4. p. 417). This rumour obtained belief not only 
among the public, but by his most intimate friends and 
relatives. Even his favourite niece, Lady Hester Stan- 
hope, who resided entirely with him, was fully impressed 
with a conviction of the truth of the report. She naturally 
wished to obtain a sight of her uncle's intended bride, 
but the lady will tell her own story more gracefully than 
we could hope to do. '^ Mr. Pitt loved ardently Lord 
A(uck]and)'s daughter. She was the only woman I could 
have wished him to marry. I had never seen her, and as 
she frequented Beckenham Church, I went on a visit to 
Mr. Grote's the banker to get a sight of her. I went to 
church with Mr. Long's brother; as soon as we appeared 
in the pew, she knew who I was, and her whole body 
became of one deep red ; a paleness followed, she dropped 

7 



96 otllray's caricatures. 

her faead^ put her hand to her face, and bent over her 
book as if praying. When the service was over, I con- 
sidered that the meeting with her was not a scene fit for 
the church-porch, but I was resolved to have a close look 
at her; as we approached her, she pretended to be talking 
in an animated manner with some of her party, but her 
attention was evidently turned towards me. When we 
saluted I saw she was beautiful — very beautiful.'^ (Lady 
H. Stanhope's Memoirs, vol. 1. p. 1 77.) " Next day rat- 
tat-tat- came a carriage and four to Mr. Grote's door, ' My 
dear Mr. Qrote, we have been long neighbours, but I don't 
know how it is we have not seen so much of each other as 
we ought to have done.' This was Lord A. and the mother. 
The young lady was more collected by this time, and the 
conversation went on very well.'' " Poor Mr. Pitt almost 
broke his heart when he gave her up. But he considered 
that she was not a woman to be left at will when business 
might require it; and he sacrificed his own feelings to his 
sense of public duty." " There are also other reasons, 
Mr. Pitt would say, there is her mother, such a chatterer, 
and the family intrigues. I can't keep them out of my 
house, and for my King's and country's sake, I must re- 
main a single man." — p. 178-9. "Yet Mr. Pitt was a 
man just made for domestic life. But he used to say, he 
considered no man ought to marry, who could not give a 
proper share of his time to his wife, for how would it be if 
he was always at the House, or in business, and she always 
at the opem, or whirling about in her carriage." — p. 180. 
We will now relate, on the authority of Mr. Wilberforce, 
a most extraordinary proposal of marriage made to Mr. 
Pitt in 1783. Premising that Mr. Wilberforce was the 
most intimate friend and associate of Mr. Pitt in the early 
part of his political career; and during his first Chancellor- 
ship of the Exchequer, he frequently used to go to Mr. 
Wilberforce's house at Wimbledon, and stop from Saturday 
to Monday, even tho' the master of the house was kept 



POLITICAL SERIES. 97 

in town; indeed^ one time Mr. Pitt resided for four months 
in Mr. Wilberforce^s house. On the dissolution of the 
Shelbume Administration he resolved to visit France in 
company with Mr. Wilberforce, and his brother-in-law, 
Mr. Eliot. The three friends embarked at Dover for 
Calais. The French Court was then residing at Fontaine- 
bleau. Mr. Pitt's fame had preceded him, and Marie 
Antoinette received him with distinguished attention, and 
''expressed her satisfaction at having seen him.*' At 
Paris whither they removed upon the 9th of September, 
it was hinted to him, through the intervention of Horace 
Walpole, that he would be an acceptable suitor for the 
daughter of the celebrated Necker, afterwards the cele- 
brated Madame de Stacl. Necker is said to have offered 
to endow her with a fortune of £14,000 per annum, 
but Mr. Pitt replied, "I am already married to my 
country.''— (Wilberforce's Life, vol. 1. p. 39, 40.) We 
have stated that Mr. Pitt's biographers have not done 
justice to his conversational talents, with which he could 
enliven and delight a private circle. We will adduce a 
most interesting instance occurring where most of our 
readers would least expect to find him, — in FalstafPs 
Tavern, capping verses from Shakspeare. " Pitt when free 
from shyness, and amongst his intimate companions, was 
the very soul of merriment and conversation. He was the 
wittiest man I ever knew, and what was quite peculiar to 
himself had at all times his wit under entire control. 
Others appeared struck by the unwonted association of 
brilliant images ; but every possible combination of ideas 
seemed always present to his mind, and he could at once 
produce whatever he desired. I was one of those who 
met to spend an evening in memory of Shakspeare, at 
the Boar's Head, Eastcheap. Many professed wits were 
present, but Pitt was the most amusing of the party, and 
the readiest and most apt in the required allusions." — 
(Wilberforce's Life, vol. 1. p. 18.) 

7 * 



98 QlLhRkY's CARICMIURES. 

After the death of Mr. Pitt, in 1806, the Hon. Catharine 
Isabella Eden married the right Hon. Nicolas Yansittart, 
(the present Lord Bexley), and died in 1810. 



165. 

BANK NOTES — PAPER MONEY — FRENCH 
ALARMISTS ; OR, THE DEYIL, THE DEYIL ! 
AH ! POOR JOHN BULL ! ! ! March Ut, 1797. 

PITT. SHERIDAN. JOHN BULL. FOX. STANHOPE. 

On the issue of paper money, to save the Bank from the 
conseqaences of Pittas financial measures. The Whigs, 
Fox, Sheridan, Stanhope, &c. who opposed the paper 
money system with all their might, are here endeavouring 
to persuade John Bull to refuse the notes. The gold is 
safely locked up under the counter. 



166. 

THE TABLES TURNED. BILLY IN THE DEVIL'S 
CLAWS. BILLY SENDING THE DEVIL PACK- 
ING. March 4tK 1797. 

POX. PITT. PITT. POX. 

On the landing of the French force in Pembrokeshire 
(which was immediately captured), and Admiral Jorvis's 
victory over the Spanish Fleet off Cape St. Vincent, on the 
14th of February, 1797. The Admiral was afterwards 
created Earl St. Vincent. The Whigfs were supposed to 
exult over the appearance of the French in Wales, as a 
proof of the want of foresight in the Ministers (no prepa- 
ration having been made to withstand the invasion) ; and 
to have been equally disappointed at the signal victory 
which added laurels to the Government. 



i 



POLITICAL SERIES. 99 

167. 

POLITICAL RAVISHMENT ; OR, THE OLD LADY 
OF THREADNEEDLE STREET IN DANGER. 

May 227id, 1797. 

PITT. 

On tlie stoppage of payments in specie by tlie Bank of 
England, and Pitt's measure for the issue of paper money. 
The Bank had been obliged to make loans to the Govern- 
ment on so large a scale, that its resources in specie at this 
time were entirely exhausted, and the heavy run upon the 
banks in consequence of the threats of an invasion held 
out by France, had absolutely reduced the Bank of Eng- 
land to the necessity of stopping payment. The obligation 
to take paper money was looked upon as an act of violence 
upon the Bank, as well as upon the public, and it was said 
that the object was less to serve the Bank, than to force 
the people of England to take paper for money, while the 
money itself was sent to the Continent to support a war 
which was not beneficial to us. The box on which the 
lady is seated is supposed to contain the money of the 
Bank so safely locked up that it is not to be touched. 

168. 

MIDAS TRANSMUTING ALL INTO PAPER. 

^ March 9th, 1797. 

vox. M. A. TATLOB. GRET. SHEIUDAN. EBSKINE. 

PITT. GBBNVILLB. DUNDA8. 

On the same subject ; a parody upon a classic story. 
The political Midas is turning gold into paper, and the 
reeds of opposition are supposed to be moved into letting 
oat his secret, by the effect of the wind from Brest har- 
boi^*, which sends over an army of French Jacobites, 
armed with daggers. 



100 GILLRAT^S CARICATURES. 

169. 

LE BONNET ROUGE ; OR, JOHN BULL EVAD- 
ING THE HAT TAX. April bth, 1797. 

The hat tax was one of the new ways of increasing the 
revenue discovered this year. It is said to have led to an 
immense addition to the trade in caps, as a method of 
evading the direct tax. John Bull himself is here trying 
the experiment, but has chosen an objectionable colour 
(red). It is intimated that the excessive and increasing 
taxation under Pitt's government, was making John Bull 
less and less hostile to the terrible bonnet rouge, 

170. 
THE BRIDAL NIGHT. May I8th, 1797. 

LORD SALISBURY (Lord Chamberlain). G£0. in. queen, pitt. 

PRINCE OF WIRTEHBERO. PRINCESS ROYAL. PRINCESSES. 
PRINCE OF WALKS — DUKES OF YORK, CLARENCE^ AND 
GLOUCESTER — PRINCE WILLIAM OF GLOUCESTER. 

On the marriage of the Prince of Wirtemberg (who was 
remarkable for his obesity) with the Princess Royal of 
England, on the 19th of May, 1797. It is a broad and 
very clever caricature on the most distinguished personages 
of the English Court at this time. Pitt, as usual, pro- 
duces the money necessary for the completion of this grand 
alliance. The Prince of Wirtemberg, who was described by 
some of the wits of the age as a gi'cat hellygcrent, and 
therefore a very warlike prince, is covered with a prof usioii 
of Orders. The allusion in the picture of the elephant, 
surmounted by Cupid, can hardly be misunderstood. 

171. 
LE BAISER A LA WIRTEMBOURG. 

April \5th, 1797. 

THE PRINCESS ROYAL. PRINCE OF WIRTEMBERG. 

Another satire on the royal couple, the wit of which is 
BulHcicntly evident. 



,• • • • 

' •: ••• ••• • • 



POLITICAL SERIES. 101 

172. 
PARLIAMENTARY REFORM; OR, OPPOSITION 
RATS LEAVING THE HOUSE THEY HAD 
UNDERMINED. May 28th, 1797. 

WILBBRFORCE. DUNDAS. PITT. GBCY. ERSEINE. 
FOX. SHERIDAN. H. A. TAYLOR. 

On the 26th of May, 1797, Mr. Grey rose to renew the 
oft-discussed motion for Parliamentary Reform, and was 
seconded by Erskine. Pitt, who began political liEe as a 
violent advocate of reform, opposed the motion. Pox 
made a splendid speech in favour of the motion, and 
Sheridan also exerted himself on the same side. Never- 
theless, the Ministers had, as usual, an overwhelming 
majority. The Opposition, who were charged with a 
design to overthrow the House of Commons by their 
motion, and with it the Constitution of the country, and 
who had been so signally defeated, are represented as 
taking to their heels after they had done all the mischief 
in their power. The Opposition had seceded from the 
sittings of Parliament after their defeat, as a means of 
shewing their disgust at the corruption by which the 
Government was supported. 

173. 
THE LOYAL TOAST. February 3rd, 1798. 

NICHOLS. DUKE OF BEDFORD. SHERIDAN. FOX. 

DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

On the 24th of January, 1798, a dinner took place at 
the Crown and Anchor Tavern, to celebrate the birth-day 
of Mr. Pox. The company assembled was unusually 
numerous. The Whigs and friends of freedom in general 
resolved to make a grand demonstration to shew that their 
confidence in the principles and conduct of Mr. Pox was 
unshaken by the secession of the Portland party from 
their ranks, by the smallness of the minority in Parlia- 



102 oillray's cabicatubis. 

ment^ or any other adverse political circumstance. The 
continued suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act^ and 
various coercive measures restricting the liberty of the 
subject and the press, seemed to them to demand a signal 
display of their admiration of the great champion of the 
rights of the people, and the principles of the Constitution 
as established at the Revolution of 1688. The Duke of 
Norfolk presided on the occasion. Aa soon as the cloth 
was removed, the Duke of Norfolk rose and said, ^' We 
are met in a moment of most serious difficulty to celebrate 
the birth of a man dear to the friends of freedom. I shall 
only recall to your memory that not twenty years ago, the 
illustrious George Washington had not more than two 
thousand men to rally round him, when his country was 
attacked. America is now free. This day fall 2000 men 
are assembled in this place. I leave the application to 
you. I propose to you the health of 

" Charles James Fox." 

In the course of the evening the Duke^s health was 
drank with great enthusiasm. He returned thanks, and 
concluded his speech with these words, '' Give me leave to 
call on you to drink. Our Sovereign's health, 

"The Majesty op the People." 

In a day or two reports reached the Duke of Norfolk 
from various quarters that his conduct had excited the 
utmost indignation at St. James's, and that he would 
probably be deprived of his Lord-Lieutenancy of the West 
Biding of Yorkshire, and his Colonelcy in the Militia. 
Ho accordingly waited on the Duke of York, and assured 
him that he had been misrepresented, or misunderstood ; 
that he had only endeavoured to inculcate an admiration 
of those principles, which had seated his Majesty's family 
on the throne ; but as it was generally believed that the 
enemy meditated an invasion of the kingdom^ he requested 
his regiment might be assigned the post of the greatest 
danger, to give him an opportunity of proving his loyalty 



POLITICAL SERIES. 103 

and attacliment to the throne. The Duke of York listened 
with great courtesy^ and assured him his request should 
be immediately laid before the King; then abruptly 
breaking off the conversation, most annoyingly asked him, 
" if he had seen Blue Beard/' a dramatic romance just 
brought out with great splendour at Drury Lane. The 
Duke of Norfolk of course perceived that no interference 
was to be expected from this quarter, and immediately 
retired. A few days after, he received a letter from the 
Duke of Portland, Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment, informing him that the King ^^ had no further occa- 
sion for his services,'' and on the 6th of February Earl 
Fitzwilliam was gazetted as Lord-Lieutenant of the West 
Riding of York, " vice the Duke of Norfolk, resigned" 
The Ministerial writers and their partisans highly extolled 
the dismissal of the Duke of Norfolk, and represented the 
toast of '^ the Majesty of the People," as highly seditious, 
and emanating in the principles of the French Revolution. 
We are surprised to find this latter assertion repeated by 
writers of historical memoirs of the times. We shall pro- 
ceed to give irrefragable proof that the toast was not 
unprecedented, that it did not originate with the Duke of 
Norfolk, and that it had been drank during the adminis- 
tration of the Marquis of Rockingham, many years anterior 
to the Revolution in France. In the General Advertiser, 
of the 13th of April, 1782, then edited by the late Mr. 
Perry (afterwards the eminent proprietor of the Morning 
Chronicle), we find an account of a dinner of the electors 
of Westminster held the preceding day at the Shakspeare 
Tavern, Earl Fitzwilliam in the chair. The first toast 
given by his Lordship was, " The Majesty of the People." 
It was drank by the Earl of Effingham, the Earl of Surrey 
(afterwards Duke of Norfolk, and the subject of the present 
remarks), Mr. Secretary Fox, Burke, Windham, Dean 
Jebb, J. Churchill, Brand Hollis, Dr. Brocklesby, &c. &c. 
Thus the identical toast was proposed and drank by Earl 



104 aiLLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

Fitzwilliam, to whom the Lord-Lieutenancy now taken 
from the Duke of Norfolk was given. It is not a little 
remarkable that Earl Fitzwilliam himself was dismissed 
by his new Tory Allies in 1819, from the same Lord- 
Lieutenancy of the West Riding of York, for presiding at 
a county meeting in Yorkshire, at which resolutions were 
passed condemning the measures of Ministers respecting 
the Manchester meeting called by Hunt. 

On the 6th of February, the next monthly meeting of 
the Whig Club was held at the London Tavern. The 
Duke of Norfolk presided. He gave as a toast, "The 
Man who dares be honest in the worst of times — 

"Charles James Fox.'' 
Mr. Fox returned thanks, and then toasted 

"The Sovereignty of the People.'' 
He subsequently proposed the health of the Duke of 
Norfolk in a most powerful speech. He adverted to the 
dismissal of the Duke. No reason had been officially 
assigned ; it was, however, generally understood that it 
had arisen from the eulogium pronounced on General 
Washington. Was it to be wondered at, that the noble 
Dnke, v^ho had uniformly opposed the American war, 
should have done so ? What Englishman, what man of 
any country, whose heart was animated with a love of 
freedom, did not venerate the name of that illustrious 
patriot ? It seems also '' a toast has given offence — the 
Majesty of the People. I do not know upon what times 
we are fallen, but the sovereignty of the people of Great 
Britain is surely a thing not new to the language, to the 
feelings, nor the hearts of Englishmen. It is the basis of 
the whole system of our Government. It is an opinion, 
which if it be not true. King William was an usurper. 
By what right did the glorious and immortal King William 
the Third, whose portrait is placed on our chair, come to 
the throne of these realms, if not by that of the sovereignty 
of the people ? . . . ITie King holds his title by an 



POLITICAL SERIES. 105 

Act of Parliament. Who called that Parliament ? King 
William the Third. By what right did he obtain it? 
By a Convention representing the sovereignty of the 
people. The Convention of Representatives in fact did 
the thing. It is whimsical enough to deprive the noble 
Doke of his appointments for an offence, which if he had 
not committed during the reigns of George I. and George 
n. would have subjected him to the charge of being a 
Jacobite, and an adherent of the exiled family. . . Of 
the persons of his Majesty's Ministers I will not say a 
word. There are several of them to whom I may fairly 
say this sentiment is not new. One member of the 
Cabinet (the Duke of Portland) is still a member of this 
Club ; another (Mr. Windham) was a member, and a third 
(Earl Spencer) long gloried in holding the same tenets. 
How often with the two first have we drank the sentiment 
in this room ! What did they mean when they drank the 
Sovereignty of the People ? What, but that they recognized 
by this approved and customary method a truth which 
belongs to all people in reality, but is the avowed basis 
of the Government of England, that the people of every 
country are its legitimate Sovereign, and that all authority 
is delegated from and for them ? I should be ashamed on 
account of my old respect for those persons, if they did 
not honestly avow this to be their sense of the sentiment.*' 

174. 
THE FRIEND OF HUMANITY AND KNIFE- 
GRINDER.— Scene, BOROUGH. Dec. 4th, 1797. 

TIEENEY. 

After the secession of Fox, Sheridan, and the leading 
Whigs, the Opposition Benches presented a dreary and 
barren waste. A feeble resistance to the Ministerial 
measures was indeed maintained by NichoUs and a few 
others, but the Genius Loci had departed. 



106 oillrat's caricatures. 

" No streamB as amber smooth, as amber clear, 
Were seen to flow, or heard to warble here •" 

when a New Luminary ascended the political horizon. 
The electors of Southwark returned Tiemey as their 
representative to Parliament. He was known to have 
drawn up the celebrated petition of the Society of the 
Friends of the People for a reform in the House of Com- 
mons, in which the defects of the representation were 
exposed with consummate skill. He now evinced a com- 
pass of information, and practical knowledge of business 
and its details, which won and secured the attention of the 
House. His manner was peculiarly calculated to make an 
impression on a popular audience. He appeared always 
to treat a subject with the greatest candour, and his 
elocution was remarkably fluent and easy,* partaking 
rather of the style of superior conversation, than of a formal 
harangue. The most withering sneer, or the most cutting 
sarcasm, seemed to fall from him without effort, and as if 
he were unconscious of the wound he had inflicted on his 
opponent. Finance was his favourite battle-field, but he 
could discuss every topic of foreign and domestic policy 
with the ability of an enlightened statesman. His mode 
of taking to pieces the arguments of the persons to whom 
he replied, and reconstructing them in his own way, sur- 
prised his hearers, who wondered they themselves had 

* We have stated above that Tiemey always spoke with case and flacncj, 
we only recollect his having faltered once in a very perceptible manner. 
This we shall record from the pleasantness of the remark it drew from 
Dudley North when Tiemey had joined the Addington administration, 
and accepted the Treasorership of the Navy, he made an able reply to Pitt's 
motion for an inquiry into the state of the Navy. After sneering at the 
Kt. Hon. shipwright, he allndcd to the difficulties the l^ttites and Foxites 
must have felt in passing over to join each other, and illustrated it by the 
puzzle of the Fox, the Goose, and the bag of com, when he suddenly faltered 
and hesitated for some time in elucidating the similitude : ** Oh I'* said 
Dudley North, " ho has juxt recollected he is describing himself, he has left 
the Fox, gone over to the Goose, and pocketed the bag of com.^ 



POLITICAL SERIES. 107 

failed to perceive tlie absurdity of them during the delivery 
of the preceding speech. The attention of the House never 
flagged, for he never wearied it by prolix digressions. His 
private character was invulnerable^ which gave additional 
influence and weight to his arguments. No ribaldry ever 
sullied his speeches^ and his political adversaries^ Canning 
and the wits of the Anti-Jacobin, paid homage to the 
correctness and propriety of his conduct (see the Anti- 
Jacobin^ vol. i. pp. 415-16). Such was the man^ who, for 
the remainder of his life, was destined to take a leading 
part in the councils of his country. 

The print of "The Feiend of Humanity and the 
Knife-gbindeb/^ was intended as a graphic illustration 
of Canning^s parody of Southey^s Poem entitled " The 
Widow/^ and written in English Sapphics, in imitation of 
the original. See Southey's Poetical Works, vol. ii. p. 141. 

Southey was the son of a respectable tradesman at 
Bristol. He was educated at Westminster School, and 
went from thence to Balliol College, Oxford, " destined 
for the Church.*' At both places he prosecuted his 
studies with zeal and laudable perseverance, and might 
be reckoned among the ^^ multa et prsBclara minantes.*' 
Unfortunately Coleridge, then a student at Cambridge, 
visited Oxford, and formed an intimacy with Southey, 
which soon ripened into friendship, Coleridge found 
Southey a republican, and made him a Unitarian. He 
was too honest to entertain any further thoughts of taking 
orders in the Church. He went to his mother at Bristol. 
His evil genius Coleridge visited him there, and opened 
to him a plan for emigrating to North America, and 
establishing a Socialist colony on the banks of the 
Susquehannah. The youthful Southey (for he was only 
in his twentieth year) embraced his proposal with ardour. 
The two friends enlisted Lovell, a clever young Quaker, 
and G. Bennett, a fellow collegian of Southey at Oxford. 
From this new republic all the deteriorating passions were 



108 gillray's caricatures. 

to be excluded, " injustice, anger, wrath, clamour, and evil 
speaking," and they were to set an example of human 
perfectibility. (See Cottle's Recollections of Coleridge.) 
Twelve was the number originally proposed to found the 
colony. Females were indispensable to the colonists. 
Every associate was therefore to be a married man, or to 
marry previous to their departure. They seemed to have 
lost sight of their favourite simpUcity when they dignified 
their new scheme of government with the magniloquent 
title of Pantisocracy. The preceding particulars of the 
Socialist scheme, have been collected chiefly from Cottle's 
Eecollections of Coleridge. The following is the narrative 
of the Rev. Cuthbert Southey, given in his recently pub- 
lished life of his father. " Their plan was to collect as 
many brother adventurers as they could, and to establish 
a community in the new world upon the most thoroughly 
social basis. Land was to be purchased with their common 
contributions, and to be cultivated by their common labour. 
Each was to have his portion of work assigned him, and 
they calculated that a large part of their time would still 
remain for social converse and literary pursuits. The 
females of the party, for all were to be married men, were 
to cook and perform all the domestic offices, and having 
gone so far as to plan the architecture of their cottages, 
and the form of their settlement, they had pictured as 
pleasant a Utopia as ever entered an ardent mind." — 
Southey's Life, vol. 1, p. 281, 1849. A ship was to be 
freighted, and implements of husbandry, and all other 
necessaries were to be purchased. The cost was estimated 
at about two thousand pounds ; but neither the requisite 
funds, nor the required associates could be obtained. 
Southey then proposed to Coleridge to found this Pantiso- 
cracy in some retired part of Wales. Coleridge, however, 
seems to have awakened from this romantic dream, and in 
a sensible letter to Southey pointed out the insuperable 
difficulties of the scheme. Fortunately for his happiness ; 



POLITICAL SERIES. 109 

fortunately for his fame, and fortunately for the literature 
of his country, Pantisocracy was abandoned. His kind 
uncle, the Rev. Mr. Hill, Chaplain to the British Factory 
at Lisbon, who had defrayed the expenses of his education, 
invited him to accompany him to Lisbon. He accepted 
the invitation, but privately married Miss Edith Flicker,* 
on the 14th of November, 1795, the very morning he left 
Bristol to join his uncle, assigning as his reason for this 
extraordinary step, that in case of his death he had kind 
relations, who would assist his widow, who might not have 
felt themselves called upon to aid his aiSanced bride. 
Previous to leaving Bristol he sold the copyright of his 
Joan of Arc to Cottle, a bookseller at Bristol; on his 
return home he published his Letters from Spain and 
Portugal, and went to Bristol to bring his wife to London. 
In November 1796, he entered himself a member of Gray's 
Inn, intending to become a barrister. He now supported 
himself in a great measure by his literary publications. A 
deeper study of the Scriptures, a more mature judgment, 
and an intimate acquaintance with the writings of our 
more celebrated Divines reclaimed him from Unitarianism, 
and henceforward he became a sincere and enlightened 
member and advocate of the Church of England. His 
republican principles were also abandoned, and he became 
an ultra- tory. There is no reason to doubt his conversion 
in either instance was the result of honest conviction. 
In 1801, he was appointed private secretary to Mr. Corry, 
Chancellor of the Exchequer for Ireland, and on that gentle- 
man's resignation of office, Southey retired to Keswick in 
Cumberland. His circumstances were now sadly straitened. 
His old friend and schoolfellow at Westminster, Mr. (now 
the Right Hon.) Charles Winn, munificently allowed him 
from his own moderate fortune an annuity of £160. till he 
could obtain something equal or superior. In 1807, when 

* There were three sisters of the name of Fricker. One was married to 
Lovell, the second to Coleridge, and Southey married Edith. 



110 OILLBAT^S CARICATUBES. 

JiOrd Grenville was quitting office^ he proposed to tlie 
King to grant Southey a pension of £200. per annnm^ to 
which his Majesty " graciously assented." In 1813, by 
the intervention of Sir Walter Scott he succeeded Pyo 
as Poet Laureate, and was exempted from paying the 
degrading quit-rent of an annual birthday ode. 

When the Quarterly Review was established, he was 
for several years one of its most valuable contributors, 
and his articles greatly extended its reputation and sale. 
His numerous compositions in verse and prose have been 
variously estimated. The pubUc has confirmed, and per- 
haps many of his personal friends will accept the following 
as a candid and discriminating sketch of his literary 
character, though drawn by the hand of his inveterate 
enemy Lord Byron. ^' His prose is perfection ; of his 
poetry there are various opinionfl, too much of it for the 
present generation. Posterity will probably select. He 
has passages equal to anything. At present he has a 
party, but no public, except for his prose writings. His 
Life of Nelson is beautiful." See Note to Byron's Vision 
of Judgment. 

175. 
THE STORM RISING; OR, THE REPUBLICAN 
FLOTILLA IN DANGER. February 1st, 1798. 

FOX. SHERIDAN. DUKE OF BEDFORD. TIERNEY. PITT. 

On the assistance which it was pretended the Whigs 
were giving to the threatened French invasion. In the dis- 
tance the Evil One, mounted on the guillotine,* is dancing 

* So called from the namo of the original proposer of the machine. Dr. 
Joseph Ignace Goillotin, a physician of Paris, a Member of the States- 
General, and the Omstitnent Assembly. He is said to have been a itrj 
homane man, and to haye suggested this mode of execution, as the least 
painful to the sufferer. Towards the close of the Reign of Terror he wai 
arrested, imprisoned, and narrowly escaped decapitation by the instrument 
he had himself introduced. On his liberation from prison, he abandoned his 
political career, and resumed the medical profession. He died at Paris id 1814< 



POLITICAL SERIES. Ill 

in the highest glee, and playing the popular tune of ^'Over 
the water to Charley.*' (Fox.) 

176. 

LA PROMENADE EN PAMILLE. A SKETCH 
PROM LIPE. April 23rd, 1797. 

THE FITZCLABENCES. HBS. JORDAN. DUKE OF CLARENCE. 

On the relations between the Duke of Clarence and 
Mrs. Jordan, a subject of much scandal at this time. 

177. 
THE ESPLANADE. June Ist, 1797. 

LORD CATHCART. GEORGE III. SIR D. DUNDAS. 

A caricature on the undignified appearance of royalty in 
the person of George III. As the motto seems to inti- 
mate, the King is steering a clear course between two 
gallant officers, who are no less caricatures than himself. 
It is to be supposed that Majesty is relaxing in its retreat 
at Weymouth. 

178. 

CONSEQUENCES OP A SUCCESSPUL PRENCH 
INVASION.— No. I. Plate 1. WE COME TO 
RECOVER YOUR LONG LOST LIBERTIES.— 
Scene: the House of Commons. Marrh Ist, 1798. 

DUNDAS. PITT. SHERIDAN. FOX. 

These illustrations of what it was anticipated would be 
the consequence of the success of revolutionary principles, 
if violently established in this country, were not originally 
designed by Gillray, as stated in the inscription below, but 
in transferring the designs to copper, he seems to have 
given them much of liis own spirit and manner. Pitt and 
Dundas appear in the first as two convicts, chained toge- 
ther for transportation, with the rest of the Members of 

8 



112 gillray's caricatures. 

the House of Commons, to the Calonies ; while Fox is 
breaking the Mace, and Sheridan burning the Records. 
In other respects these Plates are sufficiently explained by 
the description at the bottom. In this first subject, how- 
ever, the copper of this description has been lost (having 
been engraved on a separate piece), it is therefore here 
inserted. 

Description as published by Gillray. — One 
French soldier putting handcuffs, and another fetters, on 
the Speaker, whose mouth is gagged with a drumstick. 
The rest of the Members, two and two, tied together with 
cords, (Mr* Pitt and Mr. Dundas by the arms with an iron 
chain, which has three padlocks, but the keyholes spiked 
up). They are all dressed in the uniform of the Convicts of 
Botany Bay, to wit, coats of two colours, long breeches, 
no stockings, and their heads close shaved ; French guards 
opposite to the Members, with their hats on ; one of whom 
carries an axe, and a blazon of a Death^s head on his 
breast. Two clerks near him, with their pens in their 
ears, hanging their heads. Republicans in the galleries, 
wearing their hats, in which are triple-coloured cockades, 
and clapping their hands. An English blacksmith, in his 
waistcoat and cap of liberty, breaking the mace in pieces 
with a fore-hammer. The Statutes tumbled on the floor. 
The cap of Hberty raised high behind the Speaker's chair, 
below which is painted, in capital letters — " This House 
adjourned to Botany Bay, ' sine die.' '' — The chaffers and 
burning charcoal continuing to stand in their present 
places in the House, but filled with red hot irons to sear 
one cheek of the Members before they set off*; and the 
other, if they shall be found guilty, by the verdict of a 
French jury, of returning to their own country, without 
leave of the French Directory, in writing. An English 
cobbler, in the cap of liberty, blowing with a bellows one 
of the chaffers ; the fuel, the Journals of the House. 



POLITICAL SEBIES. 113 

179. 

No. I. Plate 2.— WE EXPLAIN DE RIGHTS OP 
MAN TO DE NOBLESSE. March Ut, 1798. 

The scene is here transferred to the House of Lords, 
which is undergoing a &te similar to the House of Com- 
mons. 

180. 

No. I. Plate 3.— WE PLY ON THE WINGS OP 
THE WIND TO SAVE THE IRISH CATHOLICS 
PROM PERSECUTION. 

The treatment which the Irish were to expect on the 
arrival of the Prench^ whom their agitators had so often 
invited over as their deliverers. 

181. 

No. L Plate 4.— MB TEACH DE ENGLISH RE- 
PUBLICANS TO WORK. — Scene: a Ploughed 
Field. March Ist, 1798. 

The English are at length tasting the sweets of the 
French Constitation. The description^ which has been 
lost, is here supplied. 

Description, as poblished by Gilleay. — A row 
of English people in tatters, and wooden shoes, hoeing a 
field of garlic. A tall, raw-boned Frenchman, with a long 
queue behind, like a Negro driver, with a long waggoner's 
whip in each hand, walking by their side. The people 
very sulky, but tolerably obedient and tractable for so 
short a time ; John Bull being a bad lad only when you 
are very good to him. The group of the hoers are, a 
husbandman, his wife, a manu&cturer, a curate, and an 
old man. In another part of the field, four other English 
people, a father and son (husbaudmen), with two seamen, 
in a yoke, drawing a plough ; a French farmer guiding it 

8 * 



114 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

with one hand^ and with the other floarishing and cracking 
a French postillion's long whip ; a French boy walking 
by the side of the yoke with a goad, which has a point as 
sharp as a needle. The French hoe-driver gives his in- 
structions thus : '^ Jacqtces Roastherf, hoe straight, deep, 
quick, and rest not.'' — The instructions of the French 
holder of the plough are : " Monsieur John Bull. Mon 
Ami/' (in English) " My friend, Mr. John Bull, pull hard, 
plough deep, trot quick, turn sudden, rest not." AMessager 
d'Etat, (in English) a Messenger of State, in his Habit of 
OflSce, with a letter in his hand, comes to hurry on the 
work for the exigencies of war. In another part of the 
plate stand the Farm Offices ; a vast oak, withered, above 
them. A cauldron boiling, on which is engraved '' Soup 
Maiore," with a stack of onions and turnips close by it. 
On a large board is painted — ^^Regulations of this 
"Farm. — ^At five o'clock in the morning, the hogs and 
English slaves are to be fed ; at twelve o'clock at night 
they are to be suppered, and littered up with the best 
straw that the Scotch and Irish part of the slaves can 
steal from the neighbouring fiirms, and then locked up. 
" But there are holes in the bottom of the walls for the 
'' hogs to go out, and get the benefit of fresh air. Punish- 
''ment of laziness — for the first offence, five hundred 
*' lashes ; for the second, the guillotine. All other crimes, 
except those which affect Frenchmen, are forgiven, on 
promise of amendment." — A ballad is lying on the 
ground, in the English language, entitled — " Recantation 
of British and Irish Republican Husbandmen and Manu- 
facturers." — The burden of the Song is — " Oh I England, 
England! — King, Wife, Sons and Daughters of our 
King, of whom the sons are all brave, and the daughters 
*' all beautiful : Parliament and Judges, who covered us 
with blessings, which we repaid with reproaches : Clergy, 
who taught us to die as well as to live for our country— 
**Landaff, Landaff! Nobles and Squires, in whoso hos- 



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POLITICAL SERIES. .115 

" pitalitj and bounty we shared : St. Vincents, and Dun- 
*' cans : Merchants, Master Manufacturers, who lived as 
*' simply as ourselves, but both of us well ; how could we 
'* forget you ? You would not have deserted us, but we 
'* deserted you. But with the same weapons which have 
'' defended you, we will punish ourselves. We despise 
*' life, we could submit to misfortune, but cannot bear the 

consciousness of not having stood or fallen with you. 

Oh ! England, England, country of every bliss, for ever 
" farewell V 

182. 
LORD LONGBOW, THE ALARMIST, DISCOVER. 
ING THE MISERIES OF IRELAND. 

March \2th, 1798. 

EABL MOIRA. 

The Earl of Moira, a gallant soldier, an eloquent 
senator, and accomplished statesman, was bom 9th of De- 
cember, 1754. During the lifetime of his father he bore 
the second title of his peerage, that of Lord Rawdon. He 
very early conceived a strong predilection for the military 
service, and embraced it as a profession. In the early period 
of the American war he embarked with his regiment for that 
country, and arrived there panting for riiilitary distinction. 
An opportunity soon presented itsejf. He was present 
at the memorable battle of Bnnker^fl Hill, 16th of June, 
1775, serving as a Lieutenant in tifie fifth company of 
Grenadiers, and was one of the seven of the whole company 
who was not wounded. On that occasion he exhibited 
extraordinary valour and activity. He is particularly 
pointed out in the official report of General Burgoyne, 
the Commander-in-Chief, "Lokd Rawdon has this day 
BTAKPED HIS FAME FOB LiFE.^^ HJs exemplary conduct 
and military talents caused him to be raised to the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and Adjutant to the British 
Forces in 1778, before ho had completed his 24th year* 



116 oillrat's cabicatubxs. 

He was then appointed to a separate command^ and in 
varions engagements with Generals (rates and Greene he 
gained iresh laurels^ and pnrsaed his bright career till 
illness obliged him to return home. He was received with 
great distinction^ and created an English Peer by the title 
of Lord Bawdon. The American Peace consigDed him to 
inactivity nntil 1794, when he embarked for Ostend with 
a small force. The skill and rapidity with which he effected 
a seasonable junction with the Duke of York,* elicited great 
praise from military men. The retreat of the Duke of 
York and return of the British army again consigned him 
to unwelcome inactivity. He had indeed the command of 
a body of troops quartered at Southampton, but very little 
effective authority. Several battalions of French emigrants 
were placed under his directions. He entertained their 
officers with absurd splendour and profuseness, and might 
be said to have almost kept a Court at Southampton for 
them. He is supposed to have expended at least thirty 
thousand pounds of his private fortune in entertaining 
them. He now devoted his comparative leisure to politics. 
The situation of Ireland attracted his particular attention. 
In vain ho brought forward conciliatory measures in the 
British House of Peers. 

On the 19th of February, 1798, he brought the subject 
before the Irish House of Peers. Never had expectation 
been raised to a greater height in that country. Lord 
Moira commenced his address by candidly avowing that 
he had brought the same subject unsuccessfully before the 
notice of the British House of Peers, but he had failed to 
obtain an inquiry into the grievances of Ireland, although 
he had offered to substantiate his statements by proofs at 
the bar. Ho entertained more sanguine expectations from 
the Peers of Ireland, for the heart-rending scenes he shoald 
detail had passed more immediately under their cog^izanoe. 

* Lord Moira was second to the Duke of York in his duel with Colonel 
Lennox. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 117 

He then entered on an appalling narrative of persons torn 
from their families, and imprisoned without being con- 
fronted with their accusers, or even knowing the charges 
brought against them. In some instances torture had been 
applied, in others picketing had been resorted to, and in 
some cases the unhappy victims had been half-hanged. 
He understood it had been stated that the district about 
his own house had been tainted not only with disaffection 
but rebellion, as much as any other part of the kingdom. 
These infamous aspersions he had ascertained originated 
with a Government informer, whose character was so 
iofamous that no Justice of the Peace would receive his 
attestation on oath. Again he urged on Government a 
more lenient course. '* The time for recovering the affec- 
tions of your countrymen has not yet passed ; conciliation 
may be deferred, but every day increases the difficulty of 
suppressing the spirit of discontent. Be united, you may 
then defy France and the world, although you had not a 
ship on the sea.'' 

The Chancellor (Lord Clare) was happy in discussing 
the subject with the Noble Earl, as his speech in the 
British House of Peers had done so much mischief, and 
aggravated the disaffection in Ireland. He said that from 
the time of Lord Townshend concessions had constantly 
been made, that after each the people had professed them- 
selves satisfied and grateful ; yet after a month or two 
their turbulence returned with increased vigour. The 
present discontent dated from the formation of the Society 
of United Irishmen after the rejection of the Bill for 
Parliamentary Reform. The principle of that Society was 
separation from Great Britain. Wolfe Tone, an Adju- 
tant-General in Heche's army, was at this hour residing 
as Envoy at Paris from the Society of United Irishmen. 
They had also another agent residing at Lisle during the 
negociation of Lord Malmesbury, whose business it was 
to defeat the British Ambassador. The persons arrested 



118 gillray's caricatures. 

had been treated with greater lenity than they deserved. 
He mentioned the case of Shaw, who had been stated by 
his Lordship to have been half hanged : this he denied. 
A rope had only been tied roond his neck to induce him 
to confess ; and with regard to the picket panishment, it 
had been only done on a blacksmith, who had made a 
number of pikes, which on examination he denied ; but 
being brought to the Guard Room, he confessed for whom 
he had made them, and where they were, by which means 
above a hundred had been found. The temporary punish- 
ment of this man was more than compensated by the 
number of lives saved by the detection of these instru- 
ments of murder. With respect to the burning of 
houses, it could not, to be sure, be strictly justified, but 
some examples were necessary to be made ; and when it 
became necessary to call out the military, it was not always 
possible to restrain their excesses. Lord Moira's Motion 
for an address to the Lord Lieutenant, recommending 
that conciliatory measures should be devised, was rejected 
by 44 to 9. Lord Moira had doubtless been misled in 
some instances by aggravated accounts of the excesses 
committed by the Government authorities, civil and 
military ; but the Lord Chancellor Clare himself admitted 
that considerable severity had been exercised towards 
some persons, and that a vigour beyond the law, which 
*' could not be strictly justified,'' had been employed. 
In the course of his speech. Lord Moira had stated that 
he had assembled the tenants on his own extensive do- 
main at Ballynahinch, and received the most satisfactory 
assurances of their devoted sympathy. Unfortunately 
his confidence proved to have been misplaced ; for an open 
insurrection broke out in his own town of Ballynahinch 
shortly after, and a large number of pikes were found 
8ecrct<?d by the peasantry in his own woods, which gave 
rise to the following spirited song : — 



POLITICAL S£R1£S. 119 

BALLYNAHINCH, 

A MEW SONQ. 
I. 

A certain great Statesman, whom all of us know. 

In a certain Assembly, no long while ago, 
Declared from this maxim he never would flinch, 

** That no towa was so Loyal as Balltkahinoh." 

II. 
The great Statesman, it peems, had perused all their &ces, 

And been mightUy struck with their loyal grimaces ; 
While each townsman had sung, like a Throstle or Finch, 

** Wo are all of us Loyal at Balltnauinch." 

in. 

The great Statesman returned to his speeches and readings. 
And the Ballynahinchers resum'd their proceedings ; 

They had most of them sworn, " Well be true to the Frinch,"* 
So Loyal a towa was this Balltnauinoh. 

rv. 

Determin'd their Landlord's flue words to make good, 
They hid pikes in his haggard, cut staves in h\» wood ; 

And attack'd the King's troops — ^the assertion to clinch, 
That no town is so Loyal as Balltnahinch. 

V. 

O I had we but trusted the rebeW professions, 

Met their cannon with smiles, and their pikes with conce^ons, 
Tho' they still took an ell, when we gave them an inch, 

They would all have been Loyal — ^like Balltnauimgil 



183. 

ST. GEORGE'S VOLUNTEERS CHARGING DOWN 
BOND STREET, AFTER CLEARING THE RING 
IN HYDE PARK, AND STORMING THE DUNG- 
HILL AT MARYBONE. March 1st, 1797. 

CAPTAIN FOSTER. 

A satire on the roluntcoring mania of this period, when 

* Iliberaice for f rench. 



120 qill&at's caricatures. 

the country was threatened with so many dangers. The 
volunteer regiments of the West End performed their 
manoBUvres in Hyde Park, and the scene of their peaceful 
campaigns extended to Marylebono and the surrounding 
districts. The St. Greorge's Volunteers formed the first 
metropolitan corps^ commanded by the then well-known 
Captain Foster. 

184. 
SEAECH NIGHT; OR, STATE WATCHMEN 
MISTAKING HONEST MEN FOR CONSPI- 
RATORS. March 20th, 1798. 

MOIRA. FOX. SHERIDAN. DUKE OF BEDFORD. HOBNE 
TOOKB. NICHOLS. TIEBNBY. NORFOLK. PITT. DUNDAS. 

Some arrests had been made in England in the begin- 
ning of March, 1798, of persons implicated in the troubles 
which were disturbing Ireland, and were the object of 
severe animadversions by some of the opposition papers. 
The subject is here made the ground for a satire on the 
Whigs. Pitt and Dandas, the two State Watchmen, are 
breaking in upon the conspirators. The two leaders. Fox 
and Sheridan, make their escape by the cock-loft, while 
the Dukes of Bedford and Norfolk take to the chimney. 
Three of the party have sought a refuge under the table. 
Lord Moira alone stands his groand. 

185. 
HABITS OF NEW FRENCH LEGISLATORS AND 
OTHER PUBLIC FUNCTIONARIES, No. 1.— 
Lb Ministre d'Etat en Grand Costume. 

ApHl 18th, 1798. 

CHARLES FOX. 

The National Convention of France flattered the vaniiy 
of the revolutionary statesmen under the Directory, and 
gratified the love of the populace for external show, by 
appointing a special costume for the dififerent Officers of 



POUTICAL SERIK8. 121 

State. It was pretended by the Court Party in England 
that the Whigs aimed at imitating the French revolu- 
tionists in this country^ and Gillray has^ in this series of 
*' habits^'' clad each of the more prominent of " the party'' 
in the peculiar costume which was presumed to be the 
object of his ambition, if the present order of things were 
once overthrown. Fox, the great man of the Opposition, 
was supposed to aim at nothing less than the place of First 
Minister, 

186. 
FRENCH HABITS, No. 2.— Les Mbmbres du Consbil 
DBS Ancibns. April 18thy 1798. 

nUKB OF NORFOLK. THB MABQIHS OF lANSDOWNB. GRAFTON. 

Two Dukes (Norfolk and Grafton), and a Marquis 
(Lansdowne), were to form at least part of the Council of 
Ancients, that important branch of the French Republican 
L^islature, and of the future Republican Legislature of 
England. 

187. 
FRENCH HABITS, No. 3.— Lbs Mbmbrbs du Consbil 
DBS Cinq Cbnts. April ISth, 1798. 

MB. BYNO. M. A. TAYLOR LORD LAUDBSDALB. 

BARL OF DBRBY. LORD STANHOPB. 

A group of the future English Council of the five hun- 
dred, no less characteristic of the persons and tempers of 
thos9 who were to compose it. 

188. 
FRENCH HABITS, No. 4.— Mbmbbb du Dirbctoibb 
ExECDTiF. April 18th, 1798. 

DUKB OF BBDFORD. 

The rich and zealous Duke of Bedford is represented in 
the gay costume of a Member of the Executive Directory, 
which at this time was dictating the fortunes of Europe. 



122 GILLBAY^S CARICATDB£S. 

189. 

FRENCH HABITS, No. 5.— Pbesidknt D'Administra- 
TiON MuNiciPALB. April 18thj 1798. 

HOBNE TOOKE. 

The notorious agitator Tooke, who had never ceased to 
be identified with political turmoil since the beginning of 
this long reign, was to receive a less elevated place, at the 
head of a municipal government. 

190. 
FRENCH HABITS, No. 6.— Le Boueeau. 

April 18th, 1798. 

TIERNEY. 

Tiemey was harshly dealt with, when he could obtain 
no more honourable appointment than that of the State 
Executioner ; he was to be appointed to a presidence^ but 
to preside only over the fearful guillotine. 

191. 

FRENCH HABITS, No. 7.— L'Avocat de la Repub- 
LiQUE. May 2l8t, 1798. 

EBSKINE. 

The great Whig lawyer, Erskine, was supposed to aim 
at placing himself at the head of his profession, in the 
new order of things. 

192. 

FRENCH HABITS, No. 8.— Membbe de la haute Coub 
DE Justice. May 15th, 1798. 

SIB JOHN SHUCKBOBOUOH. 

There is the sedatencss of age, if not dignity, in this 
high expounder of the justice of the Republic. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 123 

193. 
FRENCH HABITS, No. 9. — Jugb du Tribunal 
CoRSBCTiONEL. May 2\8t, 1798. 

COURTNEY. 

Courtney, wlio here occupies a position which at this 
time oflfered frequent opportunities for sallies of humour, 
was distinguished as one of the wittiest of the Opposition 
orators in the House of Commons. 

194. 
FRENCH HABITS, No. 10.— Juoe de Paix. 

May 15th, 1798. 

NICHOLS. 

Nichols was a very zealous and a very active partizan 
of the Opposition in the House of Commons, although 
not one of those whose talents or influence have obtained 
a prominent place in the memory of posterity. The 
satirist appears to have thought him best fitted for the 
office of a Republican justice of peace. 

195. 
FRENCH HABITS, No. 11.— Le Tresorier. 

May2l8ty 1798. 

SIR WILLIAM PULTENEY. 

Sir William Pulteney seated : a book lies open before 
him entitled " Etat des Finances de la Republique." The 
key of office is attached to his coat. 

In the year 1797, before Easter, a very considerable 
number of Members of the House of Commons, dissatisfied 
with the conduct of the war, the embarrassed state of the 
finances, and the alarming situation of the country, formed 
themselves into "A Third Party,*' and requested an 
interview with Lord Moira, with a view to efiect a change 
of Ministry. As there is no account of this negotiation in 



124 aiLLBilT's CARICATURES. 

GiflTord's Life of Pitt, in various other historical memoirs 
of the times, nor in Cooke's History of Party, we shall 
famish the reader with some extracts from a letter of 
Lord Moira addressed to Col. M'Mahon, dated Donington, 
June 15, 1797, but not printed till January 2, 1798. They 
will show why Grillray has invested Sir William Pulteney 
with the habit of " Lb Tresoeiee" in this Print. 

*' They requested that I would endeavour on the assur- 
ance of their support to form an administration, on the 
principle of excluding peraons who had on either side 
made themselves obnoxious to the public.'' 

'^ I strenuously recommended them to form an alliance 
with Mr. Fox's party, that might be satisfactory to them- 
selves, and reduce to strict engagement the extent of the 
measures, which Mr. Fox when brought into office by 
themselves would propose.". 

'^ Hitherto nobody has been designated to any particular 
office, but Sir WiUiam Pulteney. The gentlemen had 
said that he was the person whom they should be most 
gratified in seeing Chancellor of the Exchequer, and 
I had professed to them and to him that there was not 
any person with whom I could act more confidently." 

"I added, the introduction of Lord Thurlow, Sir 
William Pulteney, and myself into the Cabinet would not 
assure the public of a change of system." 

The Third Party, however, disapproved the admission 
of either Fox or Pitt into the Cabinet. Sheridan, and the 
other friends of Fox, at once rejected Lord Moira's over- 
tures, and would only act in conjunction with him. After 
the negotiation was broken off. Colonel M'Mahon sent Fox 
a copy of Lord Moira's letter, addressed to himself. Fox, 
in acknowledging the receipt of the letter, says : " His 
conduct appears to have been, what I never doubted it 
would be — honourable and judicious. I had as little doubt 
of his good wishes to, and favourable opinion of, me." 
Canning, in " An Ode to Lord Moira," in the Anti' 



POLITICAL SERIES. 125 

Jacobin of January ^2^ 1798, glances at the proposed 
appointment of Sir WUliam Pulteney to the Chancellorship 
of the Exchequer. 

" Old Pnllenej, too, joar influence feels. 
And asks fhym yon th' Exchcqnor Seals, 
To tax and saYe the nation." 

See AniA-JaoMn^ toI. i. p. 882. 

196. 
PBENCH HABITS, No. 12.— Messaokb D'Btat. 

May 21«f, 1798. 

SIB FRANCIS BIJBDETT. 

Bordett, who was at this time coming into notoriety as 
a patriot, is placed last in the list. Though his office of 
a Messenger of State is not a high one, his costume, at 
least, is equal to that of most of his superiors. 

197. 
LONDON CORRESPONDING SOCIETY ALARMED. 

April 9Mh, 1798. 
Another caricature on the political events in the spring 
of 1798, and on the prosecutions against the members of 
the political clubs, which was striking no httle alarm into 
the latter, at the head of which was the celebrated London 
Corresponding Society. The intention of this caricature 
is to expose to ridicule the low materials of which the 
secret societies were often composed. 

198. 
MEETING OF UNFORTUNATE CITOTENS. 

May 12th, 1798. 

DUNDAS. PITT. POX. DUKB OP NORFOLK. 

Fox and the Duke of Norfolk are represented in this 
print as condoling with each other. Fox, as '' scratched 
off— dished — ^kicked out.'' A list of the Privy Council 
is exhibited, with the name of " C. J. Fox'' run through. 



I2ff gillray's caricatures. 

The Duke of Norfolk, who had been deprived of his Lord 
Lieutenancy, and Colonelcy of the Yorkshire Militia, 
exclaims — " How ! What ! Kicked out I Ah, marhleu ! 
chacun a son jour. Ah, maa-bleu !'' Dundas and Pitt are 
standing sentinels at St. James's Palace. 

A dinner of the Whig Club took place at the Free- 
masons' Tavern, on the Ist of May, 1798. Mr. Pox was 
in the chair. He gave, as the first toast — 

'' The Sovereignty op the People of Great Britain.*' 

The Duke of Norfolk proposed The health of the Man 
who dares be honest in the worst of times— 



i9 



''Charles James Fox. 

Mr. Fox responded in a most impressive speech; he 
said, '' On any other occasion he should have contented 
himself with returning thanks, but in the very peculiar 
embarrassments in which the country was now plunged, 
he thought it necessary to say a few words in the only 
place in which he thought it might be useful for him to 
deliver his sentiments. The circumstances and events of 
public afiairs of late had induced him and many of his 
friends to abstain from their usual assiduous attendance 
in Parliament. Their exertions for the preservation of the 
Constitution had been of no avail ; two years ago they had 
seen the repeal of the Bill of Rights carried by a triumphant 
majority ; they had seen the functions of the Constitutional 
Law suspended, on alarm created by the Ministers them- 
selves ; and however well founded the alarm might now 
be, he scorned the idea that it was necessary for him to 
attend in his place in the House of Commons, for the pur- 
pose only of vindicating himself from the vulgar calumny 
that he was not an enemy to a foreign invasion. It would 
be an insult on his whole life if such a declaration could 
be expected from him. He believed there was not a voice 



POLITICAL SERIES. 127 

in the assembly he addressed^ which was not in unison 
with his own — ^namely^ that every man who heard him 
was both ready and willing to stand forth in the defence 
of his country^ with the spirit that belongs to Englishmen. 
He found no fault with those who thought it necessary to 
make these professions elsewhere. Thus much only he 
would say in this place for himself. The present Govern^ 
ment of the country, he had no hesitation in saying, was a 
Oovernment of Tyranny. They had adopted the principles 
of Robespierre, and their object was to establish tyranny in 
England. Look at the situation of the Sister Kingdom ; 
our own will soon be the same. He had no remedy to 
recommend, but that the friends of freedom should be 
united and firm, and wait for better times. Tyranny was 
now the order of the day in every country in Europe. 
Notwithstanding the arbitrary proceedings of our own 
ministers, he was persuaded the unanimous feeling of the 
countiy, the universal determination of every man in it 
was to be ready to take the field against a foreign foe ; 
and indeed, they had a powerful motive to do so, for if 
they were united, they had a better chance to get rid of 
the tyranny of their own Ministers than they could 
possibly have by the success of a foreign invasion. Even 
in his present retirement he should be ready to come 
forward, in every constitutional effort, to regain our lost 
Uberties : and he should be in the foremost of the ranks 
to repel the invasion of a daring enemy.'* 

We have been thus particular in recording Fox's speech 
on this occasion, as it led to a most important consequence, 
—the erasing from the Privy Council Book the name of 
one of the most illustrious statesmen, which had ever 
adorned it. Fox's name was struck out by the King on 
the 9th of May. Fox must have anticipated this result, 
indeed he seems to have courted or rather provoked it. 
In the preceding February, after giving the toast of *' The 
Sovereignty op the People," in commenting on the 

9 



128 qillrat's cabtcatures. 

dismissal of the Duke of Norfolk from his Lord-Lieute- 
nancy and Colonelcy of Militia, he remarked, '' I have 
nothing the Ministers can take from mo. I am still 
indeed a Privy Counsellor, at least I know nothing to the 
contrary, and if this sentiment entitles the Noble Duke 
to this animadversion, I shall certainly feel that I am 
equally entitled to this mark of his Majesty's displeasure/' 

George III. was perhaps not sorry to embrace the 
opportunity, thus afforded, of inflicting an indignity upon 
Fox by depriving him of his rank of Privy CounseUor.* 
For he entertained as strong a personal dislike of Fox, as 
George II. had done to the elder Pitt. As far back as 
the early part of 1784, when a large assemblage of Mem- 
bers of the House of Commons, of acknowledged weight 
and independence, from both sides of the House, met at 
the St. Alban's Tavern, and endeavoured to effect a union 
between Pitt and Fox, with a view to the formation of a 
strong Administration, George III. wrote a private letter 
to Pitt, commencing thus: "Queen's House, February 15, 
1784. Mr. Pitt is well apprized of the mortification I 
feel at any possibility of ever again seeing the heads of 
the Opposition in public employments, particularly Mr. 
Fox, whose conduct has not been more marked against 
my station in the empire than against my person," &c. Ac. 
Both Sovereigns, however, wore compelled by the public 
voice and the exigencies of the State, eventually to call 
to their councils the object of their respective aversion. 

On the death of Mr. Pitt in January, 1806, Fox was 

* On the 6th of Jane, after the dinner at the Whig Club, the Dnke of 
Bedford proposed *' The Health of Charles Fox/' and animadTerted in 
severe terms on Ministers having caused the King to strike his name oat of 
the list of the Priyj Conncil. Mr. Fox said, *Ut would be most oniit for 
him to say a word respecting the Noble Duke's allusion to a circomstance 
personal to himself. Would to God the time of the Ministers had been 
always employed in tuch frivolous fooleries as settling who shoold be 
Honourable and who Right Honourable, and deliberating on the titles most 
befitting their friends and supporters." 



POLITICAL SERIES. 129 

appointed Secretary of State for Foreign Aflfairs, and 
virtually Prime Minister.* The ability and address with 
which he conducted public afEairs, — his attractive maimers, 
and the uniform attention and deference he paid to the 
King, overcame the preconceived prejudices of the Eang, 
and conciliated his esteem. Unfortunately his ministerial 
career was very short: he died September 13, 1806. 
'' Little did I think,'' said his Majesty to Lord Sidmouth 
at the first interview with which he honoured him after 
the fatal event, '^ little did I think that I slwuld ever live 
to regret Mr. Fax^s death.'' 

" Mr. Fox's powers of attraction must have been extra- 
ordinary, indeed, to overcome as they did, not only the 
feebler resistance of Lord Sidmouth's political preposses- 
sions, but also the more deeply rooted predispositions, 
which were believed to prevail in the Royal mind, yet 
that such was the case is unquestionable." — Pcllew's Life 
of Lord Sidmouth, vol. 2. p. 435. 

A pension of £936, was granted to Mr. Fox's widow. — 
See "Eeport from the Select Committee on existing Pen- 
sions," July 24, 1838, p. 42.— "Fox, Elizabeth Bridget, 
aged 88, £936. widow of the Right Hon. C. J. Fox." 

'' He had not," says Lodge, " like Mr. Pitt, the honour 
of a funeral and monument voted by the Parliament of his 

* Gillraj's other '' UnfortDnate Citoyen" was appointed Lord laeatenant 
of the county of Sussex. A circumstance occurred daring the Begency, 
which reflected the highest honour on the Dnke of Norfolk. A vacancy 
having occurred in the Order of the Garter, the Regent communicated to 
the Duke of Norfolk his intention of conferring the vacant Blue Ribbon on 
the Duke, as a mark of his private friendship for the Duke, and wholly 
independent of all political considerations. The Blue Ribbon had always 
been the favourite object of the Duke's ambition ; but in an interview with 
the Regent, he expressed his deep sense of the high honour proposed to be 
conferred on him, and wliich was greatly enhanced by the terms in which 
the communication had been conveyed, but respectfully and firmly declined 
the honour, stating that it was contrary to his political principles to accept 
a favour from the Crown, while he felt it to be his imperative duty to oppose 
the principles and measures of the Ministers who enjoyed its confidence. 

9 * 



130 oillrat's caricatures. 

country; but the spontaneous affection of his countrymen, 
and the number of his private friends and political adhe- 
rents, in some measure supplied the place. The atten- 
dance of rank, talent, distiuction, and numbers, at the 
last mournful ceremony which consigned him to the 
grave, was almost unexampled; and a splendid monu- 
ment in the Abbey, together with a bronze statue in 
Bloomsbury Square, were raised to his memory by muni- 
ficent subscriptions/' 

Another generous political opponent paid a tribute to 
his memory. 

« For talents monrn, untimely lost, 
When best employ'd and wanted most ; 
Monrn genius high, and lore profound, 
And wit that loved to play, not wound ; 
And all the reasoning powers diyine, 
To penetrate, resolve, combine ; 
And feelings keen, and fancy's glow, 
They sleep with him, who sleeps below.'* 

Sir Walter Scott also beautifully alludes to the proximity 
of Fox's tomb to that of his great rival, and the remark- 
able circumstance of the two graves being placed in 
immediate opposition to each other, as their illustrious 
occupants had been during their political career. He 
bids us mourn for 

** Genius, and taste, and talent gone. 
For ever tomb'd beneath the stone, 
Where — taming thought to human pride ! — 
The mighty chiefs sleep side by side, 
Drop upon Fox*s grave the tear, 
'Twill trickle to his rival's bier; 
O'er Pitt the mournful requiem sound, 
And Fox's shall the notes rebound. 
The solemn echo seems to cry, — 
* Here let their discord with them die ;' 
Speak not for them a separate doom. 
Whom Fate made brothers in the tomb ; 
But search the land of living men. 
Where wilt thou find their like agen?" 

Introduction to Ccmto the First of Marmiok. 



POLITICAL S£BIES. 



131 



199. 
SHRINE AT ST. ANNE'S HILL. May 26th, 1798. 

NICHOLLS. TIERNET. LORD LAUDERDALE. DUKE OF BEDFORD. 
DUKE OF NORFOLK. MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE. FOX. 

Fox is kneeling before the basts of Robespierre/Egalit^, 
and Buonaparte. A Tablet is placed on the democratic 
altar^ on which is inscribed ^^ Droit de L'Homme/' a Poli- 
tical Parody on the Decalogue, the Sixth, Seventh, and 
Eighth Articles may be taken as a specimen — ^VI. " Right 
to KiU/' Vn. "Right to commit Adultery ; YHL "Right 
to Plunder." Nicholls, the Duke of Norfolk, and others, 
as stated in the above title, are represented as harpies, 
Ac. hovering around. 

As St. Anne's Hill is consecrated to immortality from 
having been the favourite residence of Fox, we will give 
— first, some account of the place ; and, secondly, of the 
domestic habits and pursuits of its illustrious occupant at 
this time. 

" On the hill is a house, the residence of the late Right 
Hon. 0. J. Fox, who spent much of the latter part of his 
life here, and improved it by plantations, &c. It is copy- 
hold, held of the manor of Chertsey. In 1769, Lady 
Trevor surrendered it to the use of Lord Charles Spencer, 
or of such person as he should appoint. In 1778, her 
Ladyship joined with Lord Charles in surrendering it to 
the use of the Duke of Marlborough, who soon after sold 
it to Mrs. Armistead, now the widow of Mr. Fox, and 
who resides here, 1811.'' — ^Manning and Bray's History 
of Surrey, vol. iii. p. 227. 

''St. Anne's HiU," says Trotter, "is delightfully 
situated; it commands a rich and extensive prospect. 
The house is embowered in trees, on the side of a hill, its 
grounds decline gracefully to a road, which bounds them 
at the bottom. Some fine trees are grouped round the 



132 oillbat's caricatures. 

house, and three remarkably beautiful ones stand in the 
lawn, while a profusion of shrubs are throughout distri- 
buted with taste and judgment. Hero Mr. Fox was the 
tranquil and happy possessor of about thirty acres of 
land, and the inmate of a small but pleasant mansion. 
The simpUcity and benignity of his manners, speaking the 
integrity and grandeur of his character, soon dissipated 
those feelings of awe, which one naturally experiences on 
approaching what is very exalted." — Trotter's Memoirs 
of the latter Years of Fox, p. 9 and 10. 

^' Far from me and my friends be such frigid philosophy, 
as may conduct us indifferent and unmoved over any 
ground which has been dignified by wisdom, bravery, or 
virtue. That man is little to be envied whose patriotism 
would not gain force upon the plain of Marathon.'' Such 
is the eloquent exclamation of Dr. Johnson. We should 
likewise esteem it impossible that any man of enlightened 
mind could visit the mansion, tread the ground, or breathe 
the air of St. Anne's Hill, without feeling his love of 
liberty, and the British constitution invigorated and ex- 
panded. We recall to our recollection the splendid exer- 
tions of our British Demosthenes in the cause of Freedom, 
in the advocacy of Peace, in his triumphant establishment 
of the Bight of Juries to decide on the Law, as well as the 
Fact in the case of Libels, and his virtual Abolition of the 
Slave Trade in his last short ministerial career. 

In the year 1793, it became known to some of Mr. 
Fox's intimate personal and political friends, that he was 
greatly embarrassed in his pecuniary circumstances. They 
did not suffer their regret to evaporate in unavailing ex- 
pressions. A meeting was arranged to take place on the 
1st of June, at the Crown and Anchor Tavern, " for the 
purpose of offering to Mr. Fox an effective Testimony of 
Gratitude for his long and unwearied Political Exer- 
tions in their cause, and that of the Public.'' Mr. Francis 
assured the meeting that every precaution had been taken 



POLITICAL 8EBIES. 133 

to keep the intention from the knowledge of Mr. Fox. — 
At a second Meeting, on the 11th of Jiine^ the Committee 
announced that the plan had been seconded with such 
success as to enable them to present Mr. Fox with an 
annuity, neither unworthy of him nor themselves. Mr. 
Fox thus became possessed of one of the first of earthly 
blessings — Independence; and he never, by any subse- 
quent imprudence, abused the well-placed generosity of 
his friends. 

We will now give a slight sketch of Mr. Fox's domestic 
habits, occupations, and literary pursuits, after his seces- 
sion from Parliament in 1797, when he enjoyed the quiet 
and tranquillity of a comparatively private life; from which 
he would not have emerged had not his detestation of the 
War, induced him to return to the House of Commons in 
1802, to defend the Peace of Amiens, and he was per- 
suaded to continue his parliamentary attendance by the 
urgent request of friends, with whose wishes he felt him- 
self bound to comply. Mr. Fox was an early riser. In 
the summer he rose between six and seven, and break- 
fasted at eight ; in the winter he rose at eight, and break- 
fasted at nine. At breakfast he read aloud some of the 
newspapers to Mrs. Fox and any visitors, who might be 
residing with them. ^^ At such times,^' says his Private 
Secretary, '^ when the political topics of the day were natu- 
rally introduced by the papers, I never could observe the 
least acrimony or anger against the party, which so sedu- 
lously, and indeed so successfully, had laboured to exclude 
him from the management of affairs by misrepresentations 
of his motives, rather than by refutation of his arguments.'' 
Gibbon, in a letter to Lord Sheffield, bears a similar testi- 
mony to the delightful amenity of his disposition. In 
describing the pleasure he derived from Fox passing a day 
with him at Lausanne just after ho had lost all hope of 
restoration to power by the triumphant majority which 
Pitt had obtained by the general election ; he adds, " We 



134 OILLRAT^S CARICATURES. 

had little politics, though he gave me, in a few words, such 
a character of Pitt, as one great man should give of another, 
his rival/* And in his autobiography, says, "I admired in 
Mr. Fox the powers of a superior man, as they are blended 
in his attractive character, with all the softness and sim- 
plicity of a chad : no human being was ever freer from 
all taint of malignity, vanity, or falsehood.'* 

After breakfast Mr. Fox regularly read some Italian 
author, with Mrs. Fox. He then retired to his library, 
and pursued his studies until dinner time. These he pro- 
secuted with almost youthful ardour. The Greek Dramatic 
Poets occupied much of his attention at this time, and he 
corresponded with Gilbert Wakefield on subjects of clas- 
sical literature. An ardent politician who had seen a letter 
on his table directed to Charles Grey, would have supposed 
he had discovered that some political project was in agita- 
tion, and would have been surprised to learn that the long 
epistle was a defence of the epithet " Merry,'* to the note 
of the Nightingale,* with a reference to Chaucer, " who 
of all poets seems to have been the fondest of the singing 
of birds ;** references are made to Theocritus; "Sophocles 
is against us ; but see what Homer says, you will find the 
passage somewhere in one of the twelve last books of the 
Odyssey, and if you do not readily find the passage, you 
will be amply repaid by the pleasure of the perusal." The 
reader may judge from this what were the nature of Fox's 
studies at this time. 

In summer Mr. Fox dined at half -past two or three, and 
in winter at four, that time might be afforded for walking, 
and other rural amusements. After tea, the evening was 
usually spent in conversation, or Mr. Fox would read aloud 
some historical work, or some other literary production ; 

* Drj'dcn pocnw to have been startled at Chaucer's application of " Merry** 
to the note of the Nighting:nle, and in \m ni<Klerni/ation of the Flower and 
the Leaf has changed the bird into a Goldtinch. Sir Waller Scott docb not 
notice this change. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 135 

the lighter departments of the Belles Lettres, however, 
were not neglected ; and Mr. Pox would gratify the circle 
of his friends by reading the Mysteries of Udolpho, or 
other popular novel or romance. At ten a light supper 
was served, and soon after the party retired to rest. 

Planting and gardening were favourite occupations of 
Pox, and he is universally allowed to have laid out the 
grounds of St. Anne's Hill with skill and taste. He con- 
sidered the five years of his secession from Parliament 
(from 1797 to 1802) as the happiest period of his life. 
Mrs. Pox's efforts to promote his domestic comforts were 
exemplary and untiring. On the 24th of January, 1799, 
he attained his fiftieth year, and on his birthday addressed 
these verses to Mrs. Pox. 

" Of years I have now half a century past, 
And none of the fifty so blest as the last ; 
How it happens my troubles thus daily should cease. 
And my happiness still with my years should increase. 
In defiance of Nature's more general laws, 
Tou alone can explain, who alone are the cause.'' 

The reader will, perhaps, be amused with the following 
Physiognomical Portrait of Pox, executed by the Cory- 
phaDus of Physiognomists — Lavator. It is contained in a 
letter of Sir Balph Payne (afterwards Lord Lavington) to 
Sir Robert Murray Keith, dated Lyons, Nov. 1, 1788. 
" When I was at Zurich, where I staid a couple of days, 
I paid a visit to, and spent two or three hours each day 
with Lavater, and I will annex a memorandum, which I 
copied from his note*book, on Charles Pox's Physiognomy, 
which he had an opportunity of examining about a Qouple 
of months ago, at Berne, where he met him accidentally .'' 

PnT8IOO!VOMT OF FoX BT LaTATES. 

Fkont. In^puisablc : plus dc Richesscs d'idees et d*images, quo 'je n'ai 

jamaU vu peint swr aucune Ph\j:fiognomic au M.onde, 
SouRciLS. Superbes, rcgnants, dominants. 



136 GILLRAT^S CARICATURES. 

Nbz. Mddiocre.^LE8 Tedx. BempliB de g^nie, pcrgans, fascmants, 
magiqnes. 

Leb Joueb. SensnelleB. — Bouche. Pleine d*nne yolnbilit^ Burpreaante 
et agreable, et le bas da yiaage doax, affable ot sociable. — Layatbb 
FiNXiT. — See Sir Bobort Murray Keith's Ck>rrespondence, Yd. ii. 



200. 

THE TREE OF LIBEETY,— WITH THE DEVIL 
TEMPTING JOHN BULL. May 23rd, 1798. 

POX. 

Fox, as the serpent of political evil, attempting to 
sednce John Bull with the apple of Beform. 

Political excitement prevailed in England at this time 
with extraordinary intensity and rancour. The Whigs 
accused the Ministers of a systematic design to establish 
despotic power in thq kingdom, and using the suspension 
of the Habeas Corpus Act, the Restrictions of the Liberty 
of the Press, and other coercive measures as means to 
facilitate that object. The Tories, in their turn, branded 
their opponents as Jacobins, plotting to subvert tho 
Monarchical Institutions of the country. 

This Print may be regarded as a clever specimen of tho 
exaggerated misrepresentations on the Tory side of the 
question. From the branches of the "Tree op Liberty," 
which Fox has planted, sprout, not only ^^ Reform, De- 
mocracy, Conspiracy, Treason, and Revolution,^' but 
^' Atheism, Deism, Blasphemy ,'* &c. ; sentiments abhorrent 
from his nature. Such attacks, however, were considered 
legitimate warfare in those days of over-excitemeut. 

" We live in times of violence and extremes,'' says Fox, 
in a letter to one of his correspondents, ^' and all who are 
for creating, or even for retaining chocks upon power, are 
considered as enemies to order.'* Fox was accordingly 
represented as a Republican, though he had given a most 



POLITICAL SERIES. 137 

lacid exposition of his sentiments, in liis speecli on the 
Army Estimates in 1790. ''He always thought any of 
the simple unbalanced Governments bad, simple Mo- 
narchy, simple Aristocracy, simple Democracy, — ^he held 
them all imperfect, or vicious ; all were bad by them- 
selves : the composition alone was good. Those had 
always been his principles, in which he had agreed with 
his friend, Mr. Burke.'' And again, in his speech for 
giving a Constitution to Canada, in 1 791. '* With regard 
to Grovemment, he would express his mind freely and 
explicitly ; and that was, that there could be no good or 
complete system of (Jovemment without a proper mixture 
of Monarchy, Aristocracy, and Democracy. These had 
always been his sentiments ; and whoever thought other- 
wise, had entirely misunderstood him, especially if they 
supposed that he was an enemy to Aristocracy.'' 

201. 
THE EXPLANATION. May SOth, 1798. 

LOBD CAMELFOBD. PITT. TIERNET. SIR f. BURDETT. 

On Friday, May 25, 1798, Pitt moved to bring in a 
Bill " for the more efficient Manning of the Navy, by an 
augmentation of 10,000 men to the present force," at 
the same time intimating, '^ that as the present alarming 
situation of the country made it necessary that this mea- 
sure should be passed without any delay, he should wish 
that the Bill might this day be passed through its different 
stages, with a suitable pause at each, if required; and 
that it should be sent to the Lords for their concurrence." 
Tiemey complained of the precipitancy of the Eight Hon. 
Gentleman. He had heard no arguments that proved its 
propriety. '' He knew of no sudden emergency that 
urged its necessity ; even if he had, some time ought to 
have been allowed him to weigh and to examine the nature 
of such an emergency, before he proceeded to give three 



138 gillrat's cabicatubes. 

or foar votes on a measure of which no notice had been 
given/' Pitt repeated the urgency of the measure, and 
said : ^^ If the measure be necessarji and that a notice of 
it would enable its effects to be eluded, how can the 
Honourable Gentleman's opposition to it be accounted for, 
but from a desire to obstruct the defence of the country. '^ 
Tiernej called the Bight Hon. Gentleman to order, the 
language was unparliamentary, and he appealed to the 
Chair for protection. The Speaker (Addington) said it 
was unparliamentary to impute improper motives to any 
Hon. Gentleman, and the House would wait for the Bight 
Hon. Gentleman's explanation. Pitt replied, " He was 
afraid the House must wait for a long while before they 
heard such an explanation as was demanded of him, for 
he must adhere to his former declaration," which he 
repeated. ^^ He knew that he had no right to impute 
motives to the language used by the Honourable Gtsntle- 
man, however impossible it might be not to suspect such 
inotives. He must say, he would neither retract, nor 
further explain his former expressions."* Mr. Tiemey 
immediately withdrew from the House, which ought to 
have been a sufficient indication to the Speaker of what 
would take place, and he should have exerted the authority 
of the Chair to constrain each party to give a pledge that 
no hostile proceeding should ensue. 

On the next day, Saturday, May 26, as the Speaker 
was dining with Lord Grosvenor, a letter was brought 
him from Pitt, stating that he had received a hostile mes- 
sage from Mr. Tiemey, and requesting to see him. The 
Speaker immediately repaired to Downing Street. '^ On 
my arrival," he says, ^' I found Pitt had just made his 
wiU."— See PelleVs " Life of Lord Sidmouth." 

On Sunday, May 27, at three o'clock in the afternoon, 
Mr. Pitt, accompanied by Mr. Byder, and Mr. Tierney by 

* ilansard^s Debates, vul. 35, pp. 1460^0:2. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 139 

Mr. George Walpolo, met, by appointment, on Wimbledon 
Common.* After some ineffectual attempts on the part of 
the seconds to prevent further proceedings, the parties 
took their ground, at the distance of Twelve paces. A case 
of pistols was fired at the same moment, without effect ; a 
second case was also fired in the same way. Mr. Pitt fired 
his second pistol in the air. The seconds then interfered, 
and insisted that the matter should go no further, it being 
their decided opinion that sufficient satisfaction had been 
given, and that the business was ended with perfect honour 
tobothparties.'* — See "Pellew's Life of Lord Sidmouth.'* 
On the following Wednesday, May 30, Mr. Wilberforce 
gave notice of his intention to bring the subject before Par- 
liament, with a view to prevent the recurrence of a similar 
event. Mr. Pitt addressed a letter to him, from which tho 
following is an extract: — " Downing-street, May 30, 1798. 
—Whatever may be your general sentiments on subjects 
of this nature, they can have acquired no new force, or 
additional argument from any thing that has passed in this 
transaction. You must be supposed to bring it forward 
with reference to the individual case. In doing so you will 
be accessory to loading one of the paiiiies with unfair and 
nmnerited obloquy. With respect to the other party, 
myself, I feel it a real duty to say to you, frankly, that 
your motion is one for my removal. If any step on the sub- 
ject is proposed in Parliament, and agreed to, I shall feel 
from that moment that I can be of more use out of office 
than in it ; for in it, according to the feelings I entertain, 
I conld be of none. I state to you, as I think I ought, 
distinctly and explicitly, what I feel. I hope I need not 

* The Annual Register, and the Editor of Hansard's Parliamentary De- 
bates, erroneociBly state the dnel to hare taken place on Patney Heath. 
Speaker Addington pointed oat the exact spot to his son-in-law Pellew. 
** The dael occnrred in the hollow beneath the windmill which crowns tho 
Common, and at some little distance to the left of the high road, where it 
descends the hill towards Kingston, and on the spot in which he himself stood 
awaiting the result." — ^Pellew's ** Life of Lord Sidmouth," toI. i. p. 206. 



140 oillrat's caricatures. 

repeat what I always feel personally to yourself/' — ^Wilber- 
force^s Life, vol. ii. p. 281. — Pitt's threat \)f resignation 
induced Wilberforce to relax the sternness of his deter- 
mination to discharge this moral and political duty. He 
abandoned his motion, and contented himself with enter- 
ing in his Diary, at the bottom of Pitt's letter — " Strange 
length to which he carries the point of honour.'' 

*' The Speaker was censured at the time, especially by 
the Opposition, for not having insisted on a more satisfac- 
tory explanation from Mr. Pitt. This was said to have 
been the only occasion on which he had erred in judgment, 
or failed to enforce the authority of the House, and cer- 
tainly it does appear doubtful whether, in his anxiety lest 
he should make the matter worse by interference, he 
exerted his influence sufficiently." — PelloVs Life of Lord 
Sidmouth, vol. i. p. 204. Such is the lenient stricture of 
his biographer, who would have represented the public 
feeling more correctly, if he had said, the Speaker was 
universally censured, and his presence near the scene of 
the duel was considered an aggravation of the original 
error. ^' Some one," said Addington, " observed that the 
Speaker knew of the meeting, and ought to have prevented 
it /' but Lord Chatham remarked, ^^ that I could not have 
taken any step so injurious to his family; in fact, as I had 
received the information from Pitt himself, my interfering 
would have looked too much like collusion." Vol. i. p. 205. 

It seems extraordinary that the Speaker's nerves, or 
his judgment should have failed him on this occasion. He 
had given many proofs of his strict impartiality and inde- 
pendence. On the 25th of May, 1792, in the debate on 
the celebrated Proclamation against Seditious Publications, 
Mr. Grey (afterwards Earl Grey), made a most acrimo- 
nious attack on Pitt. He said — '^ One intention of the 
Proclamation seemed to be to divide the Opposition. It 
was a measure contrived by him, whoso supremo delight 
was to see discord supersede harmony among those who 



POLITICAL SERIES. 141 

opposed his measures ; by him whose whole political life 
was a tissue of constant inconsistency, of assertion and 
retraction ; by him who never proposed a measure without 
intending to deceive his hearers, promising every thing, 
but performing nothing, and perpetually breaking his word 
with the public ; who studied all the arts of captivating 
popularity, without ever intending to deserve it; and who 
was a complete apostate from the very commencement of 
his political life ; by him whose malignity sought its gra- 
tification in the separation of the dearest of friends, and 
whose whole conduct was an uninterrupted series of con- 
temptuous disdain towards the rights of the people, and 
the privileges of that House. Mr. Grey was repeatedly 
called to order, but suffered to proceed by the Speaker, 
who did not think his language disorderly.'^ Rivington's 
Annual Register for 1792, vol. i. p. 376. The Speaker, 
who thus decided, cannot be suspected of having had a 
disposition to succumb to the Minister, or of improperly 
consulting his personal feelings. 

When Mr. Pitt had complied with the despotism of 
custom, and given the satisfaction required by a barbarous 
code of honour, it would have been more consonant with 
true dignity if he had retracted the injurious imputation 
which he must have known to be groundless,* but his pride 
overcame his magnanimity. No one ever passed through 

* It was generally reported at the time that Pitt had partaken rather too 
freelj of the oonyiyialitiea of the dinner-table on the afternoon of the debate 
which gave rise to the duel. 

** Narratnr et Prisci Catonis 

Ssepe Mero caluisse Virtus." 

Occnrrences of this sort were not unfreqnent in those days with Members of 
the House of Commons. The RoUiad has a pointed allusion to a scene of 
this description in an epigram on Pitt and Dundas. 

*' I can't see the Speaker, Hal ; can you ?'* 
** Not see the Speaker, Will ? why I see two." 

Gilbray has seTcral caricatures on the symposia of Pitt and Dundas. 



142 OILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

a long parliamentary career with a higher character for 
political worth, or more respected by friends or opponents^ 
than Tiemey did. 

After Tiemey's death, the most honourable tribute was 
paid to his memory by the Duke of Wellington, to whom 
Tiemey had always been opposed in politics. In the Re- 
port of the Select Committee of the House of Commons 
on Pensions, we find, under the head of Pensions granted 
in connexion with Political and Parliamentary Services, 
the following entry — '^Tierney, Anna Maria; aged 73, 
widow of the late Right Hon. George Tiemey ; this pen,'- 
sion was unsolMted, and was recommended to the Crown 
by his Grace the Duke of Wellington, then at the head of 
the Government/' — Page 42. 

202. 

OPPOSITION TELEGRAPHS; or, THE LITTLE 
SECOND-SIGHTED LAWYER GIVING A TRUE 
SPECIMEN OP PATRIOTIC INFORMATION. 

June 23rd, 1798. 

JEKYLL. 

Early in May, 1798, the English Government deter- 
mined to send a naval and military expedition to Ostend, 
under the command of Captain Sir Home Popham and 
Major-General Coote, '^ for the purpose of blowing up the 
basin, gates, and sluices of the Canal of Bruges, and destroy- 
ing the internal navigation between Holland, Flanders, and 
France.'' The wind proved extremely unfavourable to the 
operations of the squadron, and caused considerable delay. 
On the 18th they had anchored in the Ostend Roads ; and, 
as the weather appeared something more favourable. Sir 
Home Popham had made the signal to approach the coast, 
when the wind suddenly veered, and threatened to blow so 
violently against them, that Sir Home Popham and Gene- 
ral Coote were deliberating, whether it would not be better 



POLITICAL SERIES. 143 

to go to sea^ and wait for a more favourable opportunity ; 
" when a boat from the Vigilant so convinced us,'' says 
Sir Home Popham, " of the small force at Ostend, Nieu- 
port, and Bruges, that General Coote begged he might be 
landed, to accomplish the great object of destroying the 
Canal, even if the surf should prevent his retreat being so 
successful as I could wish/'* Early in the morning 
of the 19th, about a thousand men were landed, many 
of them before they were discovered. The greatest spirit 
and energy animated the troops, and General Coote 
completely succeeded in accomplishing the object of the 
expedition. The troops then commenced their retreat 
to their ships, and had proceeded as far as the Sand 
hills, when the wind blew a hurricane, and the vio- 
lence of the surf rendered it impossible to re-embark a 
single man. They then made every possible exertion to 
entrench themselves, and strengthen their position. They 
passed an anxious night, hoping the wind might abate in 
the morning, and enable them to regain their ships. But 
the winds and the surf were adverse. " Both Coote and 
I thought," says Colonel Burrard, in a letter to Captain 
Popham, '' that if we could not get off at day-break, we 
should be surrounded by a host of enemies. — Too truly. — 
When the day was clear, one large column appeared in 
front — four more with horse artillery attacked us in dif- 
ferent directions. The action lasted nearly two hours, 
when, surrounded on all sides, we found we could do no 
more." They capitulated. General Coote and Major 
Donkin were severely wounded, and Colonel Campbell 
killed. The total loss, including seamen, amounted to 
about 100 killed and woimded, and 900 taken prisoners. 
" The object of the expedition." says Lieut.-ColonelWarde 
'* was completed by burning a number of boats destined 
for the invasion of England, and by so completely destroy- 

* See Sir Home Fopham's Dispatch, dated May 20, 1798. 

10 



144 gillray's caricatures. 

ing the Locks, Bsisin, and Gates of the Brages Canal,* that 
it was this morning (May 20) without a drop of water ; 
and as I understand all the Transports fitting out at 
Flushing were intended to be brought to Ostend and Dun- 
kirk by the inland navigation, to avoid our cruisers, that 
arrangement will be defeated, and it will be a long time 
before the works can be repaired, as they were five years in 
finishing, and were esteemed the most complete works of the 
kind in Europe^ 

In this Print Jeeyll is represented working a 
Telegraph, erected on the top of the Morning 
Chronicle Office ; impatient to obtain the 
earliest intelligence respecting the result of 
THE Expedition to destroy the Canal of Bruges. 

On the 20th of June he exclaims : " Ay, now let us see 
what are the fruits of this miserable Expedition ! Ay, I 
see that the intelligence I had from Bruges was of un- 
doubted authority ! Yes, yes, our informations are always 
to be depended upon ! Ay, sure enough, there's the great 
Sluice of Sluykens, which was the great object of the 
Expedition, has not been blown up ; the damages have all 
been repaired in a week, and the Canal now as full as at 
any former period ! O Lord I O Lord ! this is the way 
that poor John Bull's money goes ! ! V* 

On the 21st he exclaims : — " Why, what the devil do I 
see ? Zounds ! why, here's incontestable evidence that the 
Sluices are all destroyed ! The masonry all blown up ! and 
the navigation of the Canal at an end. O Lord, what 
damages they have done ! Why, it can't be repaired by 
any efforts in less than twelve months. Mercy upon me ! 
What will my Lord Malagridaf say, when I tell him about 
this business ?" 

* The Canal of Bruges was about thirteen miles long, and in most parti 
nearlj one hundred jrards wide. It iormed one of the most important re- 
ceptacles for the boats and other craft destined for the invasion of England. 

t Marquis of Lansdownc. This appellation, derived from the name of the 



POLITICAL SERIES. 145 

Personal Satires and Political Caricatures, which excited 
the laughter and merriment of contemporaries, from the 
felicity and pungency of the allusions, frequently become 
obscure and nearly unintelligible in the next generation. 
That is the case in the present instance. The Caricature 
alludes to statements made in the House of Commons by 
Jekyll, on the 20th and 21st of June, 1798, of which no 
record is to be found in Hansard^s Debates. The gallery 
of the House was ordered to be cleared on the former day, 
and the editor of Hansard has most strangely omitted all 
notice of the proceedings of thd House on the 21st of 
June. On the 20th, Jekyll stated, in the course of his 
speech, that the Expedition to Ostend had virtually failed, 
as the damage done to the Canal of Bruges could be re- 
paired in a very short time. On the meeting of the House 
on the following day, Jekyll said : '^ He hoped the House 
would give him credit when he said, that nothing could 
give him more pain, than to make any representation that 
was not well founded. Yesterday he stated in the House, 
from the authority of letters he had seen, and which were 
received in London, that the Canal and Works at Ostend, 
the destruction of which was the object of the late Expe- 
dition thither, had not been effected ; that we had not put 
an end to that Canal. He had, however, this morning 
received information from a distinguished officer (Captain 
Popham), assuring him that his statement of yesterday 
was erroneous, and that officer gave him evidence from 
yarious quarters. He had no ocular demonstration of the 
fact himself, for he remained on board ; but he referred 
to an American officer, who had, and he declared that the 

celebrated Portngaese Jcsnit Malagrida, was first given to Lord Sholbnme 
(Marqnis of lAnsdowne), by Junius, who, iu a letter to the Public Adyertujer, 
under the Signature of " Corregio/* dated Sept. 1, 1767, characterises him as 
*' Heir apparent to Loyola — a perfect Malagrida.*' Our readers may rccullrct 
the unfortunate speech addressed by Goldsmith to Lord Shelbnrne, with his 
usual simplicity and characteristic hlnnderin*;. " [ wonder why they cull 
joa Malagrida, /or Malagrida was a good man.'* 

10 * 



146 gillray's caricatures. 

works were blown up, and entirely demolished ; that the 
navigation of the Canal was entirely put an end to, and 
that there was no current of water there now, except at the 
flowing of the tide ; and that the works cannot be put in a 
state of repair in less than twelve months. He thought it 
necessary to say this, lest it should go abroad, as he had 
stated yesterday, that the object of the Expedition was not 
attained ; he did this to quiet the mind of the gallant 
officers in the Expedition, and the more so, as the Com- 
mander-in-chief, General Coote, was there wounded. He 
was aware the former information he had received, and 
which he had stated in the House, would give pain to 
every feeling mind in the country. He was now persuaded, 
that the work of that expedition was fully done, as far as 
depended on the gallant persons concerned in it.'' 

Mr. Secretary Dundas said after this, " No man could 
have any idea that the work was not done, nor was it 
possible to say that the Hon. Gentleman had mis-stated 
the thing wilfully.'' 

Gillray has frequently introduced Jekyll into the series 
of his Political Prints, it may therefore be proper ta make 
a few remarks respecting him. He was descended from 
an eminent lawyer. Sir Joseph Jekyll, Master of the Bolls 
in the Reign of George I. He was himself a barrister, and 
practised at the common law bar. By the friendship and 
influence of Lord Shelburne (flrst marquis of Lansdowne) 
he was one of the representatives for Calne for a long series 
of years. His parliamentary speeches were enlivened by 
wit, and enforced by cogency of argument. The gaiety of 
his conversation, his bon mots, entertaining puns and 
agreeable manners, made his company much sought after 
by the best society. He was a great favourite of the Prince 
of Wales, and frequently a guest at Carlton House. 

In the spring of 1815, a Mastership in Chancery having 
become vacant, the Prince Regent was unremitting in his 
application to Lord Eldon to confer the appointment on 



POLITICAL SERIES. 147 

Jekyll ; bat He could not obtain his reluctant consent be- 
fore June. Some of the circumstances attending his 
appointment to the office are so singular and whimsical, 
that we shall relate them nearly in the words of Lord 
Eldon^ as given in his Anecdote Book, or in his account 
to his relative, Mrs. Porster. 

" The fact is, Jekyll was a great favourite with every- 
body. Everybody wished him to be well provided for in 
a proper way. Nobody wished it more than I did. But 
I hesitated weeks and months before I made the appoint- 
ment. His most anxious and most powerful well-wisher 
was the Prince Regent, who was very much attached to 
him, and with whom Jekyll had spent many convivial 
hours. He was a person of great humour and wit, and 
indulged himself in manifesting his wit and humour to a 
very considerable extent, and, I believe, without ever 
having said an ill-natured, provoking, or a rude thing of 
or to any man,* whilst he was so indulging himself. The 
Prince Regent, after having repeatedly applied to me at 
Carlton House to appoint Jekyll the Master without effect, 
and having observed that a man of his sense would soon 
be able to learn his business, at length took the following 
step in furtherance of his purpose. He came alone to my 
house in Bedford Square ; upon the servant opening the 
door, the Prince observed, that as the Chancellor had the 
gout, he knew he must be at home ; he therefore desired 
lie might be shown to the room where the Chancellor was. 

* The Chancellor's brother, howeyer, seemn to haye been annoyed at what 
most men would haye considered a harmless pleasantry. On Sir William 
Scott's marriage with the Marchioness of Sligo, he had two brass plates 
placed on his street door. On an npper compartment was one bearing 
the name of the Marchioness of Sligo; on the other, in a lower compart- 
ment, was the name of Sir W. Scott JekjU, meeting Sir W. Scott shortly 
after, said to him, " I had the pleasure of lesying my card at yonr honse the 
other day. I found you had already began to knock under." Sir William, 
on his retom home, ordered his servant to have the position of the plates 
reversed. 



148 QILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

My servants told the Prince I was much too ill to be seen. 
He, however, pressed to be admitted, and they respect- 
fully informed hira that they had positive orders to admit 
no one. Upon which he asked to be shown the staircase^ 
which they could not refuse to do. He immediately as- 
cended, and pointed first to one door, and then to another, 
asking, 'Is this your master's room?' They answered 
'No/ until he came to the right one, upon which he 
opened the door, and seated himself by my bedside. Well, 
I was surprised to see his Royal Highness, and inquired 
his pleasure, he said he had come to request that I would 
appoint Jekyll to the vacant Mastership in Chancery. I 
respectfully answered, that I deeply regretted his Royal 
Highness should ask that, for I could not comply. He 
inquired why ? Simply because, in my opinion, Mr. 
Jekyll was totally unqualified to discharge the duties of the 
office ; he continued to urge his request, and I said I could 
never agree. His Royal Highness suddenly threw himself 
back in the chair, exclaiming, 'How I do pity Lady 
Eldon P Good God ! I said, what is the matter ? ' Nothing,' 
answered the Prince, ' except that she never will see you 
again, for here I shall sit in this chair until you promise to 
make Jekyll a Master in Chancery.' Well, I was obliged 
at length to give in, I could not help it. However," added 
Lord Eldon, "Jekyll got on capitally. One of my friends 
met him after he was appointed, and asked him, how in 
the world he come to be picked out for that office, and he 
answered, ' he supposed it was because he was the most 
unfit man in the country.' Now you see the very con- 
sciousness of his want of ability led him in all difficult 
cases to consult two or three other Masters in Chancery, 
and being guided by two or three experienced heads, never 
went wrong. He continued in office a considerable time, 
till indisposition and age obliged him to retire upon the 
usual pension. I met hira in the street the day after his 
retirement, when, according to his usual manner, he ad- 



POUTICAL SERIES. 149 

dressed me in a joke, 'Yesterday, Lord Chancellor, I was 
your Master, to-day I am my own/ ''* 

We have already spoken of Jekyll's colloqnial talents, 
it only remains to add, he sometimes indulged in epigram- 
matic effusions. We can only afford space for one spe- 
cimen connected with a branch of his profession. 

ON THE SERJEANTS-AT-LAW. 

'* The seijeants are a grateful race, 
Their dress and language show it ; 
Their purple robes from Tyre we trace, 
Their arguments go to it. 

203. 

LE COUP DB MAITEE. November 24th, 1797. 

FOX. 

On the revolutionary principles attributed to the Whigs, 
and the ultimate designs which were still ascribed to their 
leader. Fox, who, it was pretended, aimed at nothing less 
than the subversion of the Constitution. 

204. 
UNITED IRISHMEN IN TRAINING- June 12, 1798. 
On the Irish Rebellion of 1798. This print requires 
little explanation. 

205. 

UNITED IRISHMEN UPON DUTY. 

June\2ih, 1798. 
A sequel to the foregoing. It is rather an exaggerated 
picture of the horrors which attended, or rather which 
were expected to attend the sanguinary Rebellion of 1798. 
French revolutionary principles are here brought into full 
play, in the shape of plunder, rape, and murder, and 
every description of outrage and devastation. 

« See Twi88*s Life of Lord Eldou, toI. u. p. 266—268. 



150 GILLRAT^S CABICATUKES. 

206. 

PIG'S MEAT ; OR, THE SWINE FLOGGED OUT 
OP THE FARM YARD. June 22nd, 1798. 

NICHOLLS. LORD DERBT. DUKE OF NORFOLK. FOX. 

TIBRNEY. DUKE OF BEDFORD. BRSKINE. BURDETT. 

PITT. DUNDAS. M. A. TAYLOR. 

Pitt and Dandas driving the Opposition Pigs, the re- 
presentatives of the '' swinish multitude,*' out of John 
Bull's farm-yard. 

In all the speeches and writings of Burke, there was no 
phrase or sentiment which was so bandied about, or pro- 
voked such general indignation, as the term '^ swinish 
MULTITUDE,** applied to the people. It was denounced 
in public meetings, clubs, and epigrams, and assailed in 
every variety of shape and form. The expression w«8 
more keenly resented as proceeding from one who had uni- 
formly justified the revolt of the Americans, and triumphed 
at the success of their arms ; " Who had rejoiced with 
Fox at the victories of a Washington, and sympathized 
with him almost to tears at the fate of a 'Montgomery." 
(See Hansard*s Debates, vol. 29, p. 379.) A seditious 
incendiary, of the name of Thomas Spence, who kept a 
small bookseller*s shop in Little Turnstile, Holbom, and 
was also a dealer in copper coins, published a series of 
cheap tracts, entitled ''Pig's Meat;** and as a Lion*s 
Head* was placed before the door of the publisher of the 
Spectator, to receive the contributions of correspondents 
in its mouth, so Spence placed a trough before his own 
door, as a recipient for contributions to " PiG*s Meat.*' 
He also struck a medalet, on the obverse of which was^ 

A PIG TRAMPLING UPON EMBLEMS OF ROYALTY AND BE* 

LiGioN; the cap of liberty radiated above; the legend^ 

"PiG*s Meat, published by T. Spence, London.** 

A copy of this is preserved in Sir George Chetwynd*8 
* Now ID the po8Kcs8iou of the Duke of Bedford, at Wobum. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 151 

Collection. Spence was prosecuted for higli treason, con- 
victed, and sentenced to stand in the pillory, and be im- 
prisoned seven months. To commemorate this, he struck 
a medalet ; on the obverse is a bust in profile, 1794 ; the 
legend, '' T. Spence, seven months imprisoned for high 
treason." (See Sharp's Catalogue Raisonne of Sir G. 
Chetwynd's most interesting and valuable collection of 
Copper Coins, Medalets, &c. 4to. p. 144, Privately printed, 
1834.) These inflammatory medalets were industriously 
circulated by Spence, Daniel Isaac Eaton, and other kin- 
dred spirits. 

The celebrated expression, '' swinish multitude," 
occurs in Burke's Reflections on the Revolution of France, 
where speaking of the destruction of the French nobility 
and clergy, he predicts that learning will soon follow in 
their train. '^ Nothing is more certain, than that our 
maimers, our civilization, and all the good things which 
are connected with manners and with civilization, have, in 
this world of ours, depended for ages upon two principles 
and were indeed the result of both combined ; I mean, 
the spirit of a gentleman, and the spirit of religion. The 
nobility and the clergy, the one by profession, the other 
by patronage, kept learning in existence, even in the midst 
of arms and confusions, and whilst Governments were 
rather in their causes than formed. Learning paid back 
what it had received to Nobility and to Priesthood, and 
paid it with usury, by enlarging their ideas, and by furnish- 
ing their minds. Happy if they had all continued to 
know their indissoluble union, and their proper place ! 
Happy if Learning, not debauched by ambition, had been 
satisfied to continue the instructor, and not aspired to be 
the master ! Along with its natural protectors and guar- 
dians, Lejlsning will be cast into the mire, and trodden 
down under the hoofs of a swinish multitude.'^* 

* In Burke's own copy of his Works, his Son had inserted the following 
note in manoscript : " See the fate of Bailly and Condoroet, supposed to be 



152 QiLL rat's caricatures. 



207. 

NIGHTLY VISITORS AT ST. ANNE'S HILL. 

8(^t. 2l8t, 1798. 

FOX. LORD EDWARD FITZGERALD. 

Fox, aroused from his sleep, has started ap in his bed, 
liorror-struck at the apparition of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, 
who thus addresses him : — 

" Who first sedac'd my jonthfal mind from virtae ? 
Who plann'd mj treason, and who cans'd my death ? 
Remember poor Lord Edward, and despair 111" 

Fox answers — 

** Why dost thon shake thy gory locks at me ? 
Dear, bravest, worthiest, noblest, best of men ! 
Thoa canst not say I did it" 

Around his room are seen the headless bodies of Quigley, 
Shears, &c. The Confessions of Arthur O'Connor are 
suspended over Fox's head, and " The Plan of the Irish 
Rebellion'' lays by his side. All these are, of course, 
intended to imply that Fox and the leading members of 
the Opposition* had been the authors and abettors of the 
recent Irish Rebellion. 

Lord Edward Fitzgerald was the fifth son of the first 
Duke of Leinster, by his wife EmUia Mary, daughter of 
Charles, second Duke of Richmond ; he was bom the 15th 



here allnded to. Compare the circumstances of the trial and ezecation of 
the former with this prediction." After Barke's death, his execators in- 
serted this note in their first edition of his Works, stating that it was 
approved bj Mr. Burke, and illostrated his meaning. 

* More than half a century haying elapsed since the detectioo of the 
conspiracy of the United Irishmen, it may be conyenient that the reader 
should be reminded that neither Reynolds, the original informer, nor Arthur 
O'Connor, nor any of his confederates, eyer implicated any of the English 
Opposition in any connection with the Society of United Irishmen, or know- 
ledge of their real objects, which were to overturn the Irish Government, 
and establish a republic in that kingdom. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 153 

of October, 1768; his father died in 1773. Not long 
after, his mother married William Ogilvie, Esq., a gentle- 
man of an ancient family in Scotland. Young Edward's 
education was thenceforward principally superintended by 
Mr. Ogilvie. '' As the youth,*' says Moore, *' was from 
the first intended for the military profession, to the studies 
connected with that pursuit his preceptor principally di- 
rected his attention. Luckily, the tastes of the young 
learner coincided with the destiny marked out for him, and 
in all that related to the science of military construction, 
— the laying out of camps, fortifications, &c., he was early 
a student and a proficient.'' In 1 779, he commenced his 
military career in the Sussex Militia, of which his uncle, 
the Duke of Richmond, was Colonel. A youth of his 
aspiring ambition was not likely to remain long contented 
with the inglorious campaigns of the Sussex Militia, 
though even there he had an early opportunity of display- 
ing his knowledge of castrametation, for ''the persons 
intrusted with the task of making the encampment having 
proved themselves wholly incompetent, with the permis- 
sion of his uncle he undertook and performed it to the 
surprise and satis&ction of the regiment." In the autumn 
of 1 780, a Lieutenancy was procured for him in the 96th 
Kegiment of Foot, but he exchanged into the 19th early in 
1 781 . His regiment was ordered to America, and in June 
he landed at Charlestown. He soon had an opportunity of 
achieving *' a service which was not brilliant, but useful, 
and brought him both honour and reward." His Colonel 
having retreated before Greneral Lee, Lord Edward Fitz- 
gerald, who was upon the rear-guard, covering the retreat 
of the regiment, kept the American corps in check till he 
was able to break up a small wooden bridge over 9 creek, 
which completely prevented pursuit by the enemy. Lord 
Bawdon (afterwards Lord Moira) was so pleased with this 
readiness of resource in so young an officer, that he imme- 
diately appointed him an aide-de-camp on his staff. He 



154 gillbat'b cabicatubes. 

remained in America till the termination of the war ; at the 
peace he returned to Ireland, and was elected Member for 
the borough of Athy, then in the nomination of the Duke 
of Leinster. At this time he found Parliamentary life very 
insipid. Nearly about the same time he became enamoured 
of Lady Catharine Mead, second daughter of the Earl of 
Clanwilliam, and afterwards married to Lord Powerscourt. 
He subsequently formed another attachment. Moore only 
designates the young lady by the initial G***. The Duke 
of Richmond, who felt a strong interest in both parties, 
endeavoured to promote the union ; but her &ther, con- 
sidering Lord Edward's fortune totally inadequate to the 
maintenance of a wife and family in a style of the elegant 
competence to which his daughter had been accustomed, 
peremptorily forbade him his house. His spirits sank 
every day more and more under the disappointment, and 
he resolved to join his regiment (now the 54fth), at New 
Brunswick, in Nova Scotia. 

It is not oar purpose to trace his operations during his 
residence in New Brunswick, or his excursions among the 
savage tribes ; we introduce the subject for the purpose 
of stating that this was the period in which he first con- 
tracted his republican principles, and imbibed the partiality 
for equality in society. His disappointments in love seem 
to have had an influence over this preference. In a letter 
to his mother, dated Frederick's Town, New Brunswick, 
Sept. 2, 1778, he says, " Savages enjoy the love and com- 
pany of their wives, relations, and friends, without any 
interference of interests or ambition to separate them. To 
bring things home to oneself, if wb had been Indians, 
instead of its being my duty to separate from all of you, 
it would be my duty to be with you, to make you comfort- 
able, and to hunt and fish for you ; instead of Lord G*** 
being violent against letting me marry G***, he would be 
glad to give her to me, that I might maintain and feed 
her: no cares for children, — no devilish politics, &c." 



POLITICAL SERIES. 155 

(See Moore^s Life of Lord Edward.) He returned to 
England in 1790^ and contrary to Iiis motlier's earnest 
remonstrances^ the Duke of Leinster returned his brother 
Edward to the &ish Parliament for the borough of Kil- 
dare. 

In October, 1792, he went to Paris. He tells his 
mother, " I lodge with my friend Paine.* We breakfast, 
dine, and sup together. At Paris he saw the beautiful and 
accomplished lady, then known and celebrated by the name 
of Pamela, and who was designated by the surname of 
Sims ; but was really the daughter of the Duke of Orleans 
(Philippe Egalite), by Madame Genlis. In less than a 
month they were married at Tournay. Philippe Egalite, 
his son Louis Philippe (the Count de Neuilly), and 
Madame Genlis were present at the nuptials, and were 
attesting witnesses to it. On November the 18th, Lord 
Edward attended a Public dinner of the English at Paris 
to celebrate the triumph of the French armies. The most 
violent Republican toasts were drank; among others, 
** May the Patriotic Airs of the German legion Ga ira, the 
Carmagnole, and the Marseillaise Hymn become the fa- 
vourite music of every army ; and may the soldier and the 
citizen join in the chorus.^' As soon as this was known 
in England, he was dismissed from the army. 

In January, 1793, he arrived in London with his young 
bride. He now plunged into politics. He had unfortu- 
nately formed a friendship with Arthur O^Connor, but it 
is believed that it was not till about the beginning of the 
year 1796 that Lord Edward became a member of the 
Society of United Irishmen, one of the most formidable 
conspiracies ever formed against the Irish Government, 
and if it had not been ultimately betrayed by one of the 
confederates (Reynolds), might have deluged Ireland in 
blood, and endangered the existence of the Government. 

* The Author of the Bights of Man, &c. 



156 GILLRATf^S CARrCATURES. 

Lord Edward^s military knowledge rendered his accession 
a most important acquisition to the Society. Hencefor- 
ward he was one of the principal advisers and organisers 
of that body. He was appointed to accompany Arthur 
O'Connor to Hamburgh to negociate with the French 
Directory for the invasion of Ireland. The failure of 
General Heche's expedition is well known. O^Connor, in 
company with Quigley, attempted to go to Paris by the 
way of Calais. They were arrested at Dover for high 
treason. Quigley w£ks convicted and hanged. O'Connor 
was acquitted^ but instantly arrested in the dock by a war- 
rant from the Duke of Portland, and sent to Ireland. 
Being now convinced that Government was in possession 
of the fullest proofs of his guilty and alarmed for the safety 
of his life, he with several others, entered into terms with 
the Government, and made a full disclosure of every thing 
connected with the conspiracy. Lord Edward was sensible 
of his imminent danger, and the fatal consequences which 
must attend his capture. With the greatest skill he for a 
long time eluded pursuit ; perhaps, however, partly from 
the great clemency of the Government, and their desire to 
avoid the public execution of a man of unblemished pri- 
vate character, brother of the first peer of Ireland, and 
otherwise highly related. Even Lord Chancellor Clare 
usually described as stern and inexorable, in an interview 
with Lord Edward's father-in-law, Mr. Ogilvie, expressed 
himself, says Moore, with the most friendly warmth on 
the subject, '' For Ood/s sake get this young man out of the 
country ; the porta shall he thrown open to you, and no 
hinderance offered.^' A most generous offer ! But Lord 
Edward was immoveable. In vain Mr. Ogilvie tried every 
means of argument and persuasion ; he replied, '' It is now 
out of the question ; I am too deeply pledged to these men 
to be able to withdraw with honour.^' No alternative 
remained to the Government. A proclamation, offering 
a thousand pounds for his arrest was issued, and in May, 



POLITICAL SERIES. 157 

1798, he was discovered and arrested at the hoase of 
Marphy, a feather merchant, in Thomas Street, Dublin. 
Lord Edward Fitzgerald had only just finished his dinner 
with Murphy and Neilson, and retired to his bed-room, 
and laid down on his bed without his coat, when the Town 
Major Sirr, Major Swan, who was a magistrate, and Mr. 
Byan the publisher of Faulkener's Journal, entered the 
room. Lord Edward shot Mr. Byan in the stomach (the 
wound proved mortal), and wounded Swan with a dagger 
in two places. Lord Edward was himself wounded in the 
right arm, by a pistol discharged at him by Major Sirr, 
and after lingering a considerable time, died on the 3rd 
of June from the efiects of the wound. 

It is difficult to sketch a character of this unfortunate 
nobleman, who in private life was uniformly courteous, 
frank, conciliatory, and generous, a good son, an affec- 
tionate brother, and a most tender husband and fond 
father. The latter portion of his public life unfortunately 
presents a melancholy contrast : 



** We scarcely can praise him, or blame him too much." 

A writer in the Quarterly Review (we believe Mr. 
Croker) writes thus : " Johnson said, that he ' delighted in 
that intellectual chemistry, which can separate good quali- 
ties from evil in the same person.' It is easy to make this 
separation in the case of Lord Edward Fitzgerald. In his 
private relations the generosity of his better nature were 
manifest ; his errors (to use the lightest term) are &tally 
exemplified in that portion of his life which belongs un- 
happily to the history of his country." — (Quarterly Review, 
vol. xUv. p. 213.) 

He must have been an extraordinary man, who could 
conciliate the esteem of men of such different views 
and opinions. Party feelings too often embitter the 
conduct of political opponents, and dismember private 
friendships. The Prince of Wales was anxious to interfere 



158 gillray's caricatures. 

in his belialf^ and declared he would have written to Lord 
Chancellor Clare to endeavour to obtain a delay of his 
trials until the passions of men should be cooler^ but was 
afraid to do harm.* The Duke of York actually did write 
to Lord Clare^ and was successful in his application.f 
The Duke of Portland, Secretary of State, wrote con- 
solatory letters to his family, and sent them bulletins of 
Lord Edward's health. We have already stated the 
unsolicited benevolence of Lord Clare. Major-General 
Sir John Doyle, under whom he had served, writes thus 
after his death : '^ Of my lamented and ill-fated friend I 
should never tire of speaking ; I never knew so loveable a 
person, and every man in the army, from the General to 
the drummer, would cheer the expression.*' It is almost 
superfluous to say his relatives were overwhelmed with 
affliction at his unhappy fate. j: 

Who does not heave a sigh, and wish that such talents 
and good qualities had been beneficially employed in 
upholding the laws, constitution, and real interests of his 
country. Cum Talis Esset, utinam Noster Essst! — 
The afiectionate solicitude of his father-in-law, Mr. Ogilvie, 
for Lord Edward during his life, and his unremitted ex- 
ertions for the welfere of his widow and children are 
beyond all praise. By his unwearied perseverance, united 
with those of Lord Edward's family, the Prince Regent 
consented that a Bill should be passed to repeal his 
attainder. When the Bill was brought into the House of 

* It is pleasing to record that the Frinoe Regent evinced his regard for the 
memory of Lord Edward by giving his only son a conmiission in his own 
regiment, the 10th, as soon as the youth attained his sixteenth year. It is 
equally pleasing to add he did credit to the appointment. 

t The Duke of York, who h ad always been much attached to Lord Edward , 
expressed a wish to obtain some relic of his lamented friend. Mr. Watson 
Taylor, who had been private Secretary to Lord Camden, hearing this, pre- 
sented to him the Rebel uniform of Lord Edward j what has become of it 
since the Duke's death is not known. 

{ See Moore*s Life of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, poMim, 



POLITICAL SERIES. 



159 



Lords, Lord Holland was affected to tears, and pronounced 
it *' the act of a wise, gracious, and high-minded Prince /^ 
and the Muse of Byron celebrated the Royal clemency. 

207*. 

EXTIRPATION OF THE PLAGUES OF EGYPT- 
DESTRUCTION OF REVOLUTIONARY CROCO- 
DILES;— OR, THE BRITISH HERO CLEANSING 
THE MOUTH OF THE ND^E. Oct 6th, 1798. 

NELSON. 

On the battle of the Nile, August 1, 1798. The news 
of this great event arrived at the beginning of October, on 
the 4th of which month the metropolis was illuminated. 



208. 

JOHN BULL TAKING A LUNCHEON; or, BRITISH 
COOKS CRAMMING OLD GRUMBLE GIZZARD 
WITH GOOD CHEER. Oct. 2Uh, 1798. 

SHSSIUAN. FOX. ADMIRALS WARREN, GARDINER, HOWE^ 

BRIDPORT, NELSON, ST. VINCENT, DUNCAN. 

On the splendid victories which crowned the British 
navy at this period. Fox, Sheridan, and the Whigs, who, 
it was pretended, sympathized with the republican French, 
are alarmed in the utmost degree, at the destruction 
which is going on. 

• 

209. 

NELSON'S VICTORY; or, GOOD NEWS OPE- 
RATING UPON LOYAL FEELINGS. 

Oct. Zrd, 1 798. 

8IB F. BUBDKTT. DUKE OF NORFOLK. LORD LANSDOWNE. 
DDKS OF BEDFORD. SHERIDAN. BKSEIN£. FOX. 

Another satire on the supposed mortification of the 

n 



160 gillray's caricatures. 

Whigs at the destruction of the French fleet. The leaders 
of the party are expressing their feelings in a variety of 
difierent ways. They had predicted a very different ter- 
mination of the war. 



210. 

STEALING OFF; or, PRUDENT SECESSION. 

Nav. 6th, 1798. 

BHUCKBOROUGH. EBSKINE. BURDETT. TIERNET. SHERIDAN. 

M. A. TAYLOR. FOX. LORD GRET (as a Grcyhound). 

On the secession of Fox from Parliament during this 
session, to lament, as his party said, in his retirement, 
the evils which his zeal and talents coold not avert. The 
Tories said, on the contrary, that he had deserted his post, 
because he could no longer conceal his mortification, that 
all his endeavours to do mischief had failed ; and he is 
here represented making his exit in a panic, caused by 
the discoveries of his pretended secret practices with the 
Irish rebels, and by the recent successes of Government, 
accompanied only by his two feithful dogs, Grey and the 
diminutive M. A. Taylor. Sheridan and the rest of the 
party keep their places, although thrown into the utmost 
confusion by the overthrow of their hopes. 



211. 
THE HERO OF THE NILE. Dec. Ut, 1798. 

NELSON. 

The hero of the Nile dressed in and attended with the 
honours and rewards which were showered upon him for 
that great achievement. In the month of November Lord 
Nelson was licensed by royal authority to bear the follow- 
ing augmentations to his armorial ensigns, viz. '^ A chief 



POLITICAL SERIES. 161 

undulated argent, thereon waves of the sea, from which a 
palm tree, issuant between a disabled ship on the dexter, 
and a ruinous battery on the sinister, all proper;^' and, for 
his crest, '^ on a naval crown, or, the chelengk, or plume 
of triumph,^' presented to him by the Sultan, as an acknow- 
ledgment of his services in the recent great victory ; with 
the motto, Palmam qui meruit ferat ;^ and to his original 
supporters, which were a sailor on the dexter, and a lion 
on the sinister, he was allowed the augmentations fol- 
lowing, viz. *' In the hand of the sailor, a palm branch, 
and another in the paw of the lion, both proper, with the 
addition of a tri-coloured flag and staff in the mouth of the 
latter/' 

Gillray has represented Nelson's arms, as thus aug- 
mented, with some slight improvements of his own. 

212. 

FIGHTING FOR THE DUNGHILL; ok, JACK TAR 
SETTLING BONAPARTE. Nov. 20th, 1798. 

John Bull giving Boney his '^ bellyful." Tliis subject 
needs no explanation. 

213. 

DESTRUCTION OF THE FRENCH COLOSSUS. 

Nov. Ut, 1798. 

Another illustration of the feeling of exultation caused 
in England by the recent successes of the British flag. 

* Palmam qui meruit ferat. We have often been asked from what author 
the motto of Lord Nelson's arms is taken. The words occur in the last 
itansa of an ode of Jortin, '* Ad Ventos/' written in 1727. We will tran- 
teribe the passage, that a reader who may not be already acquainted with 
it, may see the peculiar felicity of the application. 

*' Concurrant pariter ratibus rate^ : 
Spectent Numina Ponti, et 

Palmam qui meruit, ferat.** 
See Jortiu's Tracts, vol. i. p. 17. 

11 * 



162 OILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

The colossus of French revolutionary tyranny was not, 
however, yet overthrown, and it required some years to 
fulfil the anticipations embodied in this allegory. 



214. 

IMPROVEMENT IN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES ; 
OR, SIR JOHN SINCLAIR DISCOVERING THE 
BALANCE OF THE BRITISH FLAG. 

Dec. let, 1798. 

SIR JOHN SINCLAIR. 

In this print the tall figure of Sir John Sinclair is seen 
weighing, with a pair of stilliards, "the Navy of England," 
with the following inscriptions — 'Ho be retained, viz. 
50,000 Seamen, and half a dozen Ships of War, and 
6,000,000 Sailors to be sent to plant Potatoes/' " Advan- 
tages of Cold GBconomy/' '' 10,000 heavy Reasons for 
giving the Enemy a fair Chance of getting out of their 
Ports.'' Vegetables, &c., are attached, and a cap of 
liberty, with a tri-coloured cockade, depends from the bot- 
tom. Across the beam of the stilliards is inscribed '* Vive 
l'Egalite ;" round the staflT of the stilliards the flag of 
the British navy is entwined. Behind him is seen " A 
Table of Weights and Measures, laid down upon the true 
democratic principle of the Stilliards of Egalite." By his 
side are '* Improvement in the Art of Political Dunging,'* 
'' Pursuits of Agriculture," " The Apostate Laird," a Par- 
liamentary Romance, together with the ^'Loss of the Agri- 
cultural Chair,"* &c. Sir John Sinclair is astonished to 
see the British flag in the ascendancy, and completely 
outweigh the collective objects of his favourite pursuits. 
This spirited caricature was provoked by a speech of 

* An allusion to the Ministers turning him ont of the Presidential Chair 
of the Board of Agriculture. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 163 

Sir John Sinclair on the Navy Estimates on the 27th 
of November, 1798. On the preceding day Lord Arden, 
one of the Lords of the Admiralty, had moved that 
120,000 men be employed for the sea service. The next 
day, on the bringing up the Report, Sir John said — '^ He 
hesitated not to declare that 110,000 men was the utmost 
to which we could possibly go, with any attention to pro- 
priety. The principal grounds on which he rested this 
opinion was, the ruined state of the French navy, and the 
skill and spirit uniformly displayed by our own. He 
nrged the necessity of public economy, and the prudence 
of a gradual disbandment of our soldiers and sailors, and 
leaving hands sufficient for the purposes of agriculture and 
commerce/' (See Hansard, vol. xxxiii. p. 1562.) 

Mr. (afterwards Sir John Sinclair), may justly be ranked 
amongst the eminent men of the reign of Greorge III. He 
was bom in Thurso Castle, in the county of Caithness, on 
lOih of May, 1754. At the general election in 1780, he 
was returned to Parliament as representative of his native 
county, and continued a member of the House of Commons 
for upwards of thirty years. He entered Parliament un- 
fettered by party connections, and gave his support to 
Lord North. He was an assiduous attendant on his Par- 
liamentary duties, and soon evinced talents, and a know- 
ledge of business. We shall, however, pass at once to 
the formation of Pittas administration in 1784, as he 
then began to take a more active and prominent part in 
general politics and financial measures. The celebrated 
Westminster Scrutiny engaged public attention, and 
was generally condemned by the friends, as well as the 
opponents, of the Minister. It was viewed as a measure 
intended to ruin a rival by the enormity of the expense,. 
and each member considered a similar engine, might be 
employed against himself at some future election. Early 
in 1785, Mr. Sinclair addressed a private remonstrance to 
the Minister, poiutod out in very friendly, but energetic 



164 GILLRAT's CAKiCATUfiES. 

terms, the unpopularity of the scrutiny, and suggfosted a 
mode of putting an end to it without discredit, or appear- 
ance of defeat. The unwelcome communication made no 
impression on Pitt, and in the plentitude of his power, he 
was deserted by his friends, and left in a minority, and 
Mr. Fox seated for JVestminster. Mr. Pitt had also the 
mortification of receiving from the King a private letter, 
on March 20, 1785, in which he complains of having 
heard that, Mr. Pitt had stated to some of his friends, that 
his motion for Parliamentary Reform had been defeated 
by the secret influence of his Majesty, and the King 
adds this cutting sarcasm, ^' The conduct of some of Mr. 
Pitt's most intimate friends on the Westminster Scrutiny, 
shews, there are questions, men will not, by friendship, be 
biassed to adopt.'' (See Tomline's Life of Pitt, vol. i. 
4to. p. 450.) Mr. Sinclair also privately remonstrated 
with Mr. Pitt on some of the clauses in his East India 
Bill, and reminded him that, as we had recently lost 
America, chiefly through unwise Parliamentary Legisla- 
tion, how necessary it was to guard against exciting any 
jealousy among the East Indians. Neither remonstrance 
produced an eflect, and Sinclair began to suspect that the 
young minister was impatient of control or remonstrance, 
either public or private- — perhaps, however, it may be fair 
to surmise that the member for Caithness did not view with 
complacency the neglect of his useful suggestions. 

In 1785 Mr. Sinclair put forth the first volume, in 
quarto, of an important work, a " History of the Public 
Bevenue from the earliest Period to the Time of Publica- 
tion." No similar work had appeared ; particular periods 
had been treated of, but no systematic history, embracing 
the whole financial history of the British empire had been 
published. The utility, accuracy, and value of this work 
was universally recognised by the statesmen of the period. 
In the course of the work he had occasion to institute a 
comparison bctwceu the sysstcm of Uvxation adopted iu 



POUTICAL SERIES. 165 

England and France, and condemned the unequal system 
of taxation and class exemption which prevailed in France, 
and the general corruption in the administration of the 
finances of that country. He adds this remarkable ob- 
servation (the reader will recollect it was written in 1785), 
it may be considered the earliest prediction of the French 
Eevolution. "The Court of France, like every other 
arbitrary administration, is nothing but a faction, confe- 
derated together for the government of that great and 
powerful kingdom; and this faction is upheld, and re- 
ceives perpetual accessions from the hopes that every 
individual belonging to it entertains of having some 
share in the plunder of the nation. But if ever these 
hopes are destroyed, — if ever frugality is carried to any 
extreme, — if all expectations of sharing in the spoils, — if 
these public hopes are annihilated, — ^if the power of the 
&ction should cease, a revolution would be the 
CONSEQUENCE.'^ The embarrassment of the French finances 
induced Lewis XVI. to call Necker to his councils. He 
discharged the duties of First Minister of Finance with 
zeal and ability, and introduced a real and substantial 
reform in the administration of the French system of taxa- 
tion. The consequences predicted by Sinclair in 1785 
followed, — the Revolution ensued. We have already stated 
that the publication of Sinclair's '^ History of the Revenue'' 
was received with general approbation, and it has sustained 
its reputation. Many years afterwards, Mr. Rush, the 
American Ambassador in London, asked Mr. Vansittart, 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer, " What was regarded as 
the best account of the British finances ?" He said, ^^ It 
was difficult to arrive at a knowledge of them from any 
single work ; but, on the whole, he considered Sir John 
Sinclair's, for the period it embraced, as the most satisfac- 
tory."* (See Rush's Account of his Residence in London.) 
In 1784, Mr. Pitt had offered a baronetcy to Mr. Sin- 

* The beiit Edition is io 3 vols. 8vo. 



166 oillray's caricatures. 

clair; and^ on the 2iid of November^ wrote a letter^ telliiig 
him he had been rambling in the country during the 
Becess^ but he should return to town very shortly, and 
would see it carried into eflTect. As the baronetcy was not 
conferred until the 14th of February, 1786, we many infer 
*'the Friendly Bemonstrances,'' and some symptoms of 
independent voting might defer the creation. The ba- 
ronetcy did not, however, compromise his independence, as 
was soon evinced by his conduct in the proceedings against 
Warren Hastings. He considered Hastings had supported 
the interests, extended the empire of the English in the 
East Indies, and enriched his native country by his able 
government. He therefore voted against his impeachment, 
more particularly as the proceedings against him appeared 
to be carried on with a spirit of persecution, rather than 
the calmness of a judicial inquiry. He was indignant that 
his independent vote, in a solemn legal investigation, should 
give offence. In a letter to Hastings, he says, '^ but, after 
all, there are many difficulties to struggle with. I am much 
less afraid of your open enemies than of hollow friends. 
I suspect that Pitt and Dundas are particularly hostile. 
They have never forgiven me for voting against the im- 
peachment, and are now so inveterate as to be actually 
carrying on an opposition to me in my own county, with 
every exertion of influence that Government can muster." 
Sinclair became now gradually estranged from Pitt. He 
supported Fox on the Regency Question. 

In 1790 he formed the project of a Statistical History of 
Scotland, an undertaking which, at that time, had never 
been paralleled by an individual, wo believe we might add, 
nor by any society nor public institution in Europe. He 
proposed to publish an account of every Parish in Scotland, 
its History, Antiquities, Population, Habits, and the Condi- 
tion of the People, and of its Soil, Cultivation, and Present 
Stiito. This gigantic effort, and the expenses attending 
it, might well hiive appiillcd the st<jutest nerves ; but he 



POLITICiX SERIES. 167 

delighted in overcoming difficulties. He saw at once that 
this object could only be obtained by the assistance of the 
parochial clergy of Scotland^ and he resolved to enlist the 
sympathy of the General Assembly of the Church of 
Scotland. That intelligent body entered immediately into 
his views, and passed an unanimous vote to contribute, 
with all expedition in their power, to complete a work of 
such apparent utility. Thus encouraged, and with a view 
to give an uniformity to his work, he drew up a series of 
one hundred and sixty queries, arranged under the heads 
of '^ Geography, Natural History, Population, Productions, 
and Miscellaneous subjects.'^ The success was beyond his 
most sanguine expectations. The first volume waB pub- 
lished in 1791,* and the entire work was eventually com- 
pleted in 21 vols. 8vo. In 1825 he published an Analysis, 
or condensed account of the whole in 2 vols. 8vo. A new 
and revised edition of the entire work has been printed 
since his death. 

His activity was untiring: he now became the chief 
promoter of the African Association, whose object was to 
promote the cause of science and humanity, " The result 
of their labours,^^ says Murray, *' has thrown new lustre 
on the British name, and widely extended the boundaries 
of human knowledge.^' (See Murray^s African Discove- 
ries, vol. i. p. 5.) 

Among the most valuable services to the public per- 
formed by Sir John Sinclair was the formation of a '^ So- 
ciety for the Improvement of British Wool,'^ at Edinburgh, 
in January, 1791, "which, says the Rev. J. Sinclair, the 

* It U remarkable that the words Statistics and Statistical were so little 
known in the British Noroenclataro of Economic Science, that they could 
not be found in any English Dictionary. Walker adopted them, and Todd 
has introduced them into his edition of Johnson's English Dictionary ; and 
Bichardson, in his admirable Dictionary, thus inserts " Statistick (Fr. Statis- 
tiqae) is a word for which we are said to be indebted to a living writer (mean- 
ing Sir John Sinclair). Statistic is applied to every thing that pertains to a 
State — its population, soil, produce, &c." 



168 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

depressed state of pastoral economy, rendered peculiarly 
necessary. Wool had for centuries been the staple com- 
modity of Great Britain,* but attention to it had of late 
been most strangely . neglected, and few combined a 
theoretical with a practical knowledge of the subject. 
The consequence was, English Wool, had greatly dete- 
riorated/' The Society proved eminently beneficial in 
reviving due attention to this national object. 

We will now conduct the reader to the breaking out 
of the war in 1 793. England had enjoyed ten years peace, 
and the commercial treaty with France had led to an 
extensive trade with that country. No sooner was war 
declared, than a sudden stoppage of the exports to that 
country ensued. The unexpected event struck terror 
into the merchants. Perhaps the greatest commercial 
panic which had ever occurred in Great Britain, now pre- 
vailed. Universal distrust predominated throughout the 
kingdom. To add to the calamity, the Bank and 
Bankers, refused to discount to any extent for their best 
and oldest customers. The trade of the merchants and 
manufacturers, might be said to be suspended. The 
Ministers seemed astounded and paralysed by the extent 
of the commercial convulsion. But neither they, nor the 
merchants themselves, could suggest any plan for the relief 
or mitigation of the general distress; when Sir John Sinclair 
communicated to Dundas a plan he had devised, and 



tf 



* In a scarce and canons little volume, entitled ** The Oolden Fleeoet' 
by W. S., 1657, 12mo. p. 2, the following enthusiastic panegyric on the 
importance of wool to the trade, manufactares, and prosperity of England, 
occnrs. It woold have delighted Sir John Sinclair. *' Wool is thb flowkr 

AKD BTBKNOTH, THE REVENUE AKD BLOUD OF EnOLAKD ; a bond Uniling 

the people into societies and fraternities for their own utility } the milk and 
honey of the grazier and countryman, the gold and spices of the West and 
Kast India to the merchant and citizen ; in a vrord, the Exchequer of 
Wealth, and Sceptre of Protection to them, as well at home as abroad, 
and therefore of full merit to be had in remembrance, defence, and encou- 
ragement.'' 



POLITICAL SERIES. 169 

desired him to lay it before Pitt. The Minister was 
struck with its originalitj, boldness, and efficacy of the 
plan, but alarmed at the extent of the risk the nation 
would incur by its adoption. 

Mr. Pitt desired an interview with Sir John, who 
convinced him both of the expediency and safety of the 
proposed plan for the relief of trade. The proposition 
was, that an Act should be passed authorising His Majesty 
to issue five millions of Exchequer bills, which twenty 
unpaid Commissioners should be empowered to lend in 
various sums to merchants and traders, who could give 
adequate security for the repayment. The Act was passed 
in May 1793. The effect was almost magical. Trade 
revived, and confidence was restored ; and so beneficial 
was the result of this bold and novel operation, that it 
has since been successfully repeated in periods of com- 
mercial panic. The projection and organization of this 
measure was sufficient to confer celebrity on any man ; 
and so sensible was Mr. Pitt of the magnitude and 
value of the benefit derived by the public, that he very 
honourably proclaimed it in the most unqualified manner, 
and in a letter addressed to Sir John Sinclair, says, 
" there is no man to whom Government is more indebted 
for support and useful information on various occasions 
than to yourself, and if you have any object in view, I 
should attend to it with pleasure/' Sir John Sinclair 
replied to this courteous letter, that " he sought no favour 
on his own behalf, but that the reward most gratifying 
to his feelings, would be the support of the Minister to 
the Institution by Parliament of a great national Corpo- 
ration, to be called the Board ov Aobiculture.'' An- 
other interview took place between Mr. Pitt and Sir 
J. Sinclair. The Minister consented to the establish- 
ment of a Board of Agriculture, with an annual allowance 
of £3500, to be placed under the management of unpaid 



170 oillbat's caricatubbs. 

Commissioners. With the sanction of the Minister, 
therefore. Sir J. Sinclair introduced a Bill into Parlia- 
ment, on the 15th of May, 1793, ''he pointed out the 
advantages which would result from an improved breed 
of Farming Stock, from Improved Instruments of Hus- 
baudry, and from the general adoption of useful practices 
peculiar to certain districts, and also from the introduc- 
tion of foreign discoveries in Agriculture into our own 
country.'* 

The Act was passed, and he was unanimously elected 
President at the first meeting of the Board. He continued 
to preside over it for several years ; but having been dis- 
satisfied with the management of the war, and the prodigal 
expenditure of the Government, he took an active part in 
the formation of a Third Party, whose great objects 
were to procure Peace ; and if peace were unattainable, 
to carry on the war with greater vigour, united with greater 
economy ; and also to efiect some Reform in the Repre- 
sentation of the People. Upon this the Ministers resolved 
to eject him from the Presidential Chair of the Board of 
Agriculture. This was effected with great difficulty, and only 
by the votes of the official members, who voted in right 
of their offices, and who had never attended before ; yet 
oven by those means Ministers only carried the election 
against him by a majority of one. Many of the Tory 
members were disgusted by the exercise of Ministerial 
influence in the election of the President of a purely 
Scientific Institution. A vote of thanks for his conduct 
in the chair passed unanimously, and was ordered to be 
transmitted to him by the newly elected President, Lord 
Somervillo, who had allowed his name to be put in nomi- 
nation with the greatest reluctance. The Archbishop of 
York (Dr. Markham), wrote a letter of condolence to 
him, in which he stated that, '^ he had been applied to by 
Ministers, but that he would not be made a tool to do a 



POLITICAL SERIES. 171 

dishononrable act." Eight years afterwards, on the death 
of Lord Somerville, he was earnestly solicited to resume 
the Presidentship, and he consented. 

His agricultural reputation was not confined to his own 
country. In April, 1800, Otto, the Ambassador from the 
Consular Government of France, applied to Sir John 
Sinclair, for a list of the Works relating to Agriculture, 
as were most likely to promote the internal improvement 
of France. While complying with this request. Sir John 
Sinclair inclosed copies of a paper he had drawn up on 
experimental farms and circular cottages. The French 
Government transmitted his plans and papers to the 
National Institute, who submitted them to the examination 
of two of their members, Tessier and Cels, who reported 
favourably on them. The National Institute voted their 
thanks to Sir John, and expressed their admiration of his 
exertions in the cause of humanity. 

We may now hurry over the remaining portion of his 
life. Mr. Percival considered Sir John had rendered such 
important services by his speeches and pamphlets on the 
Bullion Question, or, as Cobbett would have called it, in 
the contest of " Paper against Gold,*' that in July, 1811, 
he appointed him Cashier of the Board of Excise in Scot- 
land, with a salary of £2000 per annum ; " a sum (says 
his son, the Rev. John Sinclair), much smaller than the 
interest of the debt he had accumulated as President of 
the Board of Agriculture.^' This appointment disquali- 
fied him from sitting in the House of Commons, and his 
public life may be said to have terminated. 

In 1807 he had published his Code of Health and Lon- 
gevity. In 1811 he published his Code of Agriculture, 
in one volume octavo. Mr. Coke, of Norfolk (an oracle 
on this subject) told Mr. Rush, '* He considered the Code 
of Agriculture, the most useful work on the subject." 
We shall conclude with Sir John Sinclair's remarks on 
the Codean System. '* The object of this system was the 



172 oillbay's caricatures. 

Condensation of Human Knowledge. Knowledge (he osed 
to say) scattered promiscaonsly through a multitude of 
books^ resembles ore in a mine ; but knowledge collected, 
arranged and condensed, is like the pure metal separated 
from the dross, substantial, portable, accessible and useful/' 
(See the Rev. J. Sinclair's Life of his Father, passim.) 

Sir John Sinclair died May 21, 1835. His family 
wished the funeral to have been strictly private, but the 
magistrates of Edinburgh, and a deputation from the 
Highland Society, requested permission to pay their last 

TRIBUTE OF RESPECT TO A MAN WHOM THET CONSIDERED TO 
HAVE BEEN A PUBLIC BENEFACTOR. 

215. 

HORRORS OF THE IRISH UNION; BOTHERA- 
TION OF POOR PAT ; or, A WHISPER ACROSS 
THE CHANNEL, Dec. 2Uh, 1798. 

TIERNEY. FOX. M. A. TATLOR. 

A humorous caricature on the opposition shewn to the 
project of the Irish Union, when it was first agitated at the 
end of 1798, after the entire suppression of the rebellion. 
Pat is thoroughly '' bothered '* between the alluring ofiers 
of the lady (Britannia), and the awful warnings of the 
Opposition. 

216. 

MEETING OF THE MONIED INTEREST;— CON- 

STITUTIONAL OPPOSITION TO THE TEN PER 

CENT.;— i.e. JOHN BULL'S FRIENDS ALARMED 

BY THE NEW TAX. Dec. ISth, 1798. 

8IR W. PULTENET. LORDMOIRA. COL.TARLETON. SIR J. SINCLAIR. 
TIERNBT. M. A. TAYLOR. HORNE TOOKE. LORD STANHOPE. 
FOX. SIR J. SHUCEBOROUGH. ERSKINE. DUKE OF BEDFORD. 
D. OF NORFOLK. LORD DERBT. NIOHOLLS. SIR F. BURDEIT. 

Fox is addressing the principal Members of Opposition, 
and denouncing in the most energetic manner the proposed 
income-tax. They respond in terms equally energetic. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 173 

The enormous expenditure caused by the military and 
naval armaments of England, and the ruinous amount of 
the subsidies remitted to our Allies, had drained England 
of her metallic stores, and completely changed the face 
of the monetary and fiscal system of England. Burke in 
his Reflections on the Revolution of France in 1790, had 
contrasted with just pride the relative monetary situa- 
tions of France and England. In France, gold and silver, 
the representatives of the conventional credit of mankind 
had disappeared, and a forced paper currency was the only 
circulating medium : — '' In England not one shilling of 
paper money of any description is received, but of choice, 
the whole has had its origin in cash actually deposited, 
and is convertible at pleasure in an instant, and without 
the smallest loss, into cash again. Our paper is of value 
in commerce, because in law it is of none. It is powerful 
on 'Change, because in Westminster Hall it is impotent. 
In payment of a debt of twenty shillings a creditor may 
refuse all the paper of the Bank of England.'' 

But these halcyon days were passed. The Bank, by its 
improvident advances to the Government had been com- 
pelled to suspend cash payments. One and two pound 
notes were now issued for the first time in England, and 
formed material ingredients in the circulating medium : 
taxation had been raised in every department ; the duties 
in the Customs and Excise had been seriously increased ; 
these, however, and the triple assessment of the assessed 
taxes did not equal the public expenditure. The Land- 
tax, too, which had hitherto been an annual grant, was 
made perpetual, and actually sold ; still the exigencies of 
the state required further supplies. One resource re- 
mained, — to substitute an income tax of 10 per cent, for 
the triple assessment of the assessed taxes, by which a 
large revenue would be derived from landed proprietors, 
rich bankers, merchants, fund-holders, lodgers, and others 
who contributed but Uttle, in proportion to their means. 
The Minister estimated the probable produce of the tax at 



174 OILLEAY^S CARICATURES. 

ten millions. The inquisitorial nature of this tax excited 
general discontent. Meetings were called in every county, 
city, and borough, to oppose it. Pitt, however, persevered ; 
the oppressive weight of the tax was admitted, but justi- 
fied by state necessity. With a view to mitigate in some 
degree the severity of the pressure on persons with large 
families, a deduction of ten per cent, on the income tax, 
was allowed to persons who had above a certain number 
of children. The Duke of Northumberland did not hesi- 
tate to avail himself of this clause. We can make a large 
allowance for the violence of party politics, for indignation 
against a war, said to be rashly entered on, and badly 
conducted; but the days of chivalry were indeed gone, 
when the representative of the title, honours, and domains 
of the noble and illustrious House of Percy, could stoop 
to claim a deduction for his children, and publicly register 
them as a burthen, entitling him to relief. This exposed 
him to merited obloquy and ridicule, particularly in a 
satirical ballad, which deserves to be rescued from the 
ephemeral fate, usually attending such effusions. It is a 
happy parody on Chevy Chace. Party politics are tran- 
sient, but wit survives, when the circumstance in which 
it originated is forgotten, or sunk into insignificance. 

CHEVY CHACE. 

God prosper long onr noble King, 

Our lives and safeties all : 
A woeful stoTj late there did 

In Britain's Isle befall. 

Dnke Smithson of Northumberland,* 

A vow to Grod did make ; 
The choicest gifts in fair England, 

For him and his to take. 

* Sir Hngh Smithson married the Lady Elizabeth, daughter and only 
child of the Duke of Northumberland, who died in 1750. In the same year, 
he obtained an Act of Parliament, authorising him to assume the surname 
and arms of Percy. In 1767, the King created him Earl Percy, and Dnke of 
Northumberland. The hero of this ballad was the eldest son of this marriage. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 

Excise and Customs, Charch and Law, 
Fve begg'd from Master Rose ; 

The garter too, — bat still the EUies 
I'll have, or I'll oppose. 

« Now, God be with him," quoth the King, 

« Sith 'twill no better be ; 
** I tmst we have within oar realm 
Five handred good as he." 



175 



« 



And soon a law, like arrow keen, 

Or spear, or cartal-axc. 
Struck poor Dukb Smithson to the heart 

In shape of Powder Tax. 

Sore leaning on his cratch, he cried, 
^ Crop, crop, my merry men all ; 

** No guinea for your heads Fll pay, 
*< Though Church and State ^oald fall." 

Again the taxing-man appear*d — 

No deadlier foe could be ; 
A schedule of a cloth-yard long, 

Within his hand bore he. 

*' Yield thee, Dnke Smithson, and behold 
** The assessments thou must pay ; 

'* Dogs, horses, houses, coaches, clocks,* 
" And servants in array." 

** Nay," quoth the Duke, *' in thy black scroll 

** Deductions I espye, — 
<' For those who poor, and mean and low, 

" With children burthen'd lie. 

" And tho* full sixty thousand pounds 

** My vassals pay to me, 
" From Cornwall to Northumberland, 

** Through many a fair country. 

** Tet England's Church, its King, its Laws, 

** Its cause I value not, 
** Compared with this my constant text, 

" ' A penny saved is got.* 



m 



A tax had recently been imposed on watches. 



12 



17C oillray's caricatures. 

♦• No drop of princely Percy's blood* 
'< Through these cold veins doth run ; 

'* With HoUpwr*8 castles, hlouon, name, 
" I still am poor Smithbom. 

'< Let England's yonth unite in arms, 
" And CTery liberal hand 

" With honest zeal subscribe their mite, 
** To save their natiye land. 

*< I at St. Martinis Vestry Board 
" To swear shall be content, 

'* That I have children eight, and claim 
" Dedfuctions ten per cent.** 



God bless ns all from factions foes, 

And French fraternal kiss ; 
And grant the Ejno may never make 

Another Duke like this. 

217. 
CITIZENS VISITING THE BASTILLE. 

Jan. I6th, 1799. 

SIR F. BURDETT. 

On some conversation which took place in the House 
of Commons on the oppressions exercised in prisons^ and 
especially in the new state prison in Coldbath Fields, which 
was now popularly characterized as the Bastille, and which 
was also known among offenders as the College. Sir 
Francis Burdett having received private information of 
great and scandalous abuses being practised upon the 
miserable inmates of that prison, visited it, and, having 
assured himself of the facts, brought the subject before 
Parliament, and excited public indignation against the 
discipline of the prison. The Home Secretary, therefore, 

* The late Duke of Hamilton paid a visit to the Duke of Northumberland 
one antunm, on his road to Scotland. They wcro taking a ride together on 
the Cheyiot Hills, when the Duke of Northumberland turned round, and, 
without consideration, said, *' My Lord, many yearn have elapsed since a 
Percy and Douglas met on these hills." The pride of the DougUs was 
touched, and he haughtily replied, *' Nor hare they now/* 



POLITICAL SERIES. 177 

gave orders to the Governor, Airis, not to admit the 
Baronet again. At a subseqaent period^ an examination 
of the charges proved that the management of this prison 
was an outrage upon humanity, and Airis himself received 
punishment for his conduct. 

A reference to the debate in the House of Commons 
will explain the complaint here put into the mouth of Sir 
Francis; it may be observed, merely, that one part of 
them refers to a statement that an unfortunate woman, 
imprisoned for disorderly conduct, was confined in an 
unhealthy cell, and was not allowed even medical attention, 
although she was known to be suffering under the loath- 
some disease to which her wretched calling exposed her. 

218. 

BUONAPARTE HEARESTG OF NELSON'S VIC 
TORY, SWEARS BY HIS SWORD TO EXTIR- 
PATE THE ENGLISH FROM OFF THE EARTH. 

Dec. 8th, 1798. 

Another caricature, which needs no other explanation 
than a reference to Buonaparte's vain-glorious boasting 
&fter the disaster which had overwhelmed the French 
fleet at the mouth of the Nile. It may be observed, that 
Napoleon's features were not at this time well known to 
the English caricaturists. 

219. 
THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOCHE. 1798. 

One of Gillray's finest conceptions, in which all the 
crimes of the French revolution are crowdBd before our 
sight in a vast emblematical panorama. General Hoche 
was par excellence the General of the Republic ; and his 
name was more particularly familiar to English ears, from 
the circumstance of his having been designated as the 
commander of the army for the invasion of Ireland. 

12 * 



178 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

220. 
SIEGE DE LA COLONNE DE POMPfiE. SCIENCE 

IN THE PILLORY. 

On the Institute of Egypt, formed by the body of French 
savans who accompanied the French army under Napo- 
leon into Egypt, to make scientific observations in the 
countries about to be conquered. This print, like the one 
preceding, is sufficiently explained by the inscriptions. 

221. 
EGYPTIAN SKETCHES. March 12th, 1799. 

The expedition to Egypt was made a frequent subject 
of satire in England. The series of subjects here pre- 
sented to us by Gillray was intended more especially to 
ridicule the Institute founded by Napoleon at Cairo, and 
the proceedings of the French savans who accompanied 
the invading army. A monkey, as the republican com- 
mander, is seen attempting to place the cap of liberty 
on the apex of the great pyramid, while his progress is 
somewhat impeded by the eagerness of Folly, represented 
as a naked philosopher, to sliare in the exploit. Even the 
Sphynxes have become Frenchified. 

222. 
L'INSURRECTION DE L^NSTITUT AMPHIBIE. 
—THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE. 

March 12th, 1799. 

We have here a forcible example of the pursuit of 

knowledge under difficulties. The republican naturalists 

have commenced rather unpropitiously with an attempt to 

tame and utilize the crocodile. 

223. 

L'INFANTERIE FRANCAISE EN EGYPTE— LE 

GENERAL ASNE CONVERTED TO IBRAHIM 

BEY. March Uth, 1799. 

It appears that it was found necessary to mount the 



POLITICAL SERIES. 179 

troops in the Egyptian campaign upon asses, a circum- 
stance which could not fail to furnish subject for satire. 
It seems doubtful whether the commander, or the animal 
which carries him, is giving the word of command. 



224. 

PRiETOR XJEBANUS ;— INAUGURATION OF THE 
COPTIC MAYOR OP CAIRO, PRECEDED BY 
THE PROCUREUR DE LA COMMUNE. 

March 12th, 1799. 

On the scheme for a new political and municipal con- 
stitution of the city of Cairo. 

225. 

THEOLOGIE A LA TURQUE— THE PALE OP THE 
CHURCH OP MAHOMET. March 12th, 1799. 

Philosophy brought to a nonplus. The free notions of 
the Prench theologians are represented as proving by no 
means satisfactory to the Mahometan doctors, who are 
using the advantages which force has placed at their dis- 
posal. The renegade in the distance is covering his head 
with a turban to save a less honourable part of his body. 

226. 

MAMALUCK ET HUSSARD REPUBLIC AIN. 
GENERAL RESULT OP BUONAPARTE^S 
ATTACK UPON IBRAHIM BEY^S REAR- 
GUARD. March 12th, 1799. 

In this print a Prench hussar is flying from the mur- 
derous attack of his Mamaluke assailant. On his sword 
is inscribed, *' Vaincre ou Courie'* — Victory or Plight. 



180 gillray's caricatures. 

227. 

TIRAILLEUR PRANCAIS, ET CHEVAL LEGER 
DE L^ARMfiE DU PACHA DE RHODES.— 
EVOLUTIONS OF FRENCH MOUNTED RIFLE- 

MEN. March 12th, 1799. 

Another example of the advantages derived from the 
new style of mounting of the French cavalry. In the 
preceding plate we see the advantage of the ass by its 
swiftness in the flight ; here it shines by its steadiness in 
the conflict. 

228. 

SUPPOSED TO BE A CORRECT REPRESEN- 
TATION OF A MAMALUKE CHIEF. 

Dec. 1st, 1798. 

This, though not belonging to the foregoing series, is 
connected with them by its subject. It is evidently not a 
design of Gillray^s, though it may owe something to his 
imagination. Perhaps it may have been taken from a rude 
sketch made by some one who was in Egypt in this war. 

s 229. 

EXHIBITION OF A DEMOCRATIC TRANSPA- 
RENCY, WITH ITS EFFECT UPON PATRIOTIC 
FEELINGS. April 1 5th, 1 799. 

EKSKINE. TIBRNEY. FOX. SIB J. SINCLAIR. M. A. TAYLOR. 
DUKE OF NORFOLK. SHERIDAN. SIR F. BURDETT. NICHOLLS. 
LORD HOIRA. DUKE OF BEDFORD. LORD DERBY. 

On the secret Committee appointed by the House of 
Commons to inquire into the proceedings and designs of 
the political societies in Ireland and England. The report 
of this Committee pointed out an alleged and continued 
treasonable correspondence with the French Republicans, 
and was made the ground in Ireland for severe stat€ pro- 



POUTICAL SERIES. 181 

seditions^ which aro pretended to have cast dismay into 
the Liberal party in England. They are here represented 
as terror-struck at the discovery of their designs. The 
latter circumstance is represented by the four-fold trans- 
parency, in which the English Whigs are seen carrying 
into cflTect the lessons they had received from French 
democracy. 

230. 
NEW PANTHEON OP DEMOCRATIC MYTHO- 

LOGY. May 1th, 1799. 

Another series of satirical representations of the party, 
but which appears not to have been completed according 
to the author's full design. The attributes of the various 
deities thrown out of the fool's-cap of liberty before the 
democratic altar, need no explanation. 

231. 
HERCULES REPOSING. May 7th, 1799. 

POX. 

The great leader of the Whigs had at this time seceded 
from his place in the political arena, and was living in 
temporary retirement at St. Anne's Hill. He has here 
hung his harp upon the willow, while the apples of discord 
are rotting at his feet. The political Hercules boasts the 
skin of an ass, instead of the lion skin of his prototype ; 
and his supposed decUning popularity is alluded to by the 
figure of Fame tottering on the summit of her temple. 

232. 
MARS. * May 7th, 1799. 

GENERAL WALPOLB. 

On the fiery zeal of General Walpole, one of the warmest 
advocates of the liberal principles of the Whig Opposition. 
The crest of his helmet is a diabolical Sans-culotte^ with 
a cap of liberty on his head. 



182 gillray's caeicatuees. 

233. 
HAEPIBS DEFILING THE FEAST. May 7th, 1799. 

TIEBNET. SIB J. SHUCKBOBOUGn. JEKTLL. 

The three political harpies defOing John Boll's favourite 
roast beef, plum puddings and porter, with their demo- 
cratic pollutions. 

234. 
CUPID. May 7th, 1799. 

NICHOLLS. 

Gillray has introduced NichoUs into his ''New Pan- 
theon'' in the character of Cupid. He was blind of one 
eye, and his features were remarkably plain. His elocu- 
tion was ungraceful, and his action generally much too 
vehement. He exhibited the contortions of the Sybil, 
without her inspiration. He is thus pleasantly alluded to 
in a duet between Fox and Home Tooke, in the Anti- 
Jacobin — 

** Fox. — ^Well, now my fayonrite preacher's NiekU, 
He keeps for Pitt a rod in pickle ; 
His gestwres fright th' astonished gazers, 
His sarcasms cut like Pa€kw<H>d*s raaors,** 

235. 
THE TWIN STAES, CASTOR AND POLLUX. 

May 7th, 1799. 

BEBKLT. STUBT. 

Two of the Whig politicians of the day, who were equally 
celebrated as opponents of the Ministry, and as brewers 
of ale. 

236. 
THE AFFRIGHTED CENTAUR, AND LION BRI- 
TANIQUE. May 7th, 1799. 

DUKE OF BEDFORD. 

The Duke of Bedford was celebrated for his tasto for 
sporting — ^tho turf as well as the chace. However, ho is 



POLITICAL SERIES. 183 

here represented under the form of the Centaur, half man 
and half horse. The roar set up against him by the British 
lion, or at least put into the lion's mouth, was a sufficient 
subject for alarm. 

237. 
THE INEXPRESSIBLE AIR OP DIGNITY. 

March 9th, 1803. 

THE DUKE OF MABLBOBOUGH. 

The Duke of Marlborough of this period was distin- 
guished as a fop. This figure was bemg pointed out as a 
broad contrast to all our notions of the warlike character 
of the illustrious hero who first obtained the dukedom. 

239. 
A MAN OP IMPORTANCE. May 16th, 1799. 

THE EABL OF MOIRA. 

A nobleman frequently attacked by the Tory press of 
this period, on account of the part he took in Irish politics. 
The verses are taken from the Anti- Jacobin, a Tory jour- 
nal remarkable for its bitterness. He voted, however, for 
the Union, in opposition to his own party, the Whigs, who 
were generally opposed to that measure. 

240. 
FIELD . MARSHAL COUNT SUWARROW-ROM- 

NISKOY. May 23ri, 1799. 

The great and sanguinary General of the Emperor 
Paul I. of Russia. In the middle of April, 1799, he 
assumed the command of the Austro-Russian armies in 
Italy, and gained repeated successes against the French 
in Italy during Buonaparte's absence in the East ; but his 
career was at length checked by Massena in Switzer- 
land. His victories had made his name popular in Eng- 
land, and procured him the honour of this plate. He 
died in the year following (1800). 



184 GILLRAY^S CAEICATURE8. 

241. 

THE STATE OF THE WAR ; or, THE MONKEY 
RACE IN DANGER. Maij 20th, 1799. 

This print appeared in the midst of the successes of the 
Russians and Austrians in Italy^ and when Buonaparte had 
been driven by the Turks, aided by Sir Sidney Smith and 
the English, from before Acre. The Republicans, under 
the old satirical disguise of monkeys, are roughly treated 
by the Eastei'n crescent, the Russian bear, the Austrian 
eagle, and the English lion. A few months shewed the 
emptiness of the boasts embodied in GiUray^s caricature, 
and saw some of the parties here triumphant bowing before 
a power which they had aflfected to despise. 

242. 

THE HIGH GERMAN METHOD OF DESTROYING 
VERMIN AT RADSTADT. May 22nd, 1799. 

This is not a very generous or just satire on an act which 
cast disgrace at least upon Austria. On the 28th of April, 
1 799, the French Plenipotentiaries at Radstadt, Bonnien 
and Roberjot, were waylaid and assassinated near that 
town, by a troop of Szeckler^s hussars, or persons in their 
uniform. Jean Debry was also loft for dead, but he reco- 
vered. This breach of the law of nations excited the 
utmost indignation in France. 

243. 
INDEPENDENCE. June 9th, 1799. 

TYBWHITT JONES. 

Gillray has put into the mouth of Tyrwhitt Jones this 
speech : — " I am an independent man. Sir, and I don't care 
that, who hears me say so ! I don't like wooden shoes ! 
No, Sir, nor French wooden shoes ; no, nor English 
wooden shoes, neither ; and as to the tall gentleman over 



POLITICAL SERIES. 185 

the way, I can tell him I am no Pizarro ! 1^11 not hold 
up the deyil's tail to fish for a place, or a pension ! Fm 
no skulker. No, nor no seceder neither! I'll not keep 
out of the way, for fear of being told my own. Here's 
my place, and here I ought to speak. I warrant I'll not 
sneak into taverns to drink humbug toasts that I am 
afraid to explain — ^not I ! My motto is, ' Independence 
and Old England,' and that for all the rest of the world. 
There— that !— that I— that !" 

We cannot trace to what speech this allndes. Pizarro 
was brought out on the 24th of May ; the print is dated 
June the 9th. The occurrence must, therefore, have taken 
place in this interval, because he calls Sheridan " Pizarro." 
There is not the slightest allusion to any attack of this 
description made upon Sheridan by Tyrwhitt Jones, or any 
other speaker, reported in Hansard's Debates during the 
period. The allusion to humbug toasts, &c., is intended 
to refer to the speeches and toasts at the Whig Club. 

The collectors of prints call the first impressions of 
the '' March to Finchley" " the Sunday print," because 
Hogarth by mistake dated it on a Sunday. Gillray has 
here made a similar mistake. June the 9th, 1799, was on 
a Sunday. 

244. 
PIZARRO CONTEMPLATING OVER THE PRO- 
DUCT OP HIS NEW PERUVIAN MINE. 

June Uh, 1 799. 

SUEfilDAN. 

" A man so various that he seemed to be 
Not one, but all mankind's epitome/** 

" Whatever Sheridan has done,^' says Lord Byron, " has 
been par excellence, always the best of its kind. He has 
written the best comedy, the best opera, the best farce, and 

♦ From Drj'den's Character of Villicrs, Duke of Buckingham, author oi' 
the" Rehearsal." 



186 OILLBAY^S CABICATUBES. 

tho best address (the monody on Grarrick), and to crown 
all, delivered the very best oration ever conceived in ibis 
country/' 

It would be presumption to add one syllable upon She- 
ridan's dramatic works, after citing the above panegyric 
of Lord Byron ; but it may not be superfluous to inform 
the rising generation, and those who are not yet fully 
acquainted with the merits of Sheridan's dramas, that his 
dramatic works and monody on Garrick have been pub- 
lished in a very neat volume in duodecimo by H. G. Bohn. 

The speech referred to by Lord Byron is that delivered 
in Westminster Hall, on Hastings's trial, on opening the 
charge relative to the Begum Princesses of Oude ; but 
before adverting to that, it will be proper to notice, that 
he had brought forward the same charge in the House of 
Commons on Feb. 17, 1787. For five hours and a half he 
delighted and astonished the House, and at the conclusion 
of his speech Fox and Burke pronounced the most glow- 
ing eulogiums on it ; Pitt declared it had surpassed all 
eloquence of ancient and modem times.* 

'' Though the wondering senate hung on all he spoke," 
a more arduous task, and greater triumph still remained 
to him. The impeachment was carried, and it became 
Sheridan's province to open the same charge before an 
assembly even still more august. Westminster Hall was 

* Gibbon speaking of his own Parliamentary career, says, " The sacoesf 
of his pen discouraged the trial of his voice." It is a veiy enrioos drcnm- 
Btance that after Sheridan had made his first speech, he went np into the 
gallery, and asked Woodfall, the celebrated Parliamentary reporter, with 
great anxiety, what he thoaght of his first attempt Woodfall, with mora 
candour than penetration, replied, *" I do not think this is yonr line— yoa had 
much better have stuck to your former pursuits." On hearing this, Sheridan 
rested his head upon his hand for a few minutes, and then said, ** It is in 
nie, and by G — , it shall come out of me." Very different was Macklin's 
prik^ction respecting Pitt, on hearing his first speech. The late Mr. Ferry 
told Vhe writer of this note that he was seated in tho gallery next to Macklin, 
and when Pitt concluded, he asked Macklin what he thought of Pitt*s 
speech.. Macklin answered, '* Sir, he will be grand — he will bo magnificent, 
when h^' dares to be impudent.*' 



POLITICAL SERIES. 187 

fitted up aa a court of justice, and Sheridan appeared 
before the assembled peers, as representative of the Com- 
mons of England, to prefer and substantiate this charge. 
The House of Commons was present, and the assembly 
was suiTOunded by an extraordinary display of beauty, of 
rank, wealth, and distinguished characters. 

Largior hie campos lether, et Inmine yestit 
Pnrpureo. 

Expectation was wound up to the highest pitch ; not 
to surpass his former effort, however brilliant his speech 
might be, would have been considered a failure. He 
resolved to eclipse himself — ^and he succeeded. Never 
was so great an effect produced. It is to be lamented that 
we have no faithful report of this mighty achievement 
of eloquence. Wonderful indeed must have been that 
oratory, which could call forth this splendid tribute from 
Burke, himself a consummate master of eloquence : — 

'' He has this day surprised the thousands who hung 
with rapture on his accents by such an array of talents, 
such an exhibition of capacity, such a display of powers, 
as are unparalleled in the annals of oratory; a display that 
reflected the highest honour upon himself — ^lustre upon 
letters, renown upon Parliament, and glory upon the 
country. Of all species of rhetoric, of every kind of elo- 
quence that has been witnessed or recorded, either in 
ancient or modem times, whatever the acuteness of tho 
bar, the dignity of the senate, the solidity of the judgment 
seat, and the sacred morality of the pulpit, have hitherto 
furnished, nothing has surpassed, nothing has equalled^ 
what we have heard this day in Westminster Hall. No 
holy seer of religion, no sage, no statesman, no orator, no 
man of any literary description whatever has come up, in 
the one instance, to the pure sentiments of morality, or in 
the other, to that variety of knowledge, force of imagina- 
tion, propriety and vivacity of allusion, beauty and ele- 
gance of diction, strength and copiousness of style, pathos. 



188 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

and sublimity of conception, to which wo have this day 
listened with ardour and admiration. From poetry up to 
eloquence there is not a species of composition of which a 
complete and perfect specimen might not from that single 
speech be culled and collected.''* 

GlLLRAT HAS DRAWN AND HABITED ShSRIDAN IN THE 

CHARACTER OF PizARRO. He is Contemplating the product 
of his own Peruvian mine, and thus soliloquises, ''Honour! 
reputation ! — a mere bubble ! Will the praises of posterity 
charm my bones in the grave ? psha ! my present purpose 
is all ! 0, gold ! gold ! for thee I would sell my native 
Spain, as freely as I would plunder Peru.*' The sarcastic 
insinuation intended to be conveyed by this print is that 
Sheridan's political feelings were more in unison with 
those of Pizarro, than with the patriotic sentiments he has 
put into the mouth of the Peruvian General BoUa. The 
play was brought out at Drury Lane on the 24th of May, 
1799, and was eminently successful. George III. who 
for a considerable time had confined his theatrical visits 
to Covent Garden, now signified his intention of being 
present at the performance of Pizarro, and having wit- 
nessed the representation expressed warm admiration of 
it. Twenty-nine editions of Pizarro, consisting each of a 
thousand copies, were sold in a very short time, and of 
course added considerably to Sheridan's gains by the play. 

245. 
FRENCH GENERALS RETIRING ON ACCOUNT 
OF THEIR HEALTH; WITH LEPAUX PRE- 
SIDING IN THE DIRECTORIAL DISPENSARY. 

June 20th, 1799. 
On the return of several of the French Generals from 

* It is most extraordinary that neither Prior, in his Life of Bnrke, nor 
Moore, in his Life of Sheridan, shonM have recorded this magnificent burst 
of extemporaneous eloquence, which conferred equal honour on him who 
pronounced tlic (>anegyric, a^* on him wlio was the object of it 



POLITICAL SERIES. 189 

Egypt, who were allowed by the Directory to revisit their 
native country under the pretence of recruiting their health. 
This caricature hardly needs any further explanation. 

246. 
ALLIED POWERS UNBOOTING EGALITE. 

September let, 1 799. 

Another caricature on the reverses which France was at 
this time experiencing on every side. John Bull's jolly 
tar is holding the red-capped republican's arms, while the 
Turk, rendered bold by the late check given to Napoleon 
at Acre, is preparing to add his nose to the string of 
trophies suspended at his waist. Austria, assisted by 
Russia, is unbooting him of his conquests in Italy, and 
emptying them of his golden spoils. The secret expedition 
is alluded to in the proceedings of the sly Dutchman, who 
is attempting from behind to purloin the cheese on which 
the British tar has established his right foot. 

247. 
THE RECEPTION IN HOLLAND. Sept. 8th, 1799. 

WILUAM PRINCE OF OBANOE. 

On the English expedition to Holland in the August of 
1 799 to restore the Prince of Orange, who is here repre- 
sented as experiencing an overwhelmingly joyful reception 
from his people, and especially from his countrywomen. 
This view of the '' reception '' was, however, rather pre- 
mature, for the British army found no support from the 
Dutch, and was eventually compelled to make a somewhat 
disgraceful retreat. 

248. 
EXIT LIBERTE A LA FRANCOISB ! OR, BUONA- 
PARTE CLOSING THE FARCE OF EGALITE 
AT ST. CLOUD, NEAR PARIS. Nov. lOth, 1799. 

BUONAPARTE. 

On the dissolution of the Directoiy by Buonaparte's 



190 aiLLBAY^S CARICATURES. 

soldiers, Nov. 9, 1799, an event known in history as the 
revolution of the 18th Bnimaire. The new coDstitation^ 
in which Buonaparte was chosen first consul, was promul- 
gated on the 13th of December. 

249. 
EFFUSIONS OF A POT OP PORTER; OR, 
MINISTERIAL CONJURATIONS FOR SUP- 
PORTING THE WAR. Nov. 29th, 1 799. 

PITT. 

On the discontent excited by the rise in the price of 
porter, by the increased taxes on malt and hops, and on 
the inclination of the populace as well as of its political 
leaders, to lay every kind of national calamity to the 
charge of the Minister. In this instance the popular 
clamour is made to issue from the mouth of Dr. Parr, who 
was a distinguished Whig, and celebrated for his attach- 
ment to a pipe and a pot. Pitt, mounted on the white 
horse (Hanover), rises vauntingly out of the froth of the 
doctor's favourite beverage, and calls down the vengeance 
of the elements on the unfortunate crops which ought to 
bring abundance to his countrymen. 

250. 
THE FRENCH CONSULAR TRIUMVIRATE, SET- 
TLING THE NEW CONSTITUTION. Jan. Ut, 1800. 

CAMBACEKES. L£ BRUN. SIETES. BUONAPARTE. 

On the new French constitution as compiled by Sieyes, 
under the direction of Buonaparte. Below, a peep behind 
the scones reveals to us certain imps forging new chains 
for France, and for Europe. Some of Gillray's countiy- 
men may have been hoaxed into the belief that these were 
true likenesses, but there was truth in his prophecy that 
in this '^ Ccynstitution pour VAvcnir" the first consul was 
destined to assume the character of the ^^ grand mmiarque. 



9» 



POLITICAL SERIES. 191 

251. 

DESIGN FOR THE NAVAL PILLAR. Feb. Ut, 1800. 
This print explains itself^ and can hardly be called a 
caricature. It was published in the midst of the popular 
enthusiasm occasioned by the great successes of our fleets^ 
and when the public talked of the justice and propriety of 
raising some grand monument to the &me of our naval 
commanders and their gallant tars. 

252. 
DEMOCRACY; OR, A SKETCH OF THE LIFE 
OF BUONAPARTE. May 12th, 1800. 

One of those numerous productions which were at 
this time put forth with the object of exciting the hatred 
and contempt of the people of this country towards the 
man who had now begun to rule the destinies of France. 
The events of his life are here traced from his supposed 
introduction to a military education under the bounty of 
the monarch whom he afterwards assisted in dethroning, 
to his election to the office of first consul. The different 
compartments are sufficiently expkined by the inscriptions 
on the plate ; and it is hardly necessary to state that they 
are grossly exaggerated, especially as far as regards his 
early life. 

253. 

THE NEW SPEAKER (i. e. The Law Chick), 

BETWEEN THE HAWKS AND BUZZARDS. 

Feb. 15th, 1800. 

M. A. TAYLOR. 

Michael Angelo Taylor was the son of Sir Robert Taylor, 
Knight, a celebi'ated architect, who built the Bank. He 
bestowed a liberal education on his son Michael Angelo, 
and sent him to Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Michael 
Angelo Taylor studied the law, and was admitted abarrister. 

13 



192 QILLRAT^S CARICATURES. 

He seems at first to have entertained some ambitious views 
of advancement in his profession. He married the sister 
of Sir Harry Vane Tempest, Bart. At the general election 
in 1784, he obtained a seat in the House of Commons. 
He took an early opportunity of declaring his determina- 
tion to support the Minister, but not indiscriminately. 
An early opportunity occurred of evincing his sincerity, 
by giving an independent vote on the unpopular West- 
minster Scrutiny. On the 9th of February, 1785, Mr. 
Taylor said : " That as he should that night give a vote 
against those with whom he had agreed in general, and 
against whom he, perhaps, might never give another, he 
thought it right to give his reasons for so doing." Ho then 
assigned his reasons for considering the High Bailiff's 
Court an illegal judicature, not competent to try the 
validity of the Westminster Election. He did not pretend 
to contend with the learned gentleman who preceded him 
(the Master of the Bolls, Sir Lloyd Kenyon). He was 
young — ^he was, but what he might call himself, a Chicken 
in the profession ; but he could not reconcile to his ideas 
of law the Westminster Scrutiny. It had been called a 
Court ; it was ridiculous, in his mind, to call it so— -it was 
but a mockery and a jest.'* 

Mr. Sheridan observed, that they had that day been 
honoured with the councils of a complete gradation of 
lawyers ; — they had received the opinion of a Judge, of 
an Attomey-Gteneral in Petto (Michael Angelo Taylor) ; 
of an ex-Attomey-General, and of a Practising Barrister. 
With regard to the acquisition of a Learned Gentleman, 
who had declared he meant to vote with them on that day, 
he was sorry to acknowledge, that from the declaration the 
Learned Gentleman had made in the beginning of his 
speech, he saw no great reason to boast of their auxiliary. 
The Learned Gentleman, who had with peculiar modesty 
called himself a Chicken of a Lawyer, had declared that, 
thinking them in the right with respect to the discussion 



• < 



POLITICAL SERIES. 193 

of that day^ he should vote with them ; bat he had at the 
same time thought it necessary to assert, that he had never 
before voted differently from the Minister and his friends, 
and perhaps he never should again vote with those to whom 
he meant to give his support that day. It was a little 
singular to vote with them, professedly, because he found 
them in the right, and in the very moment that he had 
assigned so good a reason for changing his side, to declare 
that in all probability he never should vote with them 
again. He was sorry, he said, to find the Chicken was 
a bird of ill omen, and that its augury was so unpropitious 
to their future interests. Perhaps it would have been as 
well, under these circumstances, that the chicken had not 
left the barn-door of the Treasury, but continued side by 
side with the old Cock, to pick those crumbs of comfort, 
which would doubtless be dealt out in due time with libe- 
rality, proportioned to the fidelity of the feathered tribe.'' 
— (See EJAusard's Debates, vol. 25, p. 42 and p. 47.) 

ELaving once exercised an independent judgment, he 
seems gradually to have alienated himself from his Tory 
connexions, and adopted Whig principles. He joined the 
Opposition, who cordially welcomed their new ally ; and 
they must have entertained a very favourable opinion of 
his legal knowledge, as they nominated him one of the 
managers of Hastings's Impeachment, doubtless, with a 
view of availing themselves of his assistance, with respect 
to the Law of Evidence, in the examination of witnesses, 
which so frequently excited contention during the trial! 
Had George III.'s illness continued, and the Regency 
Bill passed in 1788, the Whigs, on entering ofiice, would 
have dissolved Parliament, and it was universally under- 
stood that Michael Angelo Taylor would have been ap- 
pointed Speaker of the new House of Commons. The 
King's recovery terminated M. A. Taylor's brilliant pros- 
pects. This disappoiiitiient is the object satirized in 
THIS PKiNT. The Hawks and the Buzzards of the opposing 

18 * 



194 gillrat's cabicatubes. 

parties unite in assailing him ; and tlio tremendous hisses 
of these birds of prey terrify Taylor from ascending the 
Speaker's chair. The features of his old antagonist 
Sheridan are conspicuous in the countenance of one of 
these sibilant birds to the right of the Print. The fact 
is, Taylor^s disappointment excited little sympathy, from 
the overweening pomposity of his manners. On the se- 
cession of the Portland party, he steadily adhered to Mr. 
Fox, and continued to support that statesman and his 
friends during the remainder of his life. Michael Angelo 
Taylor is now scarcely remembered, except from the Act, 
which he procured for the improvement of the streets of 
London, and the removal of nuisances and inconveniences 
from them, popularly called Michael Angelo Taylor's 
Street Act. 

254. 

BUONAPARTE LEAVING EGYPT. March 8th, 1800. 
A satirical representation of an event which changed 
the face of events in France and throughout Europe. 
The designation of ^^ The Desebteb ov thb Abmt or 
Egypt," here applied to the hero of Egypt was echoed by 
many of his countrymen. 

255. 

THE WORN-OUT PATRIOT; OR, THE LAST 
DYING SPEECH OF THE WESTMINSTER 
REPRESENTATIVE. Oct. Uth, 1800. 

HABVET COMBE. FOX. EBSKINE. BIB J. SINCLAIR. 

TIBBNEY. 

The Twentieth Annivebsaby of Fox's Election for 
Westminsteb was celebrated by a dinner at the Sliak- 
speare Tavern, on the 10th of October, 1800. The ap- 
pearance of Fox at a public meeting, after so prolonged 
an absence from Parliament, excited intense interest 




POLITICAL SERIES. 193 

amongst his friends and partisans^ who were anxious to 
hear his sentiments on public affairs, and demonstrate 
their unabated attachment to him. Before three o'clock 
the great room at the Shakspeare Tavern overflowed, and 
shortly after every room in the house was filled with 
company. 

After dinner, Mr. Fox's health was drank with enthu- 
siasm. Mr. Fox then addressed the company, and said, 
" During the twenty years I have represented you in Par- 
liament I have adhered to the principles on which the 
Bevolution of 1688 was founded, and to what have been 
known as the old Whig principles of England. Amidst all 
the trying difficulties with which I was surrounded on so 
many critical occasions, it has been my good fortune to 
entertain those sentiments, which you have sanctioned by 
your approbation, and to follow the line of action which 
has obtained the concurrence of the majority of my con- 
stituents. Even during the last three years, when I have 
adopted a system of retirement from public business— a 
system, which to many appeared of doubtful propriety, and 
concerning which even my own opinion has been the lea^t 
decided — ^yet I have had the good fortune to concur with 
the Electors of Westminster, and the satisfaction to know 
that this part of my conduct, whatever difference of 
opinion might have existed as to its wisdom and policy, has 
never been imputed to a dereliction of my principles.'' 

Mr. Fox then reminded the company, that when he first 
represented them, the country was engaged in the cala- 
mitous war with America ; he then took a rapid review of 
Ihe principal events which had occurred during the last 
twenty years ; and then continued thus : '^ In many of the 
circumstances which have distinguished that interval, the 
part which an honest man had to act was difficult to 
choose and to sustain ; so difficult, indeed, that unless he 
had formed his conduct upon general principles, applicable 
io all times aiid to all events, he must have been unable to 



196 qillray's caricatures. 

guide his course in such a manner as to secure the testi- 
mony of his own mind^ and the approbation of his country ; 
he must have been unequal to the faithful discharge of 
his public duty, during a series of such eventful years* 
without a system^ just^ liberal, and comprehensive. In such 
a system I have found the principles on which I was to 
act^ and the conduct I had to pursue.^' 

'^ Since that day last January^ when^ after an absence 
of some time, I returned to Parliament^* I think there can- 
not be a doubt entertained respecting the intentions of 
Ministers. We were then told, by persons high in office, 
that it was not to be wished that the former negotiation 
should have succeeded. We were told that the negotiation 
entered into by Ministers had failed ; yet it had been use- 
ful, as it had contributed to bring the nation into a solid 
system of Finance I I confess, therefore, that it is with 
additional dismay and grief, that I hear the news of a new 
failure ; because we have reason to apprehend that Minis- 
ters will consider it as a fortunate circumstance, and that 
it will prove the forerunner of another solid system of 
Finance.^' Mr. Fox, having touched on various other 
topics, in an eloquent and impressive speech, concluded 
thus : — ^^ 1 feel the deepest gratitude to you, and to all the 
people of England who honour me with their approbation, 
but I must inform you that I still mean to seclude myself 
from public business. My time of action was over when 
those principles were extinguished on which I acted. I 
have at present no more to say, but that I will steadily 
adhere to the principles which have guided my past con- 
duct. These require that I should continue absent from 
Parliament, but I shall ever maintain that the basis of all 
politics is Justice — that the basis of all constitutions is the 
Sovereignty of the People — and that from the People alone, 



* f)n ihc (liscussioa on the overtures of peace from the French ConsulAT 
Government. 



POLITICAL 8EBIES. 197 

kings^ parliaments^ judges^ and magistrates derive their 
authority."* 

Ik this Print Gillrat has depicted Fox as the 
Worn-out Patriot, making his last dying speech 
to the electors ov Westminster. 

The reader will perceive that the words put into 
Fox's mouth are a parody on portions of Fox's speech, 
which was perfectly obvious at the time of publication ; 
but much of the point and sarcasm would be lost at the 
present day without reference to the extracts we have given. 
'^ Gentlemen, you see I am grown quite an old man in your 
service ! Twenty years IVe served you, and always upon 
the same principles. I rejoice at the success of our enemies 
in the American war, and the war against the virtuous French 
has always met with my most determined opposition; but 
the infamous Ministry will not make peace with our 
enemies, and are determined to keep me out of their 
councils, and out of place. Therefore, gentlemen, as their 
principles are quite different from mine, and as I am now 
too old to form myself according to their systems, my 
attendance in Parliament is useless I — and to say the truth, 
I feel that my season of action is past, and I must leave to 
younger men to act, for alas ! my failings and weaknesses 
will not let me now recognize what is for the best. 
Erskine is supporting Fox, who appears '* worn-out,'' 
and to have scarcely strength adequate to the delivery of 
his speech. A pot of ^' Whitbread's Entire" is placed 
before him to recruit his nearly exhausted energies. On 
the left of the print stands Harvey Combe, then Lord 
Mayor, above his head is ^^ Vive la Liberte." He holds 
in his right hand '^ A Petition to the Throne, or a new 
way to Combe the Minister's wig.^ 



if 



^ It i« yery much to be regretted that a selection of some of Fox's 
Speeches at the Whig Club, and to the Electors of Westminster, was not 
appended to his Parliamentary Speeches, as they often throw light on the 
politics of the day. 



198 qillbay's carjcatubes. 

The supposed ^' Woen-out Patriot" lived to form an 
Administration in 1806, in conjuDction with Lord Gren- 
ville, and to fill the office of Secretary of State for 
Foreign Afiairs, and George III. on the death of Mr. 
Fox, declared that he had never known the duties of that 
office more efficiently discharged. 

256. 
THE MAGNANIMOUS ALLY. Jan. 2Qth, 1801. 

THE EMPEBOB PAUL. 
Mens tnrpis, corpore torpL 

The life of Paul I. Emperor of Russia, was diversified 
by many extraordinary circumstances. He was the son of 
Peter III. and Catherine II. He was bom October 1, 
1754. He was the victim of the bitter dissensions which 
then subsisted between his parents. No sooner was his 
birth announced than Peter III. issued an Ukase^ declaring 
his firm conviction that the child was not his son^ and 
caused this proclamation to be registered in the archives of 
the empire.* Thus abandoned by his father, his mother 
confided him to the care of a physician named Epinos^ 
and to Count Panin ; they superintented his early educa- 
tion, and Paul ever retained a grateful sense of their at- 
tentions and services. Paul early evinced a disposition for 
the acquisition of scientific knowledge ; but his mother 
studiously discouraged his attainment of any considerable 
advance either in literature or science. After the death of 
his father, she entertained great jealousy of her son, and 
did not permit him to hold any important appointment. 
She seldom allowed him to appear at Court, probably feel- 
ing the presence of her son a rebuke on the profligate dis- 

^ Catherine took ample rcrenge on her hnshand. She cansed him to be 
arrested. The conspirators persuaded him to st^n an act of abdication, then 
imprisoned him in the fortress of Uobscba, and within a week poisoned him. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 199 

solatenesB of his mother's private life. It is generally 
understood that during her last illness she was devising 
means to prevent his succession to the throne, either by 
secretly causing his death, or by proclaiming her adoption 
of her grandson Alexander as her successor, but her death 
took place before she could carry this design into execution. 

The accession of Paul I. to the throne was hailed with 
universal joy ; his dismissal of his mother's favourites was 
regarded with approbation ; singularly enough, one of the 
first acts of his government was to order funeral honours 
to the memory of his father, which his mother had with- 
held ; considering the conduct of Peter III. on his birth, 
this was esteemed an exemplary instance of forgiveness 
and filial reverence. 

He took the earliest opportunity of evincing his ab- 
horrence of the French Revolution, of French regicides, 
and the French Constitution and principles. He paid 
great attention to the exiled French princes, and assigned 
to Louis XYIII. the palace of Mittau for a residence, and 
provided him an establishment worthy of imperial muni- 
ficence and royal acceptance. He entered into a treaty of 
confederation with Austria and England, to furnish a large 
army to operate against France. In conformity with this 
stipulation, the formidable Suwarrow advanced to the aid 
of Austria. His victorious troops advanced as far as 
Switzerland amidst a series of brilliant successes, and the 
Emperor despatched another body of troops to co-operate 
with the English expedition to Holland. 

It might now be said that Europe hailed Paul as its 
future deliverer from the tyranny of French oppression, 
and the restorer of sovereigns to their lost thrones. The 
press now teemed with encomiums on his magnanimity.* 



* Among the encomiastic enloginms of Pani, which issued fr6m the 
London press, was one entitled '* The Sovbbeion, a Poem, addressed to 
the Emperor of all the Boasias, by Charles Small Ptbds, one of the 



200 gillrat's cabicatures. 

But alas ! these brilliant visions vanished^ and Snwarrow, 
unsupported by the reinforcements he had expected from 
Austria, and with a commissariat inadequately provided^ 
was defeated by Massena^ and retreated precipitately to 
Russia^ where he was coolly received by the Emperor. 
The expedition to Holland was equally unsuccessful. The 
rage of Paul on these combined disasters was excessive. 
He declared he had been betrayed by the perfidy of the 
Ministers of Vienna and London^ and publicly insulted 
the Austrian and English Ambassadors at his levee. A 
further cause of exasperation soon occurred. The English 
captured the island of Malta, of which he had chosen to 
constitute himself Grrand Master. He withdrew from his 
alliance with England and Austria. For some time he 
remained quiescent^ and seemed disposed to observe a 
neutrality between the belligerents ; when to the astonish- 
ment of Europe, there appeared a proclamation in the 
Court Gazette of St. Petersburgh, stating, that *' Thb 
Emperob of Russia finding that the Powers of Europe 
cannot agree among themselves, and being desirous 
to put an end to a war, which has desolated it fob 
eleven years, intends to point out a spot, to which 
he will invite all the other sovereigns to repair^ 

Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.*' The opposition wits assailed the 
Treasury Poetaster with the shafts of ridicule ; the best epigram on the 
occasion was one in Latin, written by Porson, and put into the month of 
Pye, the Poet Laureate. 

Arcui-Poeta — Loquitwr. 
'* Non aumm qnaerunt. sed Laurum Pittqne Pybnsque, 
Queis hujus nihil est^iUius ampla segos 
Aurum, non Laurum desiderat Archi-Poeta» 

Tarn raro solitus carpere dente cibos, 
8i non de facto, de Jure Poeta Ego, 
Sed nee do facto, nee de Jure Poeta Pybus." 

On the death of Paul the following distich was circulated: — 

* The downfall of Paul, 
Makes Pybus sing small" 



POLITICAL SERIES. 201 

TO FIGHT IN SINGLE COMBAT^ bringing with them as 
seconds and esquires^ their most enlightened ministers 
and able generals^ such as Thargot^ Pitt, Bernstofif^ and 
that the Emperor himself purposes being attended by 
Grenerals Count Pahlen and Kutnsoff/^ The imperial 
Quixote, however, did not find any royal Knight-errant 
to come forward to break a lance with him, and we pre- 
sume he considered this as a confession on the part of 
each monarch, that he was *' impar congressus Achilli." 
He who had denounced the French Revolution, and 
French Government, in unmeasured terms, now ordered a 
bust of Bonaparte to fill a conspicuous place in his palace, 
and entered into an alliance, offensive and defensive, with 
him; one great object of this treaty was to drive the 
English out of India, and to humble the maritime supre- 
macy of England. In furtherance of this latter object, 
he effected a confederacy of the Northern Powers for the 
enforcing of the claims of neutrals to a free navigation. 

He soon after began to exhibit decided marks of a dis- 
ordered mind. He issued the most arbitrary edicts. He 
did not confine himself to petty acts of annoyance, such 
as that. No person in the Russian Empire should wear a 
round hat, &c. but he conducted himself with the most 
brutal violence to his nobility, and to some of his most 
distinguished generals. No one felt himself safe from 
the paroxysms of his rage. The consequence was a con- 
spiracy formed against his life, and organized notwith- 
standing the severity and vigilance of his precautions. 
Twenty conspirators entered the palace by the garden 
gate. The sentinels at first refused them admission, 
stating the Emperor had retired to rest ; but they assured 
them there was a fire in the city. By an extraordinary 
law of Russia, the Emperor is bound to attend personally 
at every fire in the capital.* The sentinels confiding in 

'*' The same law prevails in China. The Emperor of China is boand 
personally to attend fires in his capital. 



202 qillray's caricatures. 

the distinguished generals, whom they recognized^ gave 
admittance ; when they entered the palace, a Cossack on 
duty, perceiving they were armed, gave a shriek, and was 
instantly immolated. Paul, however, heard the shriek, and 
suspecting some treachery rose from his bed, and hid 
himself in a closet. The conspirators supposed he had 
escaped, but General Beningsen feeling the sheets, and 
finding them warm, was convinced that he was secreted 
in the room. They discovered and dragged him out of 
the closet. Paul made considerable resistance ; but after 
receiving several wounds, was eventually strangled with 
his own military sash in the night between the 11th and 
12th of March. He died in the 47th year of his age, and 
the fifth of his reign. 

GiLLRAT HAS CHOSEN FOR HIS MOTTO, '^ MeNS TuSPIS, 

CoRPORE Turpi ;'' but some allowance should be made for 
his early persecutions both by father and mother. His 
father had disowned him, and his mother had not only 
treated him with great rigour, but with almost her dying 
breath had endeavoured to prevent his succession to the 
throne. Such unnatural conduct on the part of both 
parents may have preyed on his mind, and engendered the 
seeds of insanity, and may be pleaded in extenuation of 
his brutality of conduct in the latter part of his life. 



257. 
THE UNION CLUB. Jan. 21««, 1801. 

TIERNET. DUKE OF BEDFORD. FOX. PRINCE OF WALES 
UNDER THE TABLE. LORD STANHOPE. ERSKINE. 

SIR JONAS BARRINOTON. LORD MOIRA. SHERIDAN. 

SIR F. BURDETT. DUKE OF NORFOLK. LORD CHOL- 

MONDELT. MR. MANNERS (iN THE HAT.) LORD KIRKUD- 
BRIOHT. 8TURT. COL. HANQER. MARQUIS OF LANSDOWNE. 
DR. PARR. TYRWHITT JONES. MARQUIS OF QUEENS- 



POLITICAL SERIES. 203 

BEBBY. NICHOLLS. LORD DEBBT. COL. 8. MATTHEWS. 
SIB LUMLET SKEFFINQTON. 

The present century opened with that important national 
measure^ the Union of Ireland^ which created much agita- 
tion at the time^ and among the emanations of popular 
feeling was the establishment of the Union Club, which 
held its meetings in Cumberland House, Pall Mall, and 
which furnished the subject of the present caricature. The 
Union Club was for a short time exceedingly &ishionable> 
and its festivities were proportionally celebrated. Gillray 
has made a union of all shades and parties in one great 
scene of jovial and tumultuous ebriety. The great drinkers 
of the political stage, including the Prince of Wales, who 
has involuntarily deserted the presidential chair, and the 
Duke of Norfolk^ are all under the table. Most of the 
party are easily recognized. Dr. Parr, with his pot of 
porter, holds a prominent place ; and Lord Lansdowne, the 
advocate of concession to the Irish Catholics, is using a 
crucifix for a tobacco stopper. The &ishionable pair. Colonel 
Matthews and Sir Lumley Skeffington, appear together in 
a state of elevation at the extreme right. 

258. 
INTEGRITY RETIRING FROM OFFICE ! 

February 24th, 1801. 

JBETLL. DUKE OF NOBFOLE. SIB F. BUBDETT. DUKE 

OF BEDFOBD. NICHOLLS. TIBBNET. TYBWHITT 

JONES. 8HEBIDAN. CANNING. LOBD QBENVILLE. 

LOBD LOUGHBOBOUGH. DUNDAS. PITT. 

On the resignation of Pitt's Ministry, in the February 
of 1801. The Whigs whose tattered appearance would 
certainly entitle them to be classed under the head of 
''improper persons,'' are rushing to obtain the places 
thus vacated, but are held back by the sentinel at the 
Treasury gate, who perhaps is intended to represent 
Addington, the Pi'emier who succeeded Pitt. 



204 gillray's caricatures. 



269. 

POLITICAL AMUSEMENTS FOR YOUNG GENTLE- 
MEN;— OR, THE OLD BRENTFORD SHUTTLE- 
COCK BETWEEN OLD SARUM AND THE 
TEMPLE OF ST. STEPHEN. March 15th, 1801. 

LORD TEMPLE. HORNE TOOEE. LORD CAHELFOBD. 

Lord Camelford and Lord Temple are playing Battle- 
door and Shuttlecock in St. Stephen's Chapel. The 
shuttlecock is Home Tooke's head, into which five feathers 
are inserted, each bearing an inscription. — "Deceit.''— 
''Vanity."— "Jacobinism."— "New Morality."— "Envy." 
— ^A clerical band is fastened under the shuttlecock. Lord 
Camelford* calls out, "There's a stroke for you, messmate, 
and if you kick him back, I'll return him again, damme I 
If I should be sent a cruise to Moorfields for it ! Go it, 
Coz." Lord Temple answers : " Send him back ? Yes, 
I'll send him back twenty thousand times before such a 
high flying Jacobin shuttlecock should perch it here in 
his clerical band." On Lord Camelford's coat pocket is 
inscribed, "Effusions of Loyalty;" and on the ground 
between his legs lies " List of Candidates for Old Sarum, 
J. H. Tooke, Black Dick,t and ThelwalL" 

Mr. Home, who afterwards assumed the name of 
Tooke, was bom in 1 734. He was the son of a poulterer 
in Newport Market. His father bestowed on him a liberal 
education. He placed him first at Westminster School, 
and in 1754 sent him to St. John's College, CambridgOj 

* Lord Camelford was a Lienteoant in the Navy. 

t Black Dick. It was carrently reported that Lord Camelford had declared 
his intentioii of retaming his Black Serrant for Old Samm in case the Ilonae 
annulled the election of Home Tooke. Lord Camelford very properly dis- 
claimed ever having entertained the intention of offering so gross an insolt 
tu the lloose. 



POLITICAL SEBIES. 205 

where he distinguished himself by his assiduity and pro- 
ficiency in his studies. It was his most anxious wish to 
have devoted himself to the study of the Law, and to have 
pursued it as a profession ; but was induced to enter tho 
Church by the importunate solicitations of his father. He 
was ordained Priest in 1760, and in the same year was 
instituted into the living of New Brentford, which was 
said to have been purchased for him by his father. He 
here discharged the duties of a parish priest for some 
years in an exemplary manner. In 1 763 he accompanied 
the son of the celebrated Elwes to France as his travelling 
tutor, or, as he himself expressed it, as '^ bear-leader." 
They remained a year in France, principally at Paris, and 
the society and enjoyments afforded by that gay metropolis 
were most probably more congenial to his taste than the 
duties of the parish priest of New Brentford. At the 
expiration of the year he returned to his vicarage, and 
resumed his clerical duties, and he might now perhaps 

'* While yet no patriot project poshing, 
Content I thnmp'd old Brentford's cushion, 
I passed my life so free and gaily, 
Not dreaming of that damned Old Bailey.*' 

At Paris, however, he had formed an acquaintance with 
Wilkes, and this is supposed to have given him the first 
taste for politics. At a subsequent period he took an 
active part in the Middlesex Election, and by his exertions 
gpreatly promoted the interest of Wilkes. He now plunged 
deeper into politics. Wilkes and Tooke subsequently 
quarrelled, and a most vituperative correspondence ensued 
between them ; it would be difficult to decide to which the 
palm of scurrility should be assigned. He contended 
with Junius, with keener, and more polished weapons, 
and is allowed to be the only antagonist of that formidable 
assailant, who retired unscathed from the field, and even 
left the victory doubtful. 



206 gillrat's caricatures. 

Our limits will not permit us to follow Home through 
the whole course of his politiccJ life, we can only glance at 
some of the leading events of it ; particularly his election 
as member for Old Sarum, as that involved a great con- 
stitutional question* 

In 1773 he resigned his vicarage of New Brentford, and 
applied himself to the study of the Tiaw. He entered 
himself as a student at the Inner Temple, and regularly 
took his commons there. The kindness of four finends 
enabled him to do this, by presenting him with a joint 
bond, engaging to pay him an annuity of £480, to remain 
in force till he was called to the Bar. While he was 
pursuing his legal studies, he rendered an important ser- 
vice to Mr. William Tooke, one of the friends who had 
fvranted the annuity bond. Mr. Tooke despondingly 
stated to Mr. Home, that his estate at Purley (near Gk>d- 
stone, in Surrey), was about to suffer a most serious 
depreciation by the oppressive conduct of a neighbouring 
landed proprietor, who, unable to wrest his manorial rights 
from him by a vexatious kwsuit, had now resorted to the 
decisive expedient of an Act of Parliament, to deprive him 
of them by an inclosure bill. He said the bill had been 
smuggled through the House; every attempt of his 
Counsel to place the matter in its true light, and convince 
the Committee of the injustice of the clauses affecting his 
interest had failed by the Parliamentary influence of his 
opponent. He added, the bill was to be read the third 
time the next day, and there was no doubt it would be 
carried. Home answered : '^ If the facts are as you have 
represented, the House shall not pass that bill." He had 
recourse to a most extraordiuary device, which would have 
occurred to few persons, and still fewer would have had 
the courage or audacity to put in execution. He instantly 
wrote a most virulent libel on the Speaker (Sir Fletcher 
Norton), charging him with robbing an individual of his 
property in order to enrich a favoured person. He then 



POLITICAL SERIES. 207 

repaired to the office of the Public Advertiser, and desired 
to have it inserted in the next day's paper. Woodfall told 
him the article was so flagrant a libel on the Speaker, that 
it was impossible the House should pass it over* He would^ 
however, insert it on condition that Home would consent 
to his giving up the name of the author. Home assured 
him this was the object he coveted. The following day, 
as soon as the House of Commons met, Woodfall was 
ordered to be taken into custody, by the Serjeant at Arme^ 
for this libellous attack on the dignity and honour of the 
House of Commons. He gave up the name of the writer, 
and Home, who was standing by his side at the Bar, 
avowed himself to be the author* The announcement of 
his name excited a great sensation ; Woodfall was dis- 
charged, and Home taken into custody. When called 
upon for his defence, he disclaimed all intention of insult 
to the Speaker, and professed the highest respect for his 
impartiality ; but he had had recoarse to this artifice as the 
only means of drawing the attention of the House and the 
public to the atrocious injustice of the Bill. He then in 
a calm manner and most luminous speech analysed the 
Bill, and shewed the great injustice which would be 
inflicted by it. His statement produced conviction on his 
auditory, the obnoxious clauses were expunged, and his 
friend's property saved from the intended spoliation. The 
House also passed resolutions to prevent the possibility of 
such negligence of examination occuriing in the passing 
of all future bills of inclosure. 

One difficulty remained to the House, — how to dispose 
of Home ! It seemed impossible to punish a man for an act, 
which was admitted to have been the means of saving the 
House from committing a flagrant act of injustice. They 
therefore chose to resolve, that Mr. Home be discharged 
from the custody of the Serjeant-at-Arms, as there was 
not sufficient proof of his being the author of the libel I 
This was amusing enough, as he had commenced his 

14 



208 gillrat's caricatures. 

address by avowing the authorship ; but the House, dis- 
covering its error respecting the Bill, would not allow him 
to criminate himself. Mr. Tooke was delighted with the 
result, and at his death bequeathed him the estate at 
Purley, and requested he would assume the name of 
Tooke in addition to Home. 

When the period of calling him to the bar arrived at 
maturity, the Benchers of the Inner Temple refused to call 
him on account of his having been ordained a priest. We 
do not question the propriety of this decision ; but we 
think it would have been only candid, and even just, to 
have informed him of the alleged impediment at the period 
of enroUing his name as a student on the books of their 
society, and suffering him to spend several years in study- 
ing a profession under their auspices, without communi- 
cating to him the fruitlessness of the pursuit. 

In 1790 he was a candidate to represent the City of 
Westminster. In 1794 he was arrested and tried for 
High Treason, and was acquitted.* He displayed extra- 
ordinary acuteness and talents in aiding his Counsel, 
Erskine and Gibbs, on that occasion. In 1 798 he again 
stood unsuccessfully for Westminster. 

In 1801 he was returned to Parliament for the borough 
of Old Sarum on the nomination of Lord Camelford. 

On the 16th of February he was introduced to the 
House of Commons by Sir Francis Burdett and Mr. Wil- 
son. The gravest countenances relaxed into a smile, when 
they saw the new Speaker, Sir John Mitford, cordially 
shake him by the hand and congratulate him on his elec- 
tion. If was fresh in the recollection of all, that, the same 
Sir John Mitford only seven years before had endeavoured, 
in a speech of five hours and a half, to persuade a jury to 



* Windham, adverting to the acquittal of Home Tooke and his associates, 
inteniperately called them ** Acquitted Felons." Sheridan reminded him 
that there were some " Unacquitted Felons" in the country. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 209 

convict him of high treason, and subject him to all the 
dreadful penalties attached to that crime. As soon as 
Home Tooke had taken his seat, Earl Temple rose and 
said, '^ he had observed a gentleman, who had just retired 
from the table, after having taken the oaths, whom he 
considered to be incapable of a seat in that House, in con- 
sequence of his having taken Priest's Orders, and been 
inducted into a living. He should wait the allotted time 
of fourteen days to see if there was any petition presented 
against the return, if not, he should then move that the 
return for Old Sarum be taken into consideration/' 
Feb. 19th, he spoke on Mr. Sturt's motion relative to the 
failure of the Ferrol Expedition. In the course of his 
speech he remarked, '^ If the House refuse to go into a 
Committee of Inquiry, with what propriety can they enter 
into the merits of the return for Old Sarum and its 
member ? How can they plunge themselves into inquiries 
and discussions about who is, and who is not a priest, and 
whether a thirty years' quarantine is not sufficient to 
guard against the infection of his original character ?" 

On the 10th of March Lord Temple moved for the ap- 
pointment of a Committee to obtain proofs of the ordination 
of Home, and to search for precedents respecting the eligi- 
bility of a clergyman. He supported his motion by a very 
elaborate speech. Home commenced his reply by declar- 
ing, that much unnecessary time would be wasted in the 
search for proof of his having taken orders. '' I would,'' 
said he, ''have saved his Lordship the trouble, acknow- 
ledging then, as I do now, that upwards of forty years I was 
ordained a Priest. Sir, I then understood from your 
authority (addressing the Speaker) that such admission 
cannot be received, and acted upon by this House. I ought 
to have some knowledge of the proceedings of this House, 
for I have been in the custody of the Serjeant-at-Arms, 
and from that knowledge I aver that it is the constant 
practice of this House to take the admission of parties as 



210 gillray's caricatures. 

evidcnco of facts. ' Habes eonfitentem reum,* 1 ask is 
there any specific or positive law against my sitting in this 
House f That there is not, is pretty evident from the course 
now pursued. The Grenville Act for regulating decisions 
on controverted elections does not exclude me. Will it be 
said the Canon law does ? Will t];iis House acknowledge 
the Canon law to be binding on the proceedings of this 
House, and can the Canon law bind a person who has 
taken clerical orders and renounced them ? Must wo have 
recourse to the old proverb, ' Once a captain always a 
captain."' He concluded a very able speech, thus : '* I am 
sorry to have troubled the House so long. I will just by 
the way observe that, I not only entreat, but call upon the 
House to pay but little regard to any observation, which 
some men may make upon their having a large Stake in 
the country, from whence they would infer that, that is 
every security, which can be desired for their public virtue. 
Sir, I have a Stake, and a deep Stake in this country — 
my character, a Stake not stolen from the public hedge,* 
but planted there ; a Stake that I would not change with 
the noble Lord, — and all his connexions put together. 
His Stake cannot be augmented or increased but out of 
the Public Stock ; but mine is augmented when I can add 
to the common stock of happiness and public benefit of 
mankind.'* Lord Temple's motion was carried. See 
Hansard's Debates, Vol. 35. 

The Report of the Committee having been presented to 
the House ; Lord Temple, on the 4th of May, moved that 

* This Allndcs to an oocurreDoe m a debate a few yean before, wbea 
Tiernej, having strong^ condemned the continnance of the war, said that 
it was chiefiy supported by Placemen, expectant Placemen, or persons de- 
rivhig a profit from it, and not by independent men. Lord Temple in reply 
said, in a haughty manner, that the honourable gentleman must at least 
allow that he was an independent member, and that he and his family had 
a large Stake in the country. Tierney retorted that the Noble Lord had 
told them thsit he and his l&mlly held a large StaJce in the country^ bat he 
luul omitted to add that, it fvas stolen from tlie public hedge. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 211 

the Rev. John Home Tooke having been ordained a priesi 
was ineligible to sit in this Hoase. He supported his 
motion in a very elaborate speech. Tooke replied with 
great ability^ and contended that the Noble Lord had failed 
to make out a case. '^ I have been told that I have a vote 
in the Convocation. It is above forty years since I took 
orders, and I never once was summoned to the Convocation,* 
spoke in it, or gave a vote in it. They say it is improper for 
a clergyman to sit in this house ; do things then pass here 
improper for a clergyman to witness. The door, however, 
is not absolutely barred against me. There is an unfortu- 
nate clergyman, who has lately been guilty of adultery, 
and the cry has been loud that he should be deprived. 
Were he really deprived. Sir, I suppose there cannot be a 
doubt that being no longer in orders he would be eligible 
to a seat in this House. But still. Sir, they object to me 
on account of being a clergjrman. If I had been tainted 
with infidelity, and tried to make proselytes to it, I should 
then be as competent to sit here as any member present. 
This reminds me of an occurrence which took place in this 
city a few years ago. A poor girl in very indigent cir- 
cumstances, and quite destitute, went to a director of the 
Magdalen Hospital, and applied to be taken in. * Why,^ 
said he, ' ^tis true there is now a vacancy, and I have 
no objection to admit you; but first let me hear something 
of your history. Who seduced you ? Where have you lived 
since?' 'Seduced me,' e:j:claimed the girl, 'I am as 
innocent as the child unborn. I may be poor, your honour, 
but I'm very honest.' ' You won't do for us then,' replied 
the Governor, * if you wish admittance here you must go 
and qualify yourself by prostitution I'f That innocence 

* Mr. Fox in the course of bis speech quoted from a poet who introduced 
common sense as a Queen goyeming the world by her sway. 

** Fair Common Sense, whilst thou on earth dost reign, 
The Conyocation will not meet again." 
t This anecdote of the worthy Goyemor of the Magdalen recalls to our 



212 gtllray's caricatubes. 

should in any way be a disqualification !'* He then con- 
tinued, *' To exercise the functions of the Ministry a clergy- 
man must have preferment, or the licence of the bishop, and 
the moment he is deprived of them he ceases to be a priest. 
The Rev. Dr. Walker defended the town of Londonderry, 
when the military had fled, and thus prevented it from 
falling into the hands of James 11. Eang William was so 
highly pleased with his gallantry, and felt so grateful for 
his services that he wished to make him a bishop. But 
no; the bishops interfered; a man stained with blood, they 
said, was unfit to officiate in that sacred character. King 
William, however, gave him a regiment, and he died in 
Flanders, fighting bravely by his side. He made as good 
a colonel as if he had never entered the church. We are 
perseveringly told a clergyman should not discharge any 
other duty than those of his profession. The present 
Bishop of Lincoln, Dr. Prettyman, was private secretary 
to Mr. Pitt; and the present Bishop of Meath (Dr. 
O'Beime), was private secretary to the Duke of Portland. 
It is not long since a gentleman sat in this House, who 
was then a Colonel of Militia, and who had formerly been 
in orders.'' Lord Temple's motion was negatived, and 
the previous question carried. This confirmed Home 
Tooke's right to sit in the House. Mr. Addington, as soon 
as the division was announced, gave notice of his inten- 
tion to bring in a bill to disqualify clergymen to sit in 
future, and this bill was passed into a law. Tooke 
continued to sit during the remainder of the Parliament. 
In 1802 Parliament was dissolved, and he was no longer 
eligible. 

Tooke acquired a high and permanent reputation by 

rocollcction an locideDt in Footc'd Farce of the Minor, — "Mrs. Colo: Com« 
along Lucy, yon banhful baggage, I thought I bad silenced your scruples. 
Don't you remember what Mr. Squintum said, • A woman's not worth 
saving tliat won't be guilty of a swinging sin, for tlicn she has matter to 
rc]>ent upon.' " Act 3, scene 1 . 



POLITICAL SERIES. 213 



€t 



The Diversions of Parley/'* which has procured him a 
distinguished place among British Philologists. He died 
in March 1812. 



260. 

LILLIPUTIAN SUBSTITUTES, EQUIPPING FOR 
PUBLIC SERVICE. May 28th, 1801. 

LORD BLDON. ADDINOTON. LORD HAWSBSBUBT. CHARLES 

TORKB (who succeeded Windham as Secretary at War). 

LORD HOBART. YANSITTART AND J. H. ADDINOTON (Secre- 
taries of the Treasury.) 

A satire upon the incapacity, as it was said by their 
opponents, of the Ministers who succeeded Pitt's Cabinet. 
The print, with its inscriptions, sufficiently explains itself. 



261. 

PRELIMINARIES OF PEACE f— OR, JOHN BULL 
AND HIS LITTLE FRIENDS MARCHING TO 
PARIS. October 6th, 1801. 

LORD MOIRA. FOX. GBN. WALPOLB. 'SHBRIDAN. M. A. 
TATLOR. SIR J. BURDETT. LORD DERBT. NICH0LL9. 

TIBRNET. DUKE OF NORFOLK. LORD HAWKESBURT. 

Lord Hawkesbury, who was now Minister of Foreign 
Affidrs, in one of his speeches at the commencement of 
the war, spoke of marching to Pl^s, and here he is 
introduced as putting his threat into effect, but not in a 
very hostile manner. The preliminaries of the hollow 
peace of 1801 were signed on the 1st of October. 

• The title of this work was derived from the name of the estate he- 
qncathed him by Mr. Tooke. 



214 oillbay's caricatures. 

262. 
POLITICAL DREAMERS !— VISIONS OP PEACE! 
PERSPECTIVE HORRORS ! November 9th, 1801. 

PITT. FOX. LORD HAWEESBURT. BUONAPART£. M. A. 
TAYLOR. WINDHAM. LORD DERBY. NICHOLLS. 

QEN. WALFOLE. COL. HANGER. ER8KINE. SHERIDAN. 
SIR F. BURDETT. DUKE OF BEDFORD. DUKE OF NORFOLK. 
TIERNEY. 

On the warm debates in Parliament upon the prelimi- 
naries of peace. Windham was the leader of the Opposi- 
tion to the peace^ and indulged in prognostications which 
the friends of the peace declared to be of the most 
visionary character. 

263. 
PREPARING FOR THE GRAND ATTACK;— OR, 
A PRIVATE REHEARSAL OP THE CI-DE- 
VANT MINISTRY IN DANGER. Dec. 4th, 1801. 

SHERinAN. HORNE TOOKE. FOX. SIR F. BURDETT. 

Sir Francis Burdett receiving instructions in political 
warfare from the three great Opposition orators of the 
day. Soon after this period, on the 12th of April, 1802, 
Burdett brought forward a motion to inquire into the 
conduct of the late Ministry. It was for this display that 
he is here supposed to be preparing. 

264. 
THE NATIONAL PARACHUTE,— OR, JOHN BULL 
CONDUCTED TO PLENTY AND EMANCIPA- 
TION. July lOth, 1802. 

JOHN BULL. PITT. 

On Pitt's financial schemes. The parachute was the 
fashionable invention of the day. It is related in the 



POLITICAX SERIES. 215 

Journals of the 21st of September, 1802, very soon after 
the date of this plate, that Mr. Gramerin (a celebrated aero- 
naut) descended on that day in a parachute. This newly 
invented machine is described as made of canvas in the 
form of an umbrella, having at the top a large flexible hoop 
of about eight feet in diameter. Beneath this was a basket 
or tube of wicker work, in which the aeronaut was seated. 

265. 

SKETCHES OP THE INTERIOR OF ST. STE- 
PHEN'S AS IT NOW STANDS. March Ut, 1802. 

LOBD HAWEESBUBT. DICKINSON. NICH0LL8. TIE&NET. 

ADDINGTON. ABBOT. 

The new Minister addressing the House, and surrounded 
by his supporters, a heterogeneous mass of Whigs and 
Tories. Lord Hawkesbury is seated behind him in his 
usual pensive attitude. 

266. 
HOPE. April 8ih, 1802. 

MB. DICKENSON. LOBD HAWKESBUBY. ADDINGTON. 

The group within the House is nearly the same as that 
pourtrayed in the above print. Dickenson, who is looking 
in from the lobby, listens to the hopeful promises of the 
ministerial orator. 

267. 
DESPAIR. AprU 8th, 1802. 

EOBSON. TYBWHITT JONES. MAETIN. SIB P. BUBDBTT. 

In this Gillray makes Robson thus address the Speaker : 
— " We are aU ruinated. Sir ! all diddled. Sir ! abused by 
placemen, Sir f bankrupts all. Sir I not worth £16. 10«, 
Sir!" Behind him is Tyrwhitt Jones, who has inscribed 
on his coat : — '^ Ignorance of the old Administration ; 



216 oillray's caricatures. 

Stupidity of the new Administration ; Ministerial Tricks ; 
Plonder; Blander; Collusion; Impeachment; Banish- 
ment/' 

This refers to an occurrence in the House of Commons. 
Bobson, who daring the secession of the Whigs had been 
a constant attendant on Parliamentary duties, on the 4th 
of March, 1802, in a Committee of Supply, after expa- 
tiating on the extravagant expenditure of the country, 
observed : — ^' The finances of the country were in so 
desperate a situation, that Government were unable to 
discharge its bills ; for a fact had come within his know- 
ledge, of a bill accepted by Government having been 
dishonoured." The Chancellor of the Exchequer (Ad- 
dington) said: — ''The House ought to expect of the 
Hon. Gentleman to state the precise fact to which he had 
alluded; and name a day on which he would bring it 
forward, and prove it ; if he did not, the next step would 
be for the House to proceed and censure him for the use of 
such expression ; for no man ought to make a heavy charge 
against Grovemment any more than individuals, and allege 
a fact for the basis of such charge without being prepared 
to bring proof of such fact.'' Poor Bobson seems to have 
been afraid of being sent to the Tower, and said, '' it was 
an expression which came out in the warmth of speech." 
But Martin, the banker,* Member for Tewkesbury, 

* Martin was a plain-spoken, rongh, independent Member of Parliament. 
He sat in Parliament many years for the borough of Tewkesbury. He con- 
sdentioQsly supported Whig principles : bnt when Fox formed the coalitioin 
with Lord North, Martin scarcely ever addressed the Hoane without denounc- 
ing the coalition in the most bitter terms, as a compromise of principles. One 
day he said he wished the House would order a starling to be placed in it, to 
occasionally call out, "Coalition, oubsed Coalition." Fox good- 
hnmoui^dly replied, the Hon. Member might save himself the trouble of pro- 
curing the bird ; for while he remained a Member of the House, be would 
perform to admiration the proposed office of the starling. Martin, howerer, 
could not long support Tory measures, and returned to the ranks of the Whigs, 
and remained with them during the remainder of his Parliamentary 



POLITICAL SERIES. 217 

advanced to his rescue, and quieted his fears. He 
said, tliat an acceptance of the Sick and Hurt Office, in 
his hands, had been presented, and had met the fate 
described by the Hon. Member. Addington now said, 
" Whether or not the bill was paid, remains to be proved; 
but my information comes from the same source as the 
Hon. Member derives his accusation. At all events, the 
instance of the Hon. Member of the insolvency of Govern- 
ment is a bill of £19. 7«," Bobson now took courage^ 
and replied, ^' that was so much the worse, as the bill was 
in the hands of a poor man who wanted the money." — 
Hansard, vol. 36, pp. 347-50. 

268. 
THE NURSERY ;— WITH BRITANNIA REPOSING 
IN PEACE. December 4th, 1802. 

LORD HAWKESBURT. FOX. ADDINGTON. 

One of the happiest of Gillray's satires. Fox, who was 
a zealous advocate of peace, and had lately been presented 
to Napoleon in Paris, is joined with the two Ministers as a 
triumvirate of nurses around Britannia's apparently peace- 
f ul cradle. In this and the following plates, the brief and 
unsubstantial peace of 1802 seems to have brought out 
the artist's best vein. 

269. 
INTRODUCTION OF CmZEN VOLPONE AND 
HIS SUITE, AT PARIS. Ncru. 15th, 1802. 

NAPOLEON. MRS. FOX. FOX. BRSKINE. 

ARTHUR o'CONNOR. LORD AND LADY HOLLAND. 

The First Consul Buonaparte is holding a Levee, seated 
in a Chair of State, with one hand held out to welcome 
Fox, who, in full court dress, is making a very low bow to 
him : on Fox's coat pocket is inscribed, " Original Jaco- 
bin Manuscript." Mrs. Fox is curtesying to Buonaparte. 



218 GILLBAT^a CABICATURES. 

Erskine^ dressed in his forensic gown and wig, is bowing. 
Lord and Lady Holland are standing behind Fox. The 
figure prostrated on the ground, whose face cannot be 
seen, has a scroll above his head, inscribed " Revolutionary- 
Odes by Citizen Bow-ba-daro" (Bob Adair) is Robert 
Adair (now the Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Adair), and on his 
body is ^'Intelligence for the Morning Chronicle," to 
intimate that he was a correspondent of that newspaper. 
The tall figure, standing on the left of Buonaparte, with 
a scroll inscribed, *' Trial of O'Connor, Maidstone,*' is 
Arthur O'Connor. 

We have already stated* that when Mr. Fox seceded 
from his attendance in Parliament in 1797 he resolved to 
devote a portion of his time to literary pursuits, and 
occupy himself with some literary undertaking. At first 
he meditated an *' Essay on Racine and Defence of the 
French Stage,'' — afterwards a Treatise on the Beauties of 
Euripides — and subsequently he projected a Complete 
Edition of Dryden's Works, illustrated with notes ; there 
being at that time no collected edition of the works of 
that eminent writer, to whom Sir Walter Scott assigns 
tho third place among English Classics. Mr. Fox was 
not only an enthusiastic admirer of his poetry, but he 
considered his prose compositions to afford the purest 
specimens of genuine English diction, and standard of 
excellencet for beauty and harmony of style. 

These designs were successively laid aside, and he 



♦ See No. 199, p. 134. 

f So great was Fox's admiration of the style of Dryden, that in ocmipoB- 
ing his History, he at first intended not to use any word which had notheen 
sanctioned hy Dryden's authority. He, however, esteemed the Commen- 
taries of Blackstone and the writings of Middleton (the author of the Life 
of Cicero) models of pnre English. The late Dr. Parr was equally im- 
pressed with the purity and beauty of Middleton's English style, ** stylus est 
ejus ita purus ac suavis, salebris sine nllis profiuens, nt nnmeros videatar 
complecti, qualcs in alio quopiam (praeter Addisonum) frostra quAsiveris." 
'^rrcpfatio ad Bellcndenum. 



POLITICAL SERIES, 219 

eventually engaged in writing a History of James II. and 
the Bevolation. He was naturally solicitous to obtain 
access to original papers and documents^ which might 
throw new light on the period. The Peace of Amiens 
presented a favourable opportunity, and he resolved to 
visit France and examine the archives of the Foreign OflBce 
at Paris. 

On the 29th of July he left St. Anne's Hill, accompanied 
by Mrs. Fox, Mr. St. John (afterwards Lord St. John), 
and Mr. Trotter, subsequently his Private Secretary. On 
arriving at Calais he was received with great distinction. 
The Municipal officers expressed a wish to entertain him 
with a dinner ; but he politely declined, assigning as a 
reason his anxiety to proceed on his journey. At Lisle 
he was persuaded to accept an invitation of the Municipal 
authorities and the Officers of the Army. Wo cannot 
accompany him in his tour through the Netherlands and 
Holland ; but must confine ourselves to the period of his 
arrival and residence at the Hotel de Richelieu at Paris. 

One of his first visits was to the Th6atre Fran9ois to 
witness the representation of the Andromaque of his 
favourite Bacine. He revisited that theatre in a few days 
to be present at the performance of the Phedre of Bacine. 
'* On this occasion (says Trotter) he was very soon recog- 
nized by the audience in the pit, every eye was fixed on 
him, and every tongue resounded. Fox ! Fox I The whole 
audience stood up, and the applause was universal. He 
alone, to whom all this admiration was paid, was embar- 
rassed. His friends were gratified by the honour bestowed 
on this great man. It was that reward which Crowned 
Heads cannot purchase, — ^respect and gratitude from his 
fellow men, for his exertions in favour of humanity, and an 
honourable peace. So unwilling was Mr. Fox to receive 
the applause as personal, that he could not be prevailed 
upon to stand forward ; nor when his name repeatedly 
pronounced left no doubt of the matter, could he bring 



220 gillray's caricatures. 

himself to make any obedience, or gesture o£ thanks. No 
man had ever less vanity, or rather was so totally devoid 
of it as Mr. Fox, and perhaps through the genuine 
modesty of his nature, he seemed deficient on this occa- 
sion, in respect to the audience. The First Consul was 
present in his box.'* See Trotter's Memoirs of the latter 
years of Fox, p. 204-5. 

We shall now proceed to give Mr. Trotter's account of 
Fox's introduction to Buonaparte at a levee held at the 
Tuilleries ; only premising that as they passed through 
some of the State Rooms, Fox and his friends could not 
fail to observe busts of himself and Lord Nelson, occupying 
conspicuous places. '' We reached the interior apartment 
where Buonaparte, First Consul, surrounded by his 
Generals, Ministers, Senators, and OflBcers, stood betwixt 
the Second and Third Consuls, Le Brun and Cambaceres, 
in the centre of a semicircle at the head of the room. The 
numerous assemblage from the Salle des Ambassadeurs, 
formed into another semicircle, joined themselves to that 
at the head of which stood the First Consul. Buonaparte, 
of a small and by no means commanding figure, dressed 
plainly though richly, in the embroidered Consillar coat, 
without powder in his hair, looked at first view like a 
private gentleman, indifi*erent as to dress, and devoid of all 
haughtiness in his air. The two other Consuls, large and 
heavy men, seemed pillars too cumbrous to support them* 
selves, and during the Levee were sadly at a loss what to 
do, whether the snufi'-box or the pocket handkerchief was 
to be appealed to, or the left leg exchanged for the right. 
As soon as the circle was formed, Buonaparte began 
with the Spanish Ambassador, then went to the American, 
with whom he spoke some time, and so on, performing his 
part with ease and very agreeably, until he came to the 
English Ambassador, who, after the presentation of some 
English noblemen, announced Mr. Fox. Buonaparte was 
a good deal flurried, and after indicating considerable 



POLITICAL SERIES. 221 

emotion very rapidly said, " Ah, Mr. Fox ! I have heard 
with pleasure of your arrival ! I have desired much to see 
you. I have long admired in you the orator, and friend 
of his country, who, in constantly raising his voice for 
peace, consulted that country's best interests — those of 
Europe and of the human race. The two Great Nations 
of Europe require peace ; they have nothing to fear, they 
ought to understand and value one another. In you, Mr. 
Fox, I see with much satisfaction that Great Statesman 
who recommended peace, because there was no just object 
of war, who saW Europe desolated to no purpose, and who 
struggled for its relief.'' Mr. Fox said little or rather 
nothing in reply ; — ^to a complimentary address to himself 
he always found repugnance to answer, nor did he bestow 
one word of admiration or applause upon the extraordinary 
and elevated character, who addressed him. A few qnes- 
tions and answers, relative to Fox's tour, terminated the 
interview." See Trotter's Memoirs. 

As we have given the preceding account of the interview 
between Buonaparte and Fox from the narrative of Trotter, 
the reader perhaps may be grafcified to see it confirmed by 
an extract from the Memoires de Constant, Premier Valet 
de Chambre de I'Empereur sur la Vie Privee de Napoleon. 
Paris, 1830, Vol. iii. p. 66. '* Le Premier Consul 8'avaD9a 
vers M. Fox et lui dit je me felicite de vous voir k Paris, 
Monsieur. H y a long temps que je vous admire comme 
orateur, et comme sincere ami de votre pays h qui vous 
fites si desireux de rendre la Paix. Je suis tr^s heureux 
de faire votre connaissance. A ces paroles il ajouta 
plusieurs complimens, qui, dans la bouche d'un homme si 
extraordinaire ne pouvaient qu'Stre trds-agreables k M. 
Fox." 

The shyness or modesty of Fox, which prevented his 
making the slightest acknowledgment of the compliment 
paid him on this occasion, is greatly to be regretted, and 
must have been a disappointment to Buonaparte, as if he 



222 gillray's caricatures. 

underrated its value. This is clear from the account of 
Fox in the Biographie Universelle. " Fox approuva lo 
traits d' Amiens et partit Pannee suivante pour Pfiuris. II 
fut trds bien accueili dans cette capitale^ et le Premier 
Consul Buonaparte lui adressa lesdiscours les plus flatteurs, 
sans rSussir h lui inspirer une Kaute idie de sa personne/* 
In the same yaluable work we find this testimony to the 
merit of Trotter's Memoirs, '' Ces Memoires ecrits avec 
toute la partiality de I'amitie nous ont paru tr^s precieux> 
non seulement pour les details qu'on j trouve sur le sujet 
du livre, mais aussi par des jugements sur nombre de 
personages Fran^ais et Etrangers." — ^Vol. 15. 

The next person who was presented to the First Consul 
was Erskine. Buonaparte merely said to him, '^ Etes vous 
legiste — are you a lawyer ? This must have been a great 
disappointment to one so sensitive as Erskine, and whose 
celebrity in his own country must have led him to expect 
a more distiDguished reception. 

Mr. Fox attended a second levee of the First Consul, 
and was invited to dinner, it being the practice of Buona- 
parte to invite some of the most distinguished persons who 
had been presented at the preceding levee. At dinner 
Buonaparte indignantly expressed his dislike of the mem- 
bers of Pitt's late Cabinet, and even designated Windham 
by name, as the projector and abettor of " the infernal 
machine.'* Since the secession of the Portland party, 
Windham had particularly distinguished himself by the 
asperity of his attacks on Fox and his principles ; but the 
nature of Fox was too lofty and generous to countenance 
for a moment this unfounded charge, and he used every 
effort to remove the impression from the mind of Buona- 
parte. 

During his residence at Paris he attended every morning 
at the Foreign OflBce, accompanied by Mr. Adair, St. 
John, and Trotter, who assisted him in copying such do- 
cuments as he esteemed useful to him. Every facility was 



POLITICAL SERIES. 223 

given to his researches^ and he obtained transcripts of 
many important dispatches of Barillon, and some unpub- 
lished correspondence of D'Avaux. 

We must now bring our narrative to a conclusion. 
Every attention was paid to Fox during his sojourn at 
Paris. On visiting the Mint they struck a medal in 
honour of the occasion. Talleyrand entertained him to 
dinner with great splendour. Many other distinguished 
persons paid him similar attentions. He was particularly 
gratified by receiving a visit from Lafeyette, who had acted 
RO distinguished a part in the early period of the French 
Revolution^ but had been captured and for a long time 
imprisoned by the German allies of England. Lafayette 
expressed his grateful thanks to him for having obtained 
his Hberation from the dungeons of Germany. In the 
course of conversation Fox said to him, '* You endeavoured 
to establish the solecism of a monarch at the head of a 
republic.'* He received similar gratification from a visit 
of the patriotic Polish General l^osciusko. 

270. 

GERMAN NONCHALANCE; — OR, THE VEXA- 
TION OF LITTLE BONEY. January Ist, 1803. 

COUNT STAHREMBEBO. 

This Austrian Minister passed through Paris on a 
political mission in so much haste, that he did not stop to 
pay his respects to Napoleon, which gave great offence to 
the ruler of France. 

271. 

THE FIRST KISS THESE TEN YEARS ! OR, THE 
MEETING OF BRITANNIA AND CITIZEN 
FRANCOIS. January 1 st, 1803. 

Another clever hit at the peace. The portraits of Napo- 

15 



224 gulrat's cabicatubes. 

leon and King Greorge^ suspended on the wall^ appear to 
be shaking hands^ but with a very bad grace. This cari- 
cature is said to haye excited Napoleon's mirth to an 
unusual degree. 

272. 

A PHANTASMAGORIA; — SCENE: CONJURING 
UP AN ARMED SKELETON. January bth, 1803. 

ADDINGTON. WILBEBFOBCE. LOBD HAWEESBUBY. FOX. 

An excellent satire on the same subject as the last. The 
triumvirate of peacemakers are boiling down the British 
lion^ and their incantations raise from the mystic pot the 
skeleton of Britannia^ literally reduced to nothing but 
bones. 

273. 
BAT-CATCHING. January 19th, 1803. 

LOBD HAWEESBUBY. ADDINQTON. CANNXNO. 8HEBIDAN. 

TIEBNEY. 

The two Ministers catching opposition bats^ by a method 
which is well known to bat-catchers of all sorts. Sheridan^ 
Tiemey^ and Cannings are in danger of being netted. 

274. 

DOCTOR SANGRADO CURING JOHN BULL OP 
REPLETION. May 2nd, 1803. 

FOX. SHSBIDAN. LOBD HAWEESBUBY. MASTEB A(dDINQTO)N. 

ADDINGTON. BUONAPABTE. 

This caricature is said to have given great offence to the 
Minister^ Addington, who had conferred upon his son, a 
mere boy, one of the lucrative clerkships of the Pells. 
Sheridan and Fox are now holding out their hands for a 
share of the blood so ruthlessly extracted from John Bull. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 225 

275. 

PHYSICAL AID; OR, BRITANNIA RECOVERED 

FROM A TRANCE :— ALSO, THE PATRIOTIC 

COURAGE OF SHERRY ANDREW; AND A 

PEEP THROUGH THE FOG. March 11th, 1803. 

LORD HAWEESBUBY. AUDINOTON. BRITANNIA. FOX. 

SHERIDAN. 

On the 8th of March, 1803, a royal message, pointing 
to the warlike preparations then going on in France and 
Holland, ronsed the nation to a sense of the imminence 
of war, attended with new fears of an invasion. Sheridan 
distinguished himself by his warlike language in the 
debates, and he appears here as the foremost and most 
blustering defender of Britannia, who is worse than thun- 
derstruck at the alarming intelligence. Addington, the 
doctor (as he was nicknamed, in allusion to the profession 
of his father), is administering relief. The peace-loving 
Fox remains incredulous. 

276. 
ARMED HEROES. May 18th, 1803. 

LORD HAWKBSBURY. ADDINGTON. BUONAPARTE. 

Addington acting the hero, while his colleague, Lord 
Hawkesbury, is very tamely repeating his grand threat of 
marching to Paris. The mixture of courage and fear in 
the attitude and language of the Minister is admirable. 

277. 
FRENCH VOLUNTEERS MARCHING TO THE 
CONQUEST OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

Oct. 25th, 1803. 
A satire on the reported eagerness of the people of 
France to serve in the threatened expedition against Great 
Britain. 

Many persons believed that the King and his Ministers 

15 * 



226 oillbat's caricatures. 

did not really credit Buonaparte's threat of invasion ; but 
the following extract from a most curious autograph 
LETTER OF Georoe III. to Bishop Hurd places the King's 
serious belief in the menace beyond all dispute. The 
letter only came to light last year (1849), and will be new 
to most of our readers. It proves the King was making 
his family arrangements with a view to that event. 
"Windsor, Nov. 30, 1803. We are here in daily expec- 
tation that Bonaparte will attempt his threatened inva- 
sion, the chances against his success seem so many that it 
is wonderful he persists in it. I own I place that thorough 
dependence on the protection of Divine Providence that 
I cannot help thinking the usurper is encouraged to make 
the trial that the ill success may put an end to his wicked 
purposes. Should his troops effect a landing, I shall cer- 
tainly put myself at the head of my troops and my other 
armed subjects to repel them. But as it is impossible to 
foresee the events of such a conflict, should the enemy 
approach too near to Windsor, I shall think it right the 
Queen and my daughters should cross the Severn, and 
shall send them to your Episcopal Palace at Worcester ; 
by this hint I do not in the least mean they shall be any 
inconvenience to you, and shall send a proper servant and 
furniture for their accommodation. Should this event 
arise I certainly would rather have what I value most in 
life remain, during the conflict, in your diocese, and under 
your roof, than in any other place in the island.^' 

278. 

FRENCH INVASION; OR, BUONAPARTE LAND- 
ING IN GREAT BRITAIN. June lOth, 1803. 

This was one of the numerous prints which assisted in 
sustaining the patriotic contempt of Frenchmen, amid the 
terror excited in the hearts of many of our countrymen 
during the threatened invasion in the alarming year 1803. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 



227 



279. 
MANIAC RAVINGS; OR, LITTLE BONEY IN A 

STRONG FIT. May 2Uh, 1803. 

A parody on Lord Whitworth^s dispatch of the 14th 
of March, 1803, describing the violent scene which had 
occurred the day before at the Tuilleries. " The exaspe- 
ration and fury of Buonaparte,^' says the Annual Register 
for the year just mentioned, ''broke out into ungovernable 
rage at his own Court, on his public day, and in the pre- 
sence of the diplomatic body of Europe there assembled. 
Thus violating every principle of hospitality — of decorum 
— of politeness — and the privileges of Ambassadors — ever 
before held sacred. On the appearance of Lord Whit- 
worth in the circle, he approached him with equal agitation 
and ferocity, proceeded to descant, in the bitterest terms, 
on the conduct of the EngUsh Government — summoned 
the Ministers of some of the Foreign Courts to be wit- 
nesses to this vituperative harangue — and concluded by 
expressions of the most angry and menacing hostility. 
The English Ambassador did not think it advisable to 
make any answer to this brutal and ungentlemanly attack, 
and it terminated by the First Consul retiring to his 
apartments, repeating his last phrases, till he had shut 
himself in; leaving nearly two hundred spectators of this 
wanton display of arrogant impropriety, in amazement 
and consternation.^' 

280. 
DEATH OF THE CORSICAN FOX.— SCENE, THE 
LAST OF THE ROYAL HUNT. July 20th, 1803. 

GEORGE III. BUONAPARTE. PITT. 

This caricature of Napoleon was published after the 
declaration of war and recommencement of hostilities in 
1803. Gillray's prophecy was fulfilled, but long after its 
date, when the hunter was no longer capable of enjoying 
his triumph. 



228 OILLKAY^S CARICATUBE8. 

281. 

THE HANDWRITING UPON THE WALL. 

August 2ith, 1803. 

NAFOLIK)N. JOSEPHINE. 

This is an admirable parody on Belshazzar's Feast. 
Bnonaparte^ with Josephine sitting by his side^ while 
regaling his courtiers with a splendid repast^ is seen 
starting from his chair of state, horror-struck at the sight 
of the inscription on the wall, "Mene, mene, Tekel 
upharsin.^' A hand is seen issuing from another part of 
the wall, holding a balance, in which the despotism of 
Buonaparte is found wanting, and outweighed by the 
crown of Louis XVIII. under which is *' Vive le Hoi." 
Among the dishes on the table are various, indicative of his 
visions of the invasion of England. On one dish is, ^' Oh, 
de roast beef of Old England ;" but a decapitated head 
supplies the place of the favourite sirloin. The pastry is 
moulded into representations of '^ the Tower de Londres/' 
" St. James',^^ " the Bank of England,'' surmounted by a 
tri-coloured flag. A bottle of wine is labelled ''Maid- 
stone,'' alludiog to the trial of Arthur O'Connor and 
Quigley, who were arrested at Dover, while proceeding to 
France to arrange the plan for the French invasion of 
Ireland. The three sisters of Buonaparte are standing 
behind Josephine, voluptuously attired. 

282. 
DESTRUCTION OF THE FRENCH GUN-BOATS ; 
OR, LITTLE BONEY AND HIS FRIEND TALLY 
IN HIGH GLEE. Nov. 22nd, 1803. 

TALLEYRAND. BUONAPARTE. 

Napoleon rejoicing at the destruction of his own troops. 
The callousness with which the Ruler of France looks on 
the fate of thousands of his ^joldiers who perished in sup- 



POLITICAL SERIES. 229 

porting his ambition was proverbial. It was supposed 
by some tliat he looked forward with no feelings of regret 
to the immense loss of life which must attend on his 
attempt to effect a landing upon the British shores^ as a 
relief to him, by checking the military spirit which he had 
excited to such a pitch that he could no longer manage it 
himself. 

283. 
JOHN BULL AND THE ALARMIST. 

JOHN BULL. SHERIDAN. 

When originally printed as a broadside, this spirited 
caricature, alluding to the tone of Sheridan^s speeches in 
Parliament, was accompanied with the following verses, 
which will form the best explanation : — 

JOHN BULL AND THE ALARMIST. 

John Ball, as he sat in his old snag chair, 
An Alarmist came to him, and said in his ear, — 
" A Corsican thief has jnst slipt fh)m his quarters, 
And he's coming to rayish yoor wives and yoar daughters I" 

Let him come and be d — d," thas roared oat John Ball ; 
With my crab-stick assar'd I will fncture his skall ; — 
Or I'll squeeze the Tile reptile 'twixt my finger and thamb. 
Make him stink, like a bag, if he dares to presume." 

'* They say, a full thousand of flat-bottom'd boats, 
Each a hundred and fifty have warriors of note, 
All fally determined to feast on your lands. 
So I fear you will find full enough for your hands." 

John, smiling, arose upright as a post, — 
** I'ye a million of friends bravely guarding my coast ; 
And my old ally Neptune will give them a dousing. 
And prevent the mean rascals to come here a lousing !" 

• 

284. 
THE CORSICAN CARCASE -BUTCHER'S REC- 
KONING DAY. September, 1808. 

BU0NAFABT8. TALLEYRAND. 

Napoleon restrained by his minister^ Talleyrand^ from 



it 






230 QILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

rashing too rasUy into the war with Great Britam. The 
political butcher is furious at the roaring of the British 
bull^ and his anger is not appeased by the stealthy visit 
of the bear of Russia. 

285. 
THE CORSICAN PEST; OR, BEELZEBUB GOING 

TO SUPPER. October 6th, 1803. 

This rather coarse caricature requires no further expla- 
nation than that furnished by the verses below, which are 
understood to have been written by Paul Sandby, the 
celebrated painter in water-colours. 

286. 
THE KING OP BROBDINGNAG, AND GULLIVER. 

June 26th, 1803. 

BUONAPARTE. GEORUI ni. 

This clever design is said to have been the work of 
Lieut.-Colonel Bradyll, of the Coldstream Guards^ and 
not of Gillray^ who^ it is presumed^ only etched it. 

287. 
THE GENIUS OP PRANCE NURSING HER 
DARLING. November 26th, 1804. 

BUONAPARTE. 

Another of the numerous caricatures published at this 
time for the purpose of embittering the English people 
against their great and inveterate enemy. The imperial 
crown is the plaything after which he is straining. 

288. 
THE KING OF BROBDINGNAG, AND GULLIVER. 
(Plate 2.) February lOth, 1804. 

BUONAPARTE. PRINCESSES. THE QUEEN. 

GEORGE III. LORD SALISBURY. 

The amateur who designed this clever plate^ is said to 
be the same Lieut.-Colonel Bradyll^ to whom we owe the 



• . • • 

• :• •:: . • • 

. . * ... 

• . - . • ■ 



POLITICAL SERIES. 231 

other plate on the same subject. It probably owes some- 
thing to the etching of Gillray, 

289. 
A MORNING RIDE. Fehruwry 2bth, 1804. 

PRINCE Of WALES. COLONEL M^MAHON. 

Ajiother subject which was only engraved by GiUray. 
It is said to be a most characteristic picture of the Prince 
of Wales and his attendant. 

290. 
CONFEDERATED COALITION ; OR, THE GIANTS 
STORMING HEAVEN. Mwi/ Ist, 1804. 

SIB F. BUBDETT. EABL OF CARLISLE. DUKE OF NORFOLK. 
MARQUESS OF STAFFORD. FOX. LORD HAWEESBURT. 

LORD TEMPLE. ADDINQTON. WILBERFORCE. LORD 

STANHOPE. M. A. TAYLOR. DUNDAS. PITT. ST. VINCENT. 
GREY. EARL OF DERBY. WINDHAM. SHERIDAN. ERSEINE. 
DR. LAWRENCE. 

A caricature in Gillray^s best style, on the grand coalition 
which overthrew the Addington Administration^ which led 
to the re-appointment of Pitt. The triumvirate, Addington^ 
Lord Hawkesbuiy, and Lord St. Vincent, are defending 
the Ministerial heaven^ assaulted on one side by Pitt and 
Dundas^ and their immediate supporters^ and on the other 
by Fox, who is now supported by Lords Grenville and 
Temple. The numerous other assailants are carrying on 
their attacks in diflferent quarters, and by different means. 

291. 
MIDDLESEX ELECTION, 1804.- "A LONG PULL, 
A STRONG PULL, AND A PULL ALTOGETHER." 

August 7th, 1804. 

LORD MOIRA. LORD CARLISLE. COL. BOSVILLE. DUKE OF 
BEDFORD. ORET. LORD DERBY. ST. VINCENT. MARQUESS 
OF LANSDOWNE. FOX. DUKE OF NORFOLK. HORNE TOOKE. 
SIR W. CURTIS. SHERIDAN. TIERNEY. ERSKINB. 

TYRWHITT JONES. GENERAL FITZPATRICK. 

On the great struggle for the representation of Middle- 



232 oillray's cabicatubes. 

sex in the summer of 1804^ between Mainwaring^ the 
Court Candidate, and Sir Francis Burdett. The former 
gained the election by a majority of five, the numbers of 
votes being, for Mainwaring, 2828, and for Burdett 2823. 
Burdett is here carried to the hustings, dragged in by 
the Whig party, with his political preceptor. Home 
Tooke, for coachman, and Erskine, Tiemey, and Sheridan, 
as footmen. The scene represents the hustings at 
Brentford. 



292. 

BUONAPARTE FORTY- EIGHT HOURS AFTER 
LANDING ! — VIDE JOHN BULL'S HOME- 
STROKE, ARMED EN MASSE. July 26th, 1803. 

Another of the patriotic caricatures provoked by the 
threats of invasion in 1803. 



293. 
UNCORKING OLD SHERRY. March 10th, 1805. 

ADDINOTON. PITT. SHERIDAN. TIKBNEY. POX. 

WINDHAM. SIB F. BURDETT. GREY. ERSKINE. 

The Uncorking Old Sherry was one of the most 
popular of Gillray's Political Prints. Pitt is drawing the 
cork of a bottle of sherry ; but instead of the generous 
wine of Xeres, there '^ bursts ouf a never-ending collec- 
tion of '' Old Puns,'' — " Groans of Disappointment," — 
" Stolon jests, invectives, lame puns, loyal boastings, 
dramatic ravings, low scurrilities,'' — '^ Fibs, Fibs, Fibs," 
&c. This bottle has a portrait of Sheridan upon it. There 
are various other bottles placed around ; one ^' A Glass 
of all Sorts," has a portrait of Tiemey upon it. Another 
bottle having the portrait of Fox, is marked "True 
French Wiue." Another with the portrait of Windham, 
is inscribed '' Brandy and Water." Another *' Brentford 



POLITICAL SERIES. 233 

Ale," with the portrait of Sir F. Bardett, then Member 
for Middlesex. There is Whitbread's " Small Beer" — Grey 
is '' Goosberry Wine" — and Erskine figures as a bottle 
of " Spruce Beer." At Pittas feet lies a bottle overturned, 
labelled " Medicinal Wine," and becuring the portrait of 
Addington, whose Ministry Pitt had recently overturned, 
and who had acquired the nickname of the Doctor. 

Pitt and Sheridan, during the long course of their 
political career, attacked each other occasionally with a 
spirit of personal animosity, that neither of them exhi- 
bited in debate towards any other individual. The ori- 
ginal ground of this personal feeling seems to have been 
laid in the debate on the American preliminaries of peace 
in 1783, when Pitt was Chancellor of the Exchequer in 
Lord Shelbume^s Administration. The sarcasms then 
interchanged between them, appear to have left a lasting 
impression on both their minds. 

In 1783, on Lord John Cavendish's motion for censuring 
the preliminaries of the American peace, Mr. Sheridan, 
in the course of a very able speech, observed that the 
17th article was one of the most inconsistent political 
productions that could possibly be supposed; it was 
couched in such vague and loose terms, that it must have 
relation to the impending treaty with Holland. It was 
with the view of finding out the extent of that article, 
and what reference it had to the treaty yet pending, and 
the political position it evidently had towards France, that 
the Hon. Gentleman made his motion on a former day, 
and which called forth the indignation of the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer as being inconsistent with the established 
usage of the House, unprecedented, and preposterous in 
the extreme. This convinced him, however, that the 
Bight Hon. Gentleman was more a practical politician 
than an experienced one ; his years and his very early 
political exaltation, had not permitted him to look whether 



234 oillray's caricatures. 

there had been precedents, or to acquire a knowledge of 
the journals of the House. Had his youth permitted 
him to acquire such knowledge, his discretion would 
not have suffered his abilities, which he greatly admired, 
to be carried away by his heat and precipitancy ; he would 
not with so much indignation have resented the asking 
questions, which it was the duty of Ministers to satisfy. 
If he had consulted the journals, he would have found 
incontestable evidence to prove the groundless authority of 
his indignant assertions ; he would have found that it was 
not unprecedented to lay a depending treaty before the 
House ; nay, that before a single step had been taken to 
complete any of the points of it ; it had been usual for 
Parliament to be in possession of the principles upon 
which it was proposed a treaty should turn. Parliament 
was called upon to assist with its advice on the vast 
subject of national importance, which peace must neces- 
sarily in all times be, as involving in it so much of the 
general prosperity and happiness of Europe.'' — Hansard* s 
Debates, Vol. 23, pp. 47-8-9. 

Mr. Pitt, in his reply, in defending the Preliminaries of 
Peace, displayed those extraordinary powers, which now 
developed themselves more and more on every important 
occasion ; and proved that he would soon establish a fame, 
which would place his name in the first rank of orators of 
any age or nation. He was pointedly severe on those 
who opposed the address, but selected Sheridan for the 
most prominent object of attack and personal sarcasm. 
'^No man admired more than he did the abilities of the Hon. 
Gentleman, the elegant sallies of his thoughts, the gay 
effusions of his fancy, his dramatic turns, and his epigram- 
matic points, and if they were reserved for the proper 
stage, they would no doubt receive, what the Hon. Gen- 
tleman's abilities always did receive, the plaudits of the 
audience, and it would be his fortune, ^ soi plausu gaudcre 






POLITICAL SERIES. 235 



theatri/* But this was not the proper scone for the ex- 
hibition of those elegances/' 

Sheridan was extremely felicitous in his rejoinder. '^ On 
that particular sort of personality, which the Right Hon. 
Gentleman had thought proper to introduce, he need not 
comment. The propriety, the taste, the gentlemanly point 
of it, must have been obvious to the House. But let me 
assure the Bight Hon. Gentleman, that I do now, and will 
at any time he chooses, to repeat this sort of allusion, meet 
it with the most sincere good humour. Nay, I will say 
more, flattered and encouraged by the Bight Hon. Gentle- 
man's panegyric on my talents, if ever I again engage in 
the species of composition he alludes to^ I may be tempted 
to an act of presumption — to attempt an improvement on 
one of Ben Jonson's best characters — the character of the 
Anoey Boy in the Alchemist.''t 

The Uncorking Old Sherry took place in the 
House op Commons on the 6th of March, 1805. 
Sheridan made a motion for the repeal of the Additional 

* The qaotation is from Lncan, and allades to Pompej, who among other 
arts of courting popalarity, erected a theatre at Rome, to which the citizens 
were admitted grataitonslj. Whenever, therefore, Pompej made his appear- 
ance in his box, his entrance was sure to be greeted with the rapturous ap- 
plause of the audience. 

t Sheridan, gratified by the effect the allusion had produced in the House, 
drew up the following advertisement extraordinary. " In consequence of a 
hint lately g^ven out in the House of Commons, the play of the Alchemist is 
certainly to be performed by a set of gentlemen for our diversion, in a private 
apartment of Buckingham House. The characters will be performed by 
the following gentlemen : — 

BvbiXe (the Alchemist) Lord Shblbubvb. 

Fiy» (the House Keeper) . The Lord Changbllor (Thurlow.) 

DoU (their Colleague) The Lord Adtooate (Dundas.) 

Drugger (the Tobacco Man) Lord Effingham. 

Epiowre Mammon . Mr. Riobt. 

TrUnilation . Jenkinson. 

KasMl (the Angry Boy) . Mr. W. Pitt. 

Afumias (a little Pastor) . Mr. Hill (brother of Rowland Hill.) 

Dome PUcmt Gen. Conwat. 

And 

Surly His (Majesty.)" 



236 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

Force Bill. Having shewn the utter inefficiency of the 
measure^ and its failure in raising recruits^ he commented 
with great severity on the constitution of Mr. Pittas new 
Cabinet. Pitt had himself denounced the incompetency 
of the greater part of his present colleagues ; but he sup- 
posed the talents of Lord Hawkesbury^ Lord Castlereagh^ 
Lord Eldon^ and others^ had undergone a wonderful 
change and improvement by their removal from Adding, 
ton's Cabinet^ and being transplanted into his own. 

Mr. Pitt in his reply said, ''The Hon. Gentleman seldom 
condescends to favour us with a display of his extraor- 
dinary powers of imagination and of fancy ; but when he 
,does come forward, we are prepared for a grand perform- 
ance. No subject comes amiss to him, however remote 
from the question before the House. All that his fancy 
suggests, or that he has collected from others, all that he 
can utter in the ebullition of the moment, all that he has 
slept on and matured, are combined and produced for 
our entertainment. All his hoarded repartees, all his 
matured jests, the full contents of his commonplace book, 
all his severe invectives, all his bold hardy assertions, 
he collects into one mass, which he kindles into a 
blaze of eloquence, and out it comes altogether, whether 
it has any relation to the subject in debate or not. Thus 
it is that the Hon. Gentleman finds a new argument 
for the repeal of the present bill, because the House and 
the country has less confidence in the present than even 
in the late Ministers.'^ 

Sheridan appears to have been unusually stung and 
galled by this attack. While the debate was proceeding, 
he went up into Bellamy's refreshment-room, ordered a 
bottle of Madeira, poured it out into a bowl, drank it off, 
and thus primed, came down into the House, and made 
the following bitter, cutting, and truculent retort. 

''The Right Hon. Gentleman complains that I used 
harsh and violent language towards him, that I wandered 
from the subject in discussion, and sought to supply the 



POLITICAL SERIES. 237 

defect of argament by personal reflections. Although I 
may be supposed to be sometimes a warm speaker in this 
House, I believe I have never been accused of harbouring 
much political animosity against any man. The Right 
Hon. Gentleman intended, I suppose, to contrast my 
violent language with his own singular gentleness and 
meekness of manners. This observation, he doubtless 
thought, came with peculiar propriety from a person so 
perfectly averse to all ill-natured personalities; so eminently 
distinguished for soaring above all little political enmities, 
and so complete a foe to every thing sarcastic or biting. 
The Right Hon. Gentleman has thought proper to describe 
my speech as coining from a person who has never read 
the Act it is proposed to repeal, and who knows nothing 
of it beyond the title. What I said is regarded by him as 
a collection of jests and sarcasms, which have been for a 
long time stored up, in order that they may burst all at 
once on the meek, gentle, modest head of the Right Hon. 
Gentleman. If my speech, however, was so very un- 
worthy of the serious attention of the House ; if I did 
wander so much from the object of the debate ; If I did 
entertain the House with nothing but hoarded repartees, 
or common-place jokes ; is it not a little singular that the 
Right Hon. Gentleman should have done me the honour 
to start up immediately to answer me ? The Right Hon. 
Gentleman knew well that his vast and splendid talents 
were not necessary to answer a speech distinguished for 
nothing but irregularity and ignorance.— No man is more 
ready to acknowledge the great and eminent talents of the 
Right Hon. Gentleman than I am. No man esteems 
them higher than I do. But if I were to characterize his 
Ministry, I should say, in language which the Right Hon. 
Gentleman may recollect to have heard before — namely, 
that he has added more to the burdens, and subtracted 
more from the liberties of the people, than any Minister 
that ever governed this country. 



238 01 LL rat's caricatures. 

"The Right Hon. Gentleman has thought fit to alludo 
to the support which I gave to the Noble Lord (Sid- 
mouth)^ when Chancellor of the Exchequer^ and at 
the head of his Majesty's Councils. He represents it 
as an insidious and hollow support. I hope it is not my 
character to give any support of that description. He 
says, I gave the Noble Lord a few votes when I knew they 
could be of no use to him, and that I opposed him when 
my support could alone have been of advantage to him. 
I say that this charge is contrary to fact. I gave my sup- 
port to the late Administration with the utmost good fiskith, 
and I know that the Noble Lord has always been ready to 
acknowledge it. But suppose I had not supported him 
with fidelity and firmness, what then ? I never had pro- 
fessed to do so, either to that Administration, or to this 
House. I supported them because I approved of many 
of their measures, but principally was I induced to sup- 
port them because I considered their continuance in office 
as a security against the return to power of the Bight Hon. 
Gentleman opposite me, which ever appeared to me as the 
greatest national calamity. If, indeed, I had recommended 
the Noble Lord to his Majesty — if I had come down to 
this House, and described the Noble Lord as the fittest 
man in the country to fill the office of Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, because it was a convenient step to my own 
safety, in retiring from a situation which I had grossly 
abused, and which I could no longer fill with honour and 
security; — ^if, having seduced him into that situation, I 
had afterwards tapered ofi" from a promised support, when 
I saw that the Minister of my own choice was acquiring 
greater stability and popularity than I wished for; — if, 
when I saw an opening to my own return to power, I had 
entered into a combination with others whom I meant also 
to betray, from the sole lust of power and office, in order 
to remove him ; — and if, under the dominion of these base 
appetites, I had then treated with ridicule and contempt. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 239 

the very man whom I had before held up to the choice of 
my Sovereign, and the approbation of this House and the 
public ; — then, indeed, I should have merited the con- 
tempt and execration of all good men, and should have 
deserved to be told, that I was hollow and insincere in my 
support, and that I had acted a mean, a base, and a per- 
fidious part/' 

Notwithstanding the harsh personalities, which occasion- 
ally passed between Pitt and Sheridan, on the first day of 
the sessions of the newly elected Parliament in 1802, a 
ludicrous interchange of civility took place between them. 
They advanced from the opposite sides of the House to the 
table to be sworn in, and happening to stand next to each 
other, they took the oaths at the same time. The ceremony 
having been gone through, the clerk required the usual fee 
of two shillings from each. Pitt putting his hand into his 
pocket, and finding he had no money in it, turned round 
to Sheridan, and laughing, said, '* Will you lend me two 
shillings V^ Sheridan furnished the required loan to the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, to the great amusement of 
the members who were waiting to be sworn. The f ollow- 
ing jeu d'esprit appeared the next day in a morning news- 
paper : " Something is certainly on the carpet at present 
between the Ministry and Opposition, for we assert, from 
undoubted authority, that yesterday a loan was negotiated 
between Mr. Pitt and Mr. Sheridan." 



294. 

THE GRAND CORONATION PROCESSION OF 
NAPOLEON THE FIRST, EMPEROR OF FRANCE, 
FROM THE CHURCH OF NOTRE-DAME, NO- 
VEMBER 19th, 1804. January Ut, 1805. 

On the crowning step of Napoleon's ambition. He was 
proclaimed Emperor of the French, under the title of Na- 

16 



240 QILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

poleon I., on the 20th of May, 1804, and was crowned 
with extraordinary ceremonies on the 19th of November. 
The Pope was compelled by the mandate of Baonaparte to 
repair to Paris, and perform the ceremony of the corona- 
tion. On the 19th of November, the Emperor, attended 
by a numerous military escort, and followed by an immense 
train of equipages, proceeded to the Cathedral of Notre 
Dame. There his Holiness performed a solemn service, 
anointed the Emperor with the sacred unction, and placed 
the crown upon his head. The inscription below the 
print will furnish the best explanation of the parts acted 
by the diflTerent personages who contributed to this event, 
or took a part in it. 

295. 

THE PLUM.PTJDDING IN DANGER ; OR, STATE 
EPICURES TAKING UN PETIT SOUPER. 

February 26th, 1805. 

PITT. NAPOLEON. 

The new Emperor, and his opponent the English Minis- 
ter, helping themselves— one taking the land, the other 
the sea. On the overtures made by the new Emperor for 
a reconciliation with England in the January of 1805. 

296. 

THE APPLES AND THE HORSE-TURDS; OR, 
BUONAPARTE AMONG THE GOLDEN PIPPINS. 

February 2Uh, 1800. 
A parody on the old &ble, composed soon after the 
elevation of Napoleon to the office of First Consul. He 
was supposed to be already aiming at claiming relationship 
with the crowned heads of Europe, and the caricature has 
here intimated the feeling which such a proposal was likely 
to. excite. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 241 

297. 
JOHN BULL OFFERING LITTLE BONEY FAIR 

PLAY. August 2nd, 1803. 

Another caricature on the invasion of 1803, well calcu- 
lated to keep up the popular spirit of defiance shewn on 
that occasion. 

298. 
THE STATE WAGGONER AND JOHN BULL ; OR, 
THE WAGGON TOO MUCH FOR THE DON- 
KEYS. March Uth, 1804. 

CANNING. EBSEINE. WILBEBFOECE. LORD CARLISLE. 

OBEY. M. OF BUCKINGHAM. PITT. FOX. LORD G RENVILLE. 
WINDHAM. SHERIDAN. ADDINGTON. 

On the change in the Ministry in 1804. Addington and 
his team have dragged the state waggon into a slough ; 
while farmer John Bull is pointing to his old stud of 
horses, now mustered in opposition, as alone likely to 
furnish a team capable of drawing it out. Windham and 
Sheridan are indulging in a kick at each other. 

299. 
END OF THE IRISH FARCE OF CATHOLIC 
EMANCIPATION. May I7th, 1805. 

PITT. LORD HAWKESBURY. LORD 8IDM0UTH. LORD 

GRSNVILLE. LORD MOIRA. MRS. FITZHERBERT. DUKE OF 
CLARENCE. FOX. DUKE OF BEDFORD. LORD STANHOPE. 
SHERIDAN. DUKE OF NORFOLK. WINDHAM. LORD 

LAUDERDALE. LORD DERBY. SIR F. BURDETT. LORD 

THANET. MR. GRATTAN. LORD HOLLAND. ERSKINE. 

LORD HENRY PETTY. 

At the beginning of May, 1805, the Catholics of Ire- 
land petitioned both Houses of Parliament for emancipa- 
tion from the penal statutes then in existence against 
them. The debate in the House of Lords took place on 

16 * 



242 QILLBAT^S CARICATURES. 

the 10th and 13th of May^ and that in the Honse of 
Commons on the 13th and 14th of the same months and 
in both Houses the petition was rejected by a large ma- 
jority. Lord Grenville brought the subject forward in 
the Upper House^ and Fox in the Lower ; it was strongly 
opposed by Lord Hawkesbury, Lord Sidmouth, and Mr. 
Pitt. 

The Popish squadron^ led by Lord Grenville in his 
pontificals, as their pope, and by Lord Moira, who in his 
precipitate fall has overthrown Mrs. Fitzherbert, who was 
accused of using her influence to further the cause, are 
rebutted in their attempt to force the sanctuary of the 
Treasury. Fox, as a cardinal, with Lord Stanhope as his 
incense-bearer, mounted on a very Irish personification of 
a " bull,'* is in equal dismay at the blasts with which they 
are received by the three champions of Protestantism. 
Sheridan is about to elevate the host, and Home Tooke 
bears the cross, surmounted with a bonnet rouge, which, 
like the portrait of Napoleon hung round the bull's neck, 
is intended to intimate that the zeal for the Catholics was 
but a cover for French revolutionary principles. Most of 
the other Whig leaders figure in this stirring scene, occu- 
pied in various positions and offices which it was pretended 
were congenial to their sentiments. 

300. 

ST. GEORGE AND THE DRAGON. 

August 2nd, 1805. 

GSORQE III. NAPOLEON. 

The royal St. George rescuing Britannia from the fangs 
of the Monster of France. The king wears the uniform 
of his own regiment of Guards (the Blues). But a few 
weeks after the date of this print, the Imperial crown 
received a gash in the victory of Trafalgar, not much less 
formidable than the one here represented literally. 



V 



POLITICAL SERIES. 243 

301. 
BRITANNIA BETWEEN DEATH AND THE DOC- 
TORS. . May 20th, 1804. 

ADDINGTON. PITT. POX, NAPOLEON. 

On Pitt's return to oflSce in 1804. Doctor Addington's 
course of treatment has nearly thrown his patient into the 
power of political deaths personified in her arch-enemy 
Napoleon, and she is only relieved by the sudden return 
of her old physician. Pitt is represented as kicking 
Addington out of the House, and has overturned a phial 
in Addington's hand, labelled " Composing Draft.*' Pitt 
holds a bottle of " Constitutional Restorative'' in his 
hand, and '' The Art of Restoring Health" is hanging 
out of his pocket. He is treading upon Fox's prostrate 
body. By Fox's side are " Whig Pills," and in his uplifted 
hand is "Republican Balsam." 

302. 
THE RECONCILIATION. November 20 th, 1804. 

QUEEN. PBINCESSES. LORD MOIBA. PITT. GEOROE III. 

PRINCE OP WALES. 

On the reconciliation of the prince with his royal father, 
which was said to have been brought about chiefly by the 
intermediation of Pitt and Lord Moira. It is not an unapt 
parody on the story of the prodigal son. 

303. 
THE WOUNDED LION. July 16Wt, 1805. 

LORD ST. VINCENT. WILBERFORCE. LORD SIDMOUTH. LORD 
MELVILLE. GBET. POX. KINNAIRD. ERSKINE. WALPOLE. 

The conception of this print is remarkably happy. The 
subject is the Impeachment of Lord Melville for making 
use of the Public Money for his own private accommoda- 
tion, while he held the oflSce of Treasurer of the Navy. The 



244 GILLBAT^S CARICATURES. 

Lion (Lord Melville) is lying on the ground, wounded by 
the discharge from a piece of ordnance fired off by Lord 
St. Vincent, concealed behind a tree; the mortar is a 
pewter pot inscribed " Whitbread^s Entire/' Grey repre- 
sented as a serpent. Fox in the character of his four-footed 
namesake, Kinnaird as a wolf-dog, and other members 
pictured as animals are attacking the wounded Lion. Lord 
Sidmouth, depicted as an ass, is laden with '' Physic for 
the Lion''— " Clyster for the Lion" —'' Emetic for the 
Lion"—" Opening Pills"—" Candied Whorehound." He 
is kicking the Lion with his hind heels, and calling out 
" Give him another kick, brother Bragge." By his side, 
and behind Addington, are his brother-in-law Bragge and 
his brother Hely Addington, also represented as asses car- 
rying "Provisions for the Doctor's family" — •* Pension for 
brother Bragge" — " Pension for brother Hely" — "Trifles 
through the Lion's generosity," &c. Wilberforce, in the 
character of an ape, is perched on a tree, holding in his 
paw, " Solution of Vital Christianity," and emitting 

Cant, Envy, Hypocrisy," &c. In the Lion's claws are 

Plans for Manning the Navy" — " List of Ships built in 
1804"* — " Abolition of Impressment." Britannia is 
seated under an oak, mouruing over the wounded Lion^ 
her spear broken, and her shield discarded. 

Gillray's Motto is happily chosen. ^' And now all the 
skulking herd of the forest, some out of insolence, others 
out of revenge, some, in fine, upon one pretence, and some 
upon another, fell upon him by consent, — ^but nothing went 
so near the heart of him in his distress, as to find himself 
battered by the heel of an ass." — Vide JEsop's Fables, 

Lord Melville was unquestionably one of the ablest 
statesman of the reign of George III. He was bred to the 
profession of the law, and filled the office of Lord Advo- 
cate of Scotland during the administration of Lord North, 
and was one of the most efiicient supporters of the latter 

* Lord Melville yraa at that time First Lord of the Admiralty. 






POLITICAL 8EBIES. 245 

part of his ministry. He was removed from office by the 
Rockingham administration, but appointed Treasurer of 
the Navy by Tiord Shelbume. He joined Pitt in his oppo- 
sition to the Coalition ministry ; and on Pitt's appointment 
as First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer in December, 1783, he was by far the most powerful 
of his supporters. His opponents accused him of seeking 
office without any regard to political consistency. 

** Alike the Advocate of North and Wit, 
The Friend of Shelbume, and the Guide of Pitt." 

Indeed, the services he rendered to Pitt at that time 
were invaluable. Fox's India Bill had just been rejected, 
and caused his dismissal from office ; but all allowed that 
some new and vigorous measure was indispensable for the 
government of India. The new Minister was therefore 
called upon to introduce a bill for that purpose. Pitt was 
then only in his 25th year. Splendid as his abilities were, 
he had not had time to study the affairs of India with that 
attention, which the production of a code for the govern- 
ment of India required. Dundas had been Chairman of 
the Committee for investigating the affairs of the Carnatic ; 
he therefore came to the subject with a mind stored with 
information, and was the real author of the India Bill, 
which Pitt introduced under his own name. The House 
and the public were astonished at the extensive, varied and 
accurate knowledge of the complicated affairs of that dis- 
tant empire exhibited by so young a man, and at the ease 
and perspicuity with which he elucidated the bearings of 
the clauses of his India Bill, and vindicated its superiority 
over the rejected Bill of Fox, by preserving the preroga- 
tive of the crown, the rights of the Bast India Company, 
whfle it consolidated the political rights of India, and 
improved her conmiercial regulations. The Parliamentary 
majority still remained faithful to the Coalition, and his 
bill was rejected. But Pitt's fame was established on a 



246 OILLRAT^S CARICATURES. 

firm basis. He dissolved the Parliament^ and obtained a 
triumphant majority. Pitt was folly sensible of the im- 
portant assistance rendered him by Dundas ; and hence- 
forward no one possessed so large a share of his confidence^ 
or participated so frequently in the enjoyment of his social 
hours. With Pitt "he gave many a vote/' with Pitt 
*' he drank many a bottle.''* The general election having 
secured Pitt's continuance in office^ Dundas devoted him- 
self entirely to politics. The versatility of his talents was 
truly surprising. He filled at difierent times the offices of 
Treasurer of the Navy, President of the Board of Control, 
Secretary for the Home Department, Secretary for the 
Colonies, with the management of the French War annexed 
to it, and First Lord of the Admiralty. While Treasurer 
of the Navy he obtained great credit by introducing an 
Act for the better regulation of the office. One of the 
clauses strictly forbade the Treasurer to make any use of 
the money in his hands, as had been hitherto allowed, and 
was a source of considerable emolument to the holder of 
the office. In the Addington administration Earl St. 
Vincent was First Lord of the Admiralty, he procured a 
Commission for inquiring into the afiairs of the Navy. 
Unfortunately the 10th Report of the Commissioners 
fihewed that Lord Melville, while Treasurer of the Navy, 
had employed some of the public money for his own per- 
sonal accommodation ; it was admitted the whole had been 
repaid, and no loss had been sustained by the public ; but 
it was clearly a violation of the salutary provisions of his 
own Act, and led to his impeachment. It resulted in liis 
acquittal, — but his political career was terminated. He 
died in May, 1811. 

I twill be observed that Gillray has not placed Sheridan 
among the animals attacking "The Wounded Lion." 

It excited very considerable surprise at the time, that, 

* Gibbon's expression rcspcctinj: his grandfather's connection with the 
Parliament^irv forces. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 2-47 

while all tlio leading Members of Opposition and the 
Addington party were pressing forward the impeachment 
of Lord Melville, Sheridan took no part in the debates, 
and abstained from voting. This was connected with a 
singular piec« of secret history. Some years before, when 
Lord Melville was President of the Board of Control, She- 
ridan requested of him the favour of an Indian writership 
for a young man he was anxious to serve. Lord Melville 
most readily and courteously complied, and Sheridan de- 
sired the appointment might be filled up with the name of 
Wright. The young man was the son of a very clever and 
active sheriff's oflScer, whom Sheridan had contrived to 
gain over to his interest ; and whenever a writ to levy exe- 
cution on the effects of Drury Lane was issued out in the 
sheriff's oflSce, Wright generally contrived to get it into 
his own hands to serve, and returned " no effects,** or in- 
terposed a delay in the execution, which enabled Sheridan 
to make an arrangement with the creditor. Sheridan having 
received this favour from Lord Melville, felt he could not 
vote against him in a matter so deeply affecting his inte- 
rest, and in fact deciding the continuance or extinction of 
his political career. 

This anecdote recalls to our recollection an occurrence 
which took place between Shippen (''the downright Ship- 
pen'* of Pope) the celebrated Jacobite, and Sir Robert 
Walpole, which we will extract from Coxe*s Memoirs of 
that Minister. " Sir Robert Walpole having discovered a 
correspondence which one of Shippen*s friends carried on 
with the Pretender, Shippen called on the Minister, and 
desired him to save his friend. Sir Robert willingly com- 
plied, and then said, ' Mr. Shippen, I cannot desire you to 
vote with the Administration, for with your principles I 
have no right to expect it. But I only require, whenever 
any question is brought forward in the House personally 
affecting me, that you will recollect the favour I have now 
granted you.* ** — Coxc's Walpole, Vol, 1, 4to. /?. 670. 



248 GILLBAY^S CAEICATUBE8. 

304. 

THE SURRENDER OP ULM ; OR, BUONAPARTE 
AND GENERAL MACK COMING TO A RIGHT 
UNDERSTANDING: INTENDED AS A SPECI- 
MEN OF FRENCH VICTORIES, i.e. CONQUER- 
ING WITHOUT BLOODSHED. 

November 6th, 1805. 

This print is a severe but well-merited satire on the dia- 
gracefol Surrender of Ulm on the 17th of October, 
1805, and plainly intimates that it was effected by bribery. 

Buonaparte is sitting on a drum-head. His sword is in 
his right hand, pointing to the prostrate Field-Marshal 
Mack, whom he thus addresses : '' There*s tour price. 
There's ten millions ! Twenty ! It is not in my army alone 
that my resources of conquering consist ! I hate victory 
obtained by effusion of blood V^ Mack replies, " And so 
do I too ! What signifies fighting when we can settle it 
in a safer way ! ! V^ Mack is delivering up " The Keys of 
Ulm'* with his right hand, and his sword with his left. 
By Mack's side is placed the List of the Articles to 
be delivered up : "1 Field-Marshal — 8 Generals-in-chief 
— 7 Lieutenant-Generals — 36 thousand Soldiers — 80 pieces 
of Cannon — 50 Stand of Colours — 100,000 pounds of Pow- 
der — and 4000 cannon-balls." Buonaparte points with 
his left hand to three soldiers bearing the stipulated bribe, 
ready to be paid. A flag is waving over the heads of the 
soldiers, inscribed '' La Victoiro ou la Mort." In front of 
Buonaparte are standard-bearers with flags, inscribed, 
"Vive Buonaparte:" "Vive L'Empereur Napoleon." 

Whether the surrender of Ulm proceeded from intel- 
lectual imbecility, cowardice, or sudden panic on the part 
of the Austrian Commander Mack, it astounded Europe ; 
and entirely disorganized the preconcerted plans of the 
Allies. It never could have been anticipated that a place 
so strongly fortified, and defended by a numerous, bravo 



POLITICAL SERIES. 249 

and well-appointed army, and amply supplied with ammu- 
nition and stores of every description would have surren- 
dered without first opposing a formidable resistance to the 
enemy. The event was unparalleled in the military 
history of modern times^ and was generally ascribed to 
treachery. Mack was tried by a court-martial, and sen- 
tenced to death, but the lenity of the Emperor commuted 
the punishment into imprisonment for life, thinking it un- 
necessary to order him to be shot, like Admiral Byng, as 
Voltaire expresses it, '' pour encourager les autres." 

305. 

POLITICAL CANDOUR; i.e. COALITION RE- 
SOLUTIONS OP JUNE 14th, 1805.— (Pro bono 
Publico.) June 2l8t, 1805. 

PITT. LORD H. PETTY. TIERNET. ERSKINB. POX. 

SHERIDAN. WILBERFORCE. WINDHAM. ORET. 

In this print Gillray represents Fox addressing the 
House, and acquitting Pitt of the charge of personal con- 
ruption. Pitt is delighted with the generous testimony of 
his rival in his favour, and calls out ''Here, here, here,'* 
pointing to the Treasury Bench. Fox, charmed with the 
grateful acknowledgments of his exertions, says, "Oh, 
how I shall enjoy to sit down with him on the bench of 
honesty." "An immaculate statesman, — ^just like my 
own papa.** Fox holds in Lis left hand behind hirn 
" Arrangements for a new Coalition.** Windham is hold- 
ing in his hand "Votes and Speeches for the Political 
Register ;** but finding the turn the Debate has taken, 
exclaims, " He deserves a statue of gold more than Porcu- 
pine {id est Cobbett) himself.** Wilberforce ejaculates, 
" Oh, he*8 an angel of light, a cherubim of glory.** A 
porter pot lies upset on the ground, and the beer is run- 
ning out on the floor, intimating that Whitbrcad's charge 
against Pitt has been overturned, &c. &c. 



250 OILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

In the course of the investigation of the charges against 
Lord Melville, it was discovered that in the year 1796, 
Pitt had advanced £40,000 of the public money to Boyd 
and Benfield, to enable them to make good their instal- 
ments on the Loan, and thereby saved them from the heavy 
loss they would have sustained by the sale of their scrip, 
which at that time was at a great discount. The bitterest 
of Pitt's political opponents attributed this illegal advance 
to a corrupt understanding between the Minister and these 
Loan contractors. Mr. Whitbread brought the subject 
under the notice of the House. At the commencement of 
the debate Mr. Pitt inquired if he should retire during the 
discussion of a subject personally affecting himself. Mr. 
Fox and the majority of the House esteemed it unneces- 
sary, and " Mr. Fox assured the Eight Honourable Gen- 
tleman that he should have felt as sincere sorrow as any 
member in that House if it had appeared from the result 
of the inquiry, that the Bight Honourable Gentleman was 
guilty to the same degree as Lord Melville. However 
much he might have differed from the Bight Honourable 
Gentleman in the course of his political life ; however he 
might have thought his general conduct deserving of 
blame ; however he might think him blameable in this in- 
stance ; yet he should have felt uneasy and unhappy had it 
turned out, after the high station which the Bight Honour- 
able Gentleman had so long held, — after the opposition 
even which he himself had felt it his duty to give him — that 
the Bight Honourable Gentleman was personally corrupt. 
For himself, he could declare that he never entertained 
such an opinion of him, and he was happy that the result 
of the inquiry did not justify the adoption of even a sen- 
timent of suspicion on that ground. Although he had 
frequently condemned the public conduct of the Bight 
Honourable Gentleman ; although he had on many occa- 
sions uttered sentiments respecting him, which he should 
have felt it treason against his country and his conscience 



POLITICAL SERIES. 251 

to suppress, still he never expressed a suspicion that the 
Right Honourable Gentleman was capable of personal cor- 
ruption, nor did he ever entertain such a suspicion. How- 
ever he might charge him with that species that ap- 
pertained to general neglect of duty, his mind entirely 
acquitted him of that kind of sordid corruption alluded to 
by the Honourable Gentletuan under the Gallery.'* — 
{Hansard's Debates, Vol. 5 for 1805, p. 413-14.) 

This is the last time Mr. Pitt appears in the series of 
Gillray^s political prints. We cannot take leave of him 
without paying our homage to his splendid talents. Placed 
at the head of the Government very early in life, he exhi- 
bited all the mental resources of mature age. He had 
opposed to him a phalanx of extraordinary abilities, Fox, 
North, Burke, Sheridan, Windham, &c. with scarcely any 
efficient coadjutor, except Dundas. To have triumphed 
over men like these, to have baffled their energetic exer- 
tions, and reduced an adverse majority almost solely by 
his amazing eloquence, and sustained himself in office, is 
unparalleled in the political history of this country. The 
House of Commons was the true theatre of his gloiy. The 
magnificent flow of his language, the beautiful structure of 
his unpremeditated sentences enchained the attention, and 
captivated the minds of his hearers. His great rival said, 
he himself was never at a loss for a word ; but Mr. Pitt 
always employed the best. His sarcasm was withering — 
his panegyric ennobling. Constantly occupied in the dis- 
charge of his official duties, his reading was not varied and 
extensive like that of Fox, and he rarely quoted ; but 
whenever he illustrated his argument by a quotation, it 
was always felicitous and appropriate. Our limits will 
not permit us to multiply instances, we will give one. In 
the debates on the Union with Ireland, he was reproached 
with wishing to reduce the sister kingdom to a servile 
subjection to England : he replied in the words of Virgins 
iEneas : — 



252 oillrat's cauicatubes. 

** Non mihi, nee TeacrU Italos parere jabebo, 
Nee mibi regna peto ; paribns se legibus ambro, 
Inyiete Geotes seterna in Focdera mittant.*' 

We will not, however, assame the presamption of at- 
teiDpting.a biographical sketch of this great statesman ; 
but will place before the reader two extracts from charac- 
ters of him, the one drawn by the hand of a devoted 
friend — Canning, and the other by Sir James Mackintosh, 
a liberal opponent. 

By Canning. — " Dignity, strength, discretion — these 
were among the most masterly qualities of his mind at its 
first dawn. He was devoted to the State. Its interests 
engrossed all his study, and engaged all his care. It was 
the element alone in which he seemed to live and move. 
He allowed himself but little recreation from his labours. 
His mind was always in its station, and its activity was 
unremitted. He had a proud reliance on himself, and it 
was justified. Like the sturdy warrior leaning on his 
own battle-axe, conscious where his strength lay, he did 
not readily look beyond it." 

By Sir James ^Mackintosh. — '^ His eloquence was of 
a kind peculiarly adapted to the situation which he filled. 
He was stately and dignified in manner, clear and distinct 
in unravelling the details of the most complicated subject, 
declamatory at once and argumentative, so as to furnish 
the best pretexts to those who wished to follow him, while 
he cheered and encouraged those who might be in dread 
of his adversaries ; but above all, he excelled in the use of 
both topics and language, with a view to produce the effect * 
he desired, and never commit himself; he could balance 
his expressions so nicely, — conceal or bring forward parts 
of his subject so artistically — approach, and yet shun dan- 
gerous points so dexterously — often seeming to say so 
much, while he told so little, and almost always filling the 
ear more than the mind, and frequently leaving it doubtful 
upon reflection, what had in substance been carried away. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 253 

— ^that a celebrated cotemporary (Windham) was scarcely 
chargeable with exaggeration in saying, that ' he verily 
believed Mr. Pitt could speak a King^s speech oflf hand/ 

''To these qualities, so eminently fitting him for a 
ministerial orator, he added others of a higher description. 
His fluency of language was almost preternatural, and yet 
it never grew tiresome ; for though it never rose to any 
great beauty, yet it was generally characteristic and ap- 
propriate, and from time to time it did contain expressions 
of more than ordinary felicity, if, at its common level, it 
too much resembles the diction of a State Paper. He was 
rather loud and vehement, than impassioned ; and appeared 
to declaim more from the head than the heart. But then 
he reasoned closely, and arranged both quickly and accu- 
rately ; or at least he seemed to be always arguing and 
distinguishing, and to address the understanding rather 
than the passions, over which he had hardly any other 
control than that which subjects the nerves of an audience 
to a sonorous and most powerful voice, itself under strict 
discipline. In one part of eloquence and only in one, 
could he be deemed an orator of the highest genius ; his 
sarcasm was at once keen and splendid ; it was brilliant, 
and it was concise.^' 

Pitt died January 26th, 1806. The Legislature voted 
£40,000, for the payment of his debts, and conferred on 
him the honours of a public funeral, and monument in 
Westminster Abbey. To the sui-prise of many, Windham, 
who had been his colleague in office, opposed the funeral 
honours. He said, the Mover and Seconder of the Address 
had called upon Members to bury party spirit in his grave. 
He had no political animosity to bury ; but by the custom 
of this country, and indeed of all nations at all times, these 
extraordinary honours have been only conferred, when 
there has been a certain union of merit and success. He 
cheerfully recognized the splendid talents of Mr. Pitt; 
but he cannot be said to have been fortunate in the result 



254 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

of his exertions. This opposition drew upon Windham a 
severe rebuke in a satirical poem, entitled ^^ Elijah's Man- 
tle, published on the entrance of the Fox and Grenville 
Administration into office." Windham is thus addressed : — 

" Windham, if e'er thy sorrows flow, 
For priyate loss or pablic woe, 

Thy rigid brow unbend : 
Tears oyer Cssar, Brutus shed, 
His hatred warred not with the dead, 
And Pitt was once thy friend. 

*' Does Enyy bid thee not to mourn ? 
Hold then his mantle up to scorn ; 

His well-earned fame assail ; 
0£ Funeral honours strip his corse* 
And at his yirtues, till thou'rt hoarse. 

Like curat Thersites rail.'' 

306. 

THE DEATH OF ADMIEAL LORD NELSON IN 
THE MOMENT OF VICTORY ! Bee. 23rd, 1805. 

A rather feeble attempt at celebrating the great battle 
of Trafalgar, fought on the 24th of October, 1805, in 
which Nelson fell in the moment of victory. 

307. 

LE DLiBLE BOITEUX ; OR, THE DEVIL UPON 
TWO STICKS, CONVEYING JOHN BULL TO 
THE LAND OF PROMISE. February 8th, 1806. 

LORD SIDMOUXn. FOX. LOKD QRENVILLE. JOHN BULL. 

Fox, as the Diable Boiteux, is soaring through the air. 
His head is surmounted by the Prince of Wales's feathers. 
He is carrying Lord Sidmouth under his left wing, who 
has '^ Honesty^' inscribed over his head : and he sustains 
Lord Grenville with his right wing ; over Lord Grenville's 
head is inscribed " Humility.'* On Fox's back is inscribed 
" Loyalty — Independence — Public Good.'' He is calling to 



I^OLITICAL SERIES. 255 

John Bull : " Come along^ Johnny ; take fast hold of my 
cloak^ and I will bring you to the Icmd of milk and honey/' 
John Bull replies, " Oh yes, I will try to hold fast, but 
I'm damnably afraid that your cloak may slip off before 
we get there ; and I may chance to break my neck." 

On Fox's accession to oflSce, after Pitt's death. Fox's 
two crutches are Lords Sidmouth and Grenville. Fox's 
coalition with the latter led to the formation of the cele< 
brated Broad-Bottom Administration, which was com* 
pleted on the 3rd of February, 1806. 

308. 
THE CABINETICAL BALANCE. Feb. \6th, 1806. 

LORD BLLEKBOBOUOU. LORD ERSXINE. LORD MOIRA. 

FOX. GRET. LORD SIDMOUTH. LORD QRENVILLE. 

LORD TEMPLE. WINDHAM. 

Lord Ellenborough is mounted upon the shoulders of 
Lord Sidmouth, with his feet placed on the Cabinet 
balance. The two other sections of the Cabinet — the 
No-bottomites and the Broad-bottomites — are in the 
opposite scales. By a pressure of his left foot Lord 
Ellenborough inclines the balance in favour of the Broad-- 
bottomites. 

When Fox and Lord Grenville made overtures to Lord 
Sidmouth to join their Administration, he assented on 
condition of naming one friend as a member of the 
Cabinet, and selected Lord Ellenborough, the Chief 
Justice of the King's Bench. No act of the Whig 
Ministry was so unpopular. The Friends of Liberty were 
indignant that ''the Man of the People" should have 
been prevailed on to consent to the admission of the 
Chief Judge in trials for libels instituted by the Crown, 
when the Judge himself formed a part of the Executive 
(Jovemment. The inconvenience had been seriously felt 
in the instance of Lord Mansfield, whose conduct on the 

17 



256 gillrat's cabicatures. 

trial of Woodfall for the publication of Junias's Letters, 
and of others for alleged libels^ had fully established the 
justice of their repugnance. Mr. Fox made a most 
ingenious speech to prove that ^'the Cabinet" was only 
a modem term, and was unknown to the Law or Con- 
stitution. It was only a deputation of the Privy Council, 
and every Chief Justice was a member of the Privy 
Council. The defence was ingenious, but not solid, and 
the public remained unconvinced and dissatisfied, though 
the House of Commons had refused to sanction Mr. 
Spencer Stanhope's motion for the removal of Lord 
BUenborough.* The rising sun of the Prince of Wales 
shines upon the new Ministers, while the spirit of Pitt is 
hovering over the setting sun of the Kiug. 



809. 

TIDDT.DOLL, THE GREAT FRENCH GINGER- 
BREAD BAKER DRAWING OUT A NEW 
BATCH OF KINGS. Janua/ry 23rd, 1806. 

PRINCE TALLETRAND. NAPOLEON. SHERIDAN. FOX. 

LORD STANHOPE. U)BD MOIEA. LORD DERBT. 

Buonaparte, represented as ^' The great French Ginger- 
bread Baker,'* is drawing out of " The New French Oven 
for Imperial Gingerbread'' a batch of Kings — "The Kings 
of Bavaria, Wirtemberg, and Baden." " The Ash-hole for 
Broken Gingerbread" contains Italy — ^Austria — The Ne- 
therlands — Holland — ^and Switzerland, swept in by *' the 
Corsican Besom of Destruction ;" also Death's head wear- 
ing the Spanish Crown. A pile of cannon balls supplies 
fuel for feeding the fire of the Imperial oven. On the 
right of the print we see "Little Dough Viceroys intended 

* The preaent Lord Ellenboroiigh has declared in the Home of Lordi 
that hiB father, in the Utter part of his life, admitted the inexpediency of the 
appointment, and deeply regretted his acceptance of the seat in the CaUnet 



POLITICAL SEBIES. 257 

for the New Batch ;*' in these we recognise the portraits 
of Sheridan, Fox, Lord Moira, &c. with crowns on their 
heads. On the left is the " Political Kneading Trough /' 
Talleyrand is busily employed in kneading the dough of 
Hungary, Turkey and Poland. The Prussian Eagle, with 
a crown on its head, is hovering over Hanover. A 
basket below contains " True Corsican Kinglings for 
Home Consumption and Exportation.^' Beside it is 
" Hot Spiced Gingerbread, all hot ! who dips in my lucky 
bag?'' &c. &c. 

This print is a most spirited satire on the wanton man- 
ner in which Buonaparte displayed his despotic power 
about this period, depriving one Boyal Family of its 
Crown and Sceptre, and tossing them to a relative or 
&vourite. We were told "the House of Braganza" had 
ceased to reign, and immediately after, the elevation of 
Murat, his brother-in-law, to the vacant throne was pro- 
claimed. The Eling of Spain was deposed^ and his own 
brother Joseph was announced to astonished Europe, as 
the monarch of that gallant nation of gentlemen and 
cavaliers ; thus realizing what the ambition of Lewis XIV. 
had never been able to effect by the War of Succession-— 
the virtual annexation of Spain to France. 

An admirable illustration of the subject of this print 
occurs in Sheridan's speech on the state of Ireland in the 
following year. " I cannot patiently think of such petty 
party squabbles, while Buonaparte is grasping the nations; 
while he is surrounding France, not with the iron frontier, 
for which the wish and childish ambition of Lewis XIV. 
was so eager, but with kingdoms of his own creation ; 
securing the gratitude of higher minds as the hostage, 
and the fears of others as pledges for his safety. His 
are no ordinary fortifications. His Mabtbllo Towers 
ABE HIS Alues; Cbowns and Sceptres abe the Pali- 

SADOES of his ENTRENCHMENTS, AND EIlNOS ARE HIS 

Sentinels." 

17* 



258 oillrat's cabicatubes. 

310. 

MAKING DECENT; i. e. BROAD-BOTTOMITES 
GETTING INTO THE GRAND COSTUME. 

February 20th, 1806. 

GBET. FOX. LOBD SIDMOUTH. LOBD HENBT PBTTT. 

WINDHAM. LOBD OBENVILLE. LOBD MOIBA. 8HEBIDAK. 
DUE3 OF BEDFOBD. TIEBNET. EBSKINE. VANSITTABT. 

The Whigs had long been out of office^ and it was a 
trick of the Tory press to represent the party as men of 
little property; though the names and estates of the Duke 
of Northumberland, Duke of Devonshire, Duke of Bed- 
ford, Duke of Norfolk, &c. might have been confidently 
opposed to an equal number of names of the other side. 
The idea of measuring the merits of Statesmen by the 
length of their purses was grovelling, and would have 
deprived the country of the services of Lord Chatham, 
Pitt, Fox, Burke, Lord Liverpool, Canning, and many 
other illustrious names. 

The conception of this print is remarkably clever. Gill- 
ray represents the new Ministers as having been so long 
out of oflSce, that they were quite unprepared for appear- 
ance at Court. But the idea is carried out with so much 
playfulness and good humour that the parties caricatured 
must have themselves joined heartily in the laugh. 

Fox is shaving before a glass ; he has hid his bonnet 
rouge, and his blue and buff coat and waistcoat under a 
chair ; a dress sword is placed ready by his side. Grey is 
cleaning his teeth before the same glass, which has the 
Prince of Wales's feathers over it. Lord Sidmonth'a 
countenance is partially obscured by the exhalations fi*om 
a powder-puff. Lord Moira., already nearly dressed in his 
regimentals, is tying on his stock. Lord Robert Spencer 
is washing his hands. Lord Grenville, while dressing, 
turns his Broad-Bottom on some of his colleagues. Lord 



POLITICAL SSBIE8. 259 

Erskine^ attired in the dress of Lord Cliancellor, is looking 
with delight at himself in a glass. Lord Henry Petty is 
strutting about the room^ admiring his Chancellor of the 
Exchequer's robe ; and the Duke of Bedford^ appointed 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, is drawing on his boots, pre- 
paring to start for Lreland to assume the government. On 
the ground near him is a plan of '* The Road from Wobum 
Farm to Ireland," and " A new Way of Improving the 
Irish Breed of Black Cattle." 

Lord Henry Petty is thus alluded to in the satirical 
poem *' Elijah's Mantle :" — 

" Pitt*8 Cheqaer robe 'tis thime to wear> 
Take of hk Mantle loo a share, 

Twill aid thy Ways and Means ; 
And should Fat Jack and his Cabal 
Cry, <Rob ns the Exchequer, Hal,' 

'Twill charm away the fiends." 

And Lord Sidmouth is thus apostrophised in the same 
poem : — 

<* Sidmouth, — though low TUa head is laid, 
Who called thee from thy natiye shade. 

And gaye thee second birth ; 
GaTe thee the sweets of power and place. 
The tofted gown — the gilded mace, 

And raised thy pony worth : 

** Think how his Mantle wrapped thee roand : 
Is one of eqnal rirtoe found 

Among thy new compeers ? 
Or can thy cloak of Amiens sto^ 
Once laughed to scorn by Bine and Bnff, 

Screen thee from Windham's jeers ? 

We shall conclude with directing the attention of the 
reader to the principal member of the new Administration 
— Fox, and his presentation at Court. ''He went to 
Court in all the simplicity of a plain dress, without 
powder. He was pleased with the King^s reception of him, 
and he uniformly appeared to me, the whole subsequent 



260 gilleay's casicatubes. 

time he was in office, full of just respect for his Majesty, 
attentive to his wishes, and anxious to conduct matters in 
the office so as to merit the continuance of his approbation/' 
•—See Trotter's Memoirs, p. 374. 

'' The introduction of Mr. Fox so late into his Majesty's 
Councils may be thought to have occasioned some embar- 
rassment between the Monarch and his patriotic and 
neglected Minister. Nothing of this kind, however, took 
place. The Sovereign possessed too much dignity and 
elevation of mind to adopt any party animosity, and the 
Minister felt too profound a respect for his Royal master, 
and too much veneration for monarchy itself, not to 
approach the Boyal presence in a manner worthy of him- 
self and of the King. Everything passed, therefore, in 
the most agreeable and gracious manner.'^ 

" From the time of Mr. Fox's entering the Cabinet in 
February, 1806, till his illness, his Majesty had never 
occasion to testify disapprobation : with his mode of con- 
ducting a negociation he was much pleased ; his dispatches 
obtained even his Majesty's admiration — and of official 
writing there was no better judge — and there can be little 
doubt that with such a Minister of Foreign Affairs, the 
name of the Sovereign and of Great Britain (had he been 
spared) would have risen to great and proud estimation 
abroad." — Trotter's Memoirs, ^.377. 

311. 
MORE PIGS THAN TEATS; OR, THE NEW 
LITTER OP HUNGRY GRUNTERS, SUCKING 
JOHN BULL'S OLD SOW TO DEATH. 

March 5th, 1806. 

HORNE TOOES. SIB F. BURDETT. TIEBNET. DUKE OF BEDFORD. 
LOBD CARLISLE. LORD ERSKIKE. LORD QRENVILLE. LORD H. 
PETTY. LORD TEMPLE. LORD DERBY. LORD SIDMOUTH. 
SHERIDAN. FOX. OREY. LORD HOIRA. WINDHAM. THE 
SPEAKER. 

On the numerous new mouths which, by the accession 



POLITICAL SERIES. 261 

of the Whigs to power, were to be added to those which 
ahready pulled so greedily at John Bull's purse. John 
appears in great alarm at the eagerness of his numerous 
brood. 

312. 
A TUB FOR THE WHALE. March lith, 1806. 

LOSD EB8KINE. SHERIDAN. LORD OBENVILLE. LORD H. 
PETTY. FOX. LORD ELLEKBOROUOH. PRINCE OF WALES. 

Another satire on the Broad-Bottoms, whose ship is 
wafted forward by the favour of the Prince of Wales, 
while they are obliged to thrown out an empty barrel 
(supposed to represent the great promises of the Whigs) 
to amuse the great leviathan of public opinion, which is 
deluging them with " ridicule*' and '^ contempt/* The sun 
of power is already setting upon them. The broom at the 
mast-head indicates that the boat is to be disposed of. 

313. 

A GREAT STREAM FROM A PETTY FOUNTAIN ; 
OR, JOHN BULL SWAMPED IN THE FLOOD 
OF NEW TAXES. May 9th, 1806. 

WINDHAM. GRET. LORD DESBT. DUKE OF BEDFORD. VOX. 
LORD MOIRA. LORD GBENVILLE. SHERIDAN. LORD 

8IDH0UTH. TIERNET. LORD H. PETTY. SIR F. BURDETT. 
HORNE TOOKE. 

On the bndget of Lord Henry Petty, the new Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer. The Whigs had always cried out 
against excessive taxation, and now they were in power, 
they were not only obliged to adopt the system of their 
predecessors, but they found it necessary to add to the 
burden already existing. The opponents of the new 
Ministry took advantage of the position in which they were 
thus placed, to reproach the Whigs with being less econo- 



""'"^ c«>oa t\>i»«* °\- bete ««'- 



POLITICAL 8BEIES. 263 

hands held np snppliantly to Fox ; his sword has dropped 
from his grasp. Fox^s right foofc is trampling npon it. 
Fox stands over the King with a drawn sword, and ex- 
claims, " Oh, you Prussian Marauder, you ! What, IVe 
caught you at last ? What, you took me for a double- 
&ced Talleyrand, did you ? Did you think J was like 
yourself, to look one way and row another ? What, you 
thought because I make loyal speeches now, that I must 
be a turncoat. O you Frenchified Villain ! 1^11 teach you 
to humbug and insult my poor dear, dear Master, and to 
join with such rascals as Boney and O'Connor.'^ The 
King of Prussia replies, " Indeed, indeed, indeed I could 
not help it.'' Fox's left hand is placed behind him, hold- 
ing a paper inscribed ^*The State of the Nation;" it is 
thereby insinuated that his speeches while in opposition 
had described the country to be so inadequately defended 
that the French Emperor was encouraged to undertake 
its invasion. 

The surrender of Ulm, and the destructive battle of 
Austerlitz had inflicted the most extensive calamities on 
our Allies; but Buonaparte had not been able to wrest 
from Grreat Britain any portion of her dominions. The 
East and West Indies were intact. The Cape of Good 
Hope, Malta, Trinidad, and the Ionian Islands, annexed to 
Great Britain since the Peace of Amiens, remained secure 
in her possession. 

Buonaparte, therefore, determined to inflict a wound on 
the personal feelings of George III. where he thought he 
would be most sensitive. He turned his eyes towards 
Hanover, and resolved to deprive the King of the here- 
ditary dominions of his family. 

On the 15th of December, 1805, a Convention was con- 
cluded at Vienna, between the Emperor of the French and 
Count Haugwitz. It was stipulated that Prussia should 
cede her ancient possessions of Anspach and Bayreuth, 
and some other provinces, and be allowed to indemnify 



264 oillrat's cabicatures. 

herself by seizing and appropriating to herself the Elec- 
torate of Hanover. On the 10th of April, 1806, the King 
of Prussia proclaimed himself King of Hanover. On 
the 23rd day of April Mr. Secretary Pox brought down 
a message to the House of Commons from the King, an- 
nouncing that the King of Prussia had taken possession 
of Hanover, and closed its ports against the ships of Great 
Britain. 

In a very moderate speech Fox enlarged on the gross 
injustice of this conduct of the King of Prussia, and 
shewed that it did not proceed from urgent necessity, for 
Bussia had promised him powerful military assistance, and 
England had engaged to furnish large pecuniary supplies, 
if he should be drawn into a war with France. " These 
were the means he possessed of giving weight to his nego- 
tiations, and how did he apply these means ? Why, to 
seize a part of the territories of one of those powers, which 
had been supporting him in that rank and situation, which 
enabled him to conclude his treaty. — He says, because I 
have lost Anspach and Bayreuth, I therefore feel myself 
under the necessity of seizing the dominions of some third 
power, not only of a third power, but of one that from all 
times, and by every circumstance, I am bound to respect.'' 
He stated that, in communicating to the Prussian Minister, 
Baron Jacobi, his Majesty's just resentment, he had ex- 
pressed to him that ^' no consideration of convenience, or 
mutual accommodation, much less of equivalent, would 
ever induce his Majesty to forget the exemplary fidelity 
of his Hanoverian subjects, or consent to the alienation of 
the Electorate." He added, that it was impossible to 
doubt that the King of Prussia was acting under the in- 
fluence and dictation of France, for he had not only seized 
Hanover, but had closed its ports against England. This 
was a direct act of hostility, and a legitimate cause of war. 
He concluded by moving an address to the King, promis- 
ing support, which was carried unanimously. 



POLITICAL SERIIS. 265 

316. 

COMFORTS OF A BED OF ROSES. 

April 2l8t, 1806. 

GHOST OF PITT. FOX. MBS. FOX. NAPOLEON. 

The conception of this print is remarkably happy, and 
Gillray has bestowed particular pains on its details. The 
allusion to Fox's illness, and its causes, aggravates the 
satire, but most readers will think it had better have been 
omitted, and was unnecessary for the illustration of the 
subject. 

Fox and Mrs. Fox are in bed. Fox's slumbers are 
agonized by the vision of Buonaparte, whose right hand 
holds a drawn swoid over him, and his lefb tightly grasps 
Fox's collar ; resting his right foot on the bed, and his lefb 
on a cannon, inscribed '' pour subjuguer le Monde." A 
fierce mastifiT (John Bull) is flying at Buonaparte. A ban- 
ner, surmounted by a bird of prey, and inscribed '' Hor- 
rors of Invasion," is seen floating behind Buonaparte. 
Death's head is looking from under the bed, "grinning 
horribly a ghastly smile ;" his lefb arm holds up to Fox's 
view an hour-glass, the sand has nearly run out ; round 
his left arm is entwined a scroll, inscribed " Intemperance, 
Dropsy, Dissolution." Death's right hand grasps his 
spear. The Prussian Eagle is hovering over Fox's bed 
(Prussia had recently seized BAnover) • On the right o^ 
Fox's bed, Pitf s ghost is endeavouring to rouse him from 
his sleep, exclaiming, " Awake, arise, or be for ever fallen." 
On the right side of the bed, on the floor, are symbols 
of Fox's difficulties — ^^ India Roses :" " Emancipation 
Roses :" " French Roses :" '' Volunteer Roses." At the 
bottom of the bed lies '^ A List of the Broad-Bottom Ad- 
ministration" — Citizen Volpone, Lord Bogy (Lord Gren- 
ville, nicknamed Bogy Grenville), Bett Armstead (Mrs. 
Fox), Doctor Clysterpipe (Lord Sidmouth), Miss Petty 
(Lord H. Petty). 



266 GILLBAY^S CAHICATURES. 

Gillray^s '^Bed of Bosss'^ took its origin from an ex- 
pression of Lord Castlereagh in his speech on Windham's 
motion on the military establishments of the country. 
Lord Castlereagh concluded an elaborate speech by de- 
claring that the late Administration^ in handing over the 
Government of the country to their successors^ had placed 
them on ^' A Bed of Boses/' When it is recollected that 
Ulm had surrendered without resistance, that Buonaparte 
had triumphantly entered Vienna, and the fatal battle of 
Austerlitz had been lost^ it required no ordinary intrepidity 
to make the assertion in the face of an audience &miliar 
with these events ; but we will record Lord Gastlereagh's 
own account, and Mr. Pox's indignant reply. 

Lord Castlereagh said : — " The Noble Lord (Lord H* 
Petty) has found a revenue progressively productive, public 
credit such as to enable him to borrow for the service of the 
year on terms highly advantageous to the public ; and the 
general prosperity of the country such as to admit of his 
adopting the manly resolution of raising a large additional 
proportion of the supplies within the year. The Noble 
Lord (Lord Howick) has found a navy, on the numbers and 
efficiency of which it is as little necessary for me to com- 
ment, as upon their late unrivalled achievements. The 
Bight Hon. Gentleman (Mr. Windham) has found an 
army exceeding by 25,000 men the greatest army the 
country ever before possessed, and of a description which 
qualifies them to fulfil every wish their Sovereign can form 
with respect to their exertions, if their character and con- 
stitution is not broken down by inconsiderate and specu- 
lative innovations. I again repeat, that the Government 
has great difficulties to surmount, but they arise from , 
causes which my late Bight Hon. Friend (Mr. Pitt) and \ 
those who acted with him, had neither the power nor the ^ 
means to control. Whatever was immediately under his 
own guidance has been successfully conducted ; and I do 
not hesitate to assert that in all the essential points above 



\ 



\ 



POLITICAL SERIES. 267 

alkided to, viz. the finances, the navy and the army, com- 
pared.with the embarrassments under which they are dis- 
posed to represent themselves as taking the Government, 

THS PBISSNT AdMIKISTBATION MAT BE CONSIDEBED AS ON 

A Bed OF Roses/' 

Mr. Secretary Fox said : — '^ What has fallen from the 
Noble Lord appears to me so extraordinary that I coald 
not have imagined that any human nerves were sufficient 
to enable any one gravely to make such assertions as he 
has hazarded. He has told us that the country is now 
placed in such a state of proud splendour and universal 
prosperity, as never had been handed over by any ministry 
to their successors. Grracious Gt>d I and in what does 
this prosperity, of which he boasts, consist ? Undoubtedly 
the navy, by the most unparalleled gallantry, and the most 
wonderful success, even beyond human calculation, is in a 
state in which the task of my Bight Hon. Friend near mo 
(Lord Howick) is comparatively easy. But may it not be 
questioned whether all the merit is due to the last Board ? 
nay, whether, with a reference to the future, and mainte- 
nance of the navy, everything is quite so meritorious as 
the Noble Lord asserts ? But of the splendid victories 
achieved, is the whole credit to be concentrated in the last 
eighteen months ? Is none due to that Board of Admiralty 
at which Lord St. Vincent presided ? none due to those 
who selected and appointed those officers ? The Noble 
Lord, indeed, defended Lord St. Vincent too ; but it can- 
not be denied that many of his friends entertained against 
that gallant officer as strong prejudices as ever existed in 
the minds of men. But, after mentioning the navy, I do 
not know that there is a single point on which I can sub- 
scribe to the Noble Lord's representation of the state of 
the country. Is it in the finances that we are to seek for 
the proofs ? Because the last Administration laid very 
heavy burdens on the public, did that facilitate the laying 
on of those new burdens which my noble Friend (Lord H. 



268 oillbat's caricatubes. 

Petty) found it his duty to propose ? It is true we have 
forty-three millions of revenue ; but is it very consolatory 
that we have an expenditure of forty-three millions ? Is 
there no relation between these objects ? or is it a proof 
of prosperity that our taxes are enormous^ though they 
are borne with cheerfulness^ because they may be neces- 
sary ? Does the Noble Lord appeal to Ireland as that 
with the state of which there is every reason to be proud f 
Is India in the best possible state^ quite prosperous and 
tranquil ? Where then is the ' Bed ov Boses' to which 
we have succeeded ? Really it is insulting, to tell me, I 
am on a bed of roses, when I feel myself torn and stung by 
brambles and nettles, whichever way I turn. Even the 
Noble Lord's late colleague admits, ' the Continent is not 
in a very satisfactory state 1 1' ''-^{Hansard's Debates, 
Vol. 6, p. 707.) 

317. 
THE BEAR AND HIS LEADER. May 19th, 1806. 

LORD SIDMOUTH. LORD H. PETTY. FOX. LORD GBENVILLK. 

Fox is represented as a bear muzzled and led in a chain 
by his master. Lord Grenville : he says, ^' What though I 
am obliged to dance a bear, a man may be a gentleman 
for all that ;'* Lord Grenville has a cudgel in his hand, 
inscribed, " Cudgel for disobedient Bears.'* A paper in- 
scribed, '' Rewards for obedient Bears,'' hangs from his 
pocket. He calls out, "Don't be afraid of my Bear, 
Ladies and Gentlemen, I have tamed and muzzled him, 
and reformed his habits :" " My Bear ever dances to the 
genteelest of tunes." Lord Sidmouth enacts the part of 
a blind old fiddler with a wooden leg, and is playing " God 
save the King " to the dancing of the bear. From his 
pocket hangs, " Pray remember your poor and old blind 
Fiddler." Lord Henry Petty, as a monkey, holds the 
bear's tail with one hand, and a cap in the other, to collect 
contributions ; he is dancing, at his feet is the ballad, 1 

I 



POLITICAL SERIES. 269 

*' And a begging we will go.'* One of the bear's feet is 
on '^ 5a ira/' Behind Lord Sidmouth hangs out a sign- 
post, inscribed "Pro Bono Publico. Superb fine Exhibi- 
tion at the Bear-Garden, Broad-Bottom Alley. Orpheus 
charming the BruteSi with a grand accompaniment by Dr. 
Sangrado.'* By his side, " Pease Soup, or Bruin's 
Delight, a Ballet /' and " Bubble and Squeak, a Duett,'' 
an allusion to Lord Grenville's relatives. Sir Watkins 
William Winn and Mr. Charles Winn, so nick-named. 

The insinuation intended to be conveyed by Gillray in 
this print is, that Fox having owed his introduction to 
ofBce to Lord Grenville, to whom the Eling had given a 
carte blanche to form an Administration, was thereby 
reduced to subordination to that Nobleman. The consti- 
tution of the Cabinet, and the measures adopted by the 
new Ministers, particularly the mode of opening the nego- 
tiation for peace with France, and the frank and concilia- 
tory spirit in which it was condacted, proved that Fox's 
genius was in the ascendant. Fox loved to take counsel 
with his colleagues on terms of equality ; he would not 
have brooked a superior. Lord Grenville had the good 
sense to appreciate the value of his alliance. He was the 
only man of the party who could, at that time, have led 
the House of Commons with equal success. It redounds 
to the honour of the three sections which constituted the 
Cabinet, that they seem to have acted together with 
mutual confidence, unalloyed by jealousy,^as long as the 
health of Fox was spared to share in their deliberations. 

318. 
THE TRIUMPH OF QUASSIA. Jtme 10th, 1806. 

BAECLAT. COMBB. WHITBBEAD. LOBD H. PETTY. 

LOBD OBEKVILLE. FOX. 

On the support given to the monopoly of the great 
breweries, and the alleged substitution of quassia for hops 



270 gtllray's caeicatubks. 

in brewing porter. The great brewers of the day form 
the procession on foot ; while the three ministers, now 
riding the same horse, take the lead. 

319. 
VISITING THE SICK. July 28th, 1806. 

LORD TEMPLE. LOBD GBEKVILLE. MABQtJIS OF BUCKINOHAV. 
LOBD SIDMOUTH. LOBD DEBET. MBS. FOX. LOBD H. PETTY. 
WINDHAM. LOBD MOIBA. PBIKGE OF WALES. MBS. 

FtTZHEBBEBT. FOX. SHEBIDAN. LOBD HOWICK. 

Fox is raised up in a great arm-chair, his swollen legs 
indicate the last stage of dropsy. Mrs. Fitzherbertj 
habited as an Abbess, is endeavouring to console him : 
'^ Do confess your sins, Charley ! Do take advice from an 
old Abbess, and receive absolution ! Here is Bishop 
O^Bother, 'twill be quite snug among friends, you know." 
The Roman Catholic Prelate in full pontificals, with a 
crucifix at his side, thus addresses him : '' Tempora, O 
Mores I Charley, dear Charley I remember your poor soul, 
and if you're spared this time, give us Emancipation— 
or — I ! !'' Sheridan, standing behind him says, " Emanci- 
pation! Fudge! Why, Dr. O'Bother, I thought you knew 
better ! " A" Scheme for a new Administration,''' already 
prepared, is hanging out of his pocket. Fox replies to the 
Catholic Bishop, '' I abhor all communion which debars 
us of the comfort of the cup ! Will no one give me a 
cordial ?" The Prince of Wales appears oppressed with 
grief : he says, ''Alas, poor Charley ! do give him a brim- 
mer of sack, 'twill do him more good. Abbess, than all the 
Bishop's nostrums !" From the Prince's pocket is seen 
hanging a '' Letter from JeflFery." This alludes to a pam- 
phlet recently published by JefiFery, who had been an emi- 
nent goldsmith and jeweller in Dover Street, and had been 
ruined by the large amount of jewellery and plate he had 
furnished to the Prince of Wales and Mrs. Fitzherbert by 



POLITICAL SERIES. 271 

the Prince's order. Despairing of obtaining payment, he 
had recently printed '' A Letter to the Prince of Wales/' 
in which he charged him with having induced him to fur- 
nish the jewellery and plate by the most solemn and 
repeated pledges of his personal honour to provide for the 
payment of the debt, and notwithstanding, having left 
his claim totally unliquidated. On a stand near Fox's 
chair a chamber utensil is placed upon '' Negotiation 
for peace between Great Britain and France." Lord 
Henry Petty is weeping, and exclaims, ''Ah poor me ! I 
fear my dancing days are over." ''New Taxes for 1806" 
are seen hanging out of his pocket. Windham cries out, 
" O Lord, what side can I tack round to now ?" Lord 
Moira says, " I must go back to Ballynahinch, och! och!" 
Lord Grenville asks, " Well, Doctor, have you done his 
business ?" Lord Sidmouth replies, " We'll see." Mrs. 
Fox has fainted in a comer of the room ; Lord Derby is 
administering to her a glass of true Maidstone gin (an 
allusion to the trial of O'Connor at Maidstone), and says, 
^'My dear old flame Bet, don't despair! if Charley is 
popp'd oflf, an't I here to comfort you ?" 

This print is a strong exemplification of the bitterness 
of party violence prevalent at this time. The sorrows and 
Bufferings of a sick room are not proper subjects of legi- 
timate satire. There was no pretence of superior sanctity 
or patriotism claimed for Mr. Fox on the part of his 
friends, and consequently no ground for invading the 
privacy of domestic life. It affords us, however, the 
opportunity of recording, that in his last illness, Mr. Fox 
received the most affectionate attentions from his old 
friends. 

The deep feeling displayed by Lord Holland resembled 
filial affection. Miss Fox, Lord Holland's sister, was most 
affectionate in her attentions. His early friends. Lord 
Robert Spencer and General Fitzpatrick, endeavoured to 
soothe his sufferings and cheer his spirits. The late Duke 

18 



272 gillbat's caricatubbs. 

of DcvonsBire was his constant visitor, and wlien cliange 
of air was recommendod^ he placed his noble mansion at 
Chiswick at Mr. Fox's disposal. It is also gratifying to 
record, npon the testimony of Mr. Fox's private secretary, 
Mr. Trotter, that, while Mr. Fox remained in the Duke of 
Bedford's house in Stable Yard, St. James's, the Prince 
of Wales was a frequent visitor, and displayed the utmost 
solicitude for the health of his old friend. 

" The Prince of Wales," says Mr. Trotter, " at this 
time shewed all the marks of a feeling heart, and of great 
constancy in friendship, more honourable to him than the 
high station he adorned. Almost every day he called and 
saw Mr. Fox. There was no afiectation in his visits ; the 
countenance, full of good-natured concern — the manner, 
expressive of lively interest — the softened voice — evinced 
that not all the splendour, the flattery or pleasures of a 
Court had changed the brightest feature in the human 
character, — attention to a sick and drooping friend." — 
Trotter's Memoirs ^ p. 117. It would be superfluous to 
record other names. The last audible words of the 
expiring Statesman were, '' I die happy." 



320. 

BRUIN IN HIS BOAT; OR, THE MANAGER IN 
DISTRESS. June 20th, 1806. 

WILBEBFOBCE. LOBD DEBBY. LOBD STANHOPE. LORD MELYILLI. 

WHITBBEAD. LOBD SJDMOUTH. 

Lord Melville, habited as a Scottish Thane, is standing 
on the Rock of Innocence; he is discharging two cannons, 
one inscribed "Adam" and the other "Plomer" (the 
names of his Counsel) ; with these he shatters to pieces 
the vessel " Impeachment." Whitbread is thrown out of 
it into the water, and is swimming to save his life. Fox, 
as " Bruin," is in his boat, standing upon the " Vanity 



POLITICAL SERIES. 273 

Cooler;" the flag '^Vanity'' is floating from tlie mast 
head^ the Reports of the Naval Commissioners are inscribed 
on the sail. Wilberforce, Lord Stanhope and Lord Derby, 
as birds of prey, are hovering around. The " Broad- 
Bottom Goose Cap" is seen, with Lord Sidmouth's head 
placed in it. On the left of the print, at the top, is 
a balance, inscribed ^'Impartiality." "Integrity" has 
weighed down ''Defamation." In Lord Melville's per- 
spective is "The Rock of Honour," and "Posterity." 



321. 
THE FRIEND OF THE PEOPLE AND HIS PETTY 
NEW TAX-GATHERER, PAYING JOHN BULL 
A VISIT. May 28th, 1806. 

FOX. LORD H. PETTY. 

Pox and Lord Henry Petty are knocking at John Bull's 
door. Lord Henry Petty vociferates, " Taxes I Taxes ! 
Taxes !" Fox is pointing to a schedule of New Taxes in 
Lord Henry's hands. Over John Bull's shop is inscribed 
"John Bull, late Dealer in the shop below — ^Moved up 
Stairs. N.B. Porterage done ; Shoes cleaned." A bill 
is stuck on the shop — " This Shop to Let, inquire of the 
Tax-Gatherer." John Bull, popping his head out of a 
first-floor window, cries, " Taxes, taxes, taxes ! why, how 
am I to get money to pay them all ? I shall very soon 
have neither a house nor hole to put my head in!" Fox 
replies, "A house to put your head in! why, what the 
devil should you want a house ? havn't you got a first 
floor room to live in, and if that is too dear, can't you 
move into the garret or get into the cellar ? Taxes must 
be had, Johnny. Come, down with your cash, it's all for 
the good of your dear country !" On the right of the 
print is a newly- erected pump, inscribed, " New Brewery 
for the Benefit of the Poor. Erected 1806, C. J. Volpone, 
Overseer." Boys arc pumping out the water, A broken 

18 * 



274 gillray's caricatures. 

and discarded barrel of '' Whitbread's Entire" is lying on 
the ground. On the left of the print is a barrel of 
" Home-brewed Small Beer. Ten shillings a barrel^ 
duty." Behind Pox is a Broad-Bottom Pop Shop. 

This print is intended to point out to popular indigna- 
tion the oppressive nature of the new taxes imposed by 
the Broad-Bottomed Ministers. But the leading featnre 
of the print, Fox^s reply to John Bull's complaintj is a 
most just and happy satire on a passage of Fox^s speech, 
on the new 10 per cent, property duty. After urging 
that some allowance was made to annuitants, Mr. Fox 
said : '^ According to the extent of a man's income, in 
many different situations, he might have it in his power 
to make such alterations in his expenditure as that the 
tax might not entirely crush him ; he might be able in 
some measure to relieve himself ; if he lived in the first 
floor, for instance, he might remove to the second, and so 
lessen his expenses : if he was on the second floor already, 
he might mount to the attic story : but where a man was 
already found to be in the cellar, where could ho be sent 
to, what resource could he have ?" — See Hanawrd^s De- 
hates. May \hth, 1806. 



322. 

SKETCH FOR A MONUMENT OP DISAPPOINTED 
JUSTICE. July 9/A, 1806. 

lord sllenborough. lord sidmouth. lord grekvilli. 
lord lauderdale. lord stanhope. 

Fiat Justitia, Ruat Ccelum. 

The Chief Justice of England (Lord Ellenborongh) holds 
the balance. With the Sword ov Justice he strikes off 
the froth from a pot of '' Whitbread's Entire.'' Whitbread 
was the leading manager of Lord Melville's Impeach- 
ment. The balance is inclined by the " Decision of 



POLITICAL SERIES. 275 

the Peers, the Votes of the Bishops, the Opinion of Eleven 
of the Judges and of Lord Eldon." "Not Guilty.^' 
Lord Ellenboroagh is seated on the '' Broad-Bottom 
Cabinet,'' which is supported by Viscount Sidmouth, Lord 
Lauderdale and Earl Stanhope. The label of "Viper 
Drops'* is seen in Lord Sidmouth's pocket, Li front of 
Earl Stanhope is " The Catameran of Justice, to blow up 
all Opposition in spite of wind and tide." Lord Lauder- 
dale is dressed as a Highlander, his bagpipes are by his 
side, his feet rest on " Bbissot's Pbinciples of Justice."* 
Lord Lauderdale, at the commencement of the Beyolution, 
had eulogized Brissot. Burke, in his Letter to the Duke 
of Bedford, speaks of " Citizen Brissot and his friend the 
Earl of Lauderdale." 

Ten Articles of Impeachment were preferred by the 
Commons against Lord Melville. The greatest number 
of Peers who voted on any one article was 135, viz. on the 
4th article, on which he was unanimously acquitted. On 
the second article, 81 pronounced him *' not guilty," and 
54 pronounced him "guilty" — majority 27. Among the 
peers who pronounced him guilty on the second article 
were the Lord Chancellor Erskine, Lord Chief Justice 
EUenborough, Lord Sidmouth, Privy Seal, Lord Stanhope 
and Lord Lauderdale. On the 12th of June the Lord 
Chancellor pronounced the judgment of the House of 
Peers. The Lord Chancellor said, '^ Henry Viscount 
Melville, I am to acquaint your Lordship, that you are 

* Bnrke, in his preface to his son's translation of Brissot's Address to his 
OonititaentB in 1794, sajs : " The translator of the following work brings 
forward to the English tribunal of opinion the testimony of a witness beyond 
all exception. His competence is undoubted. He knows eyery thing which 
ooDoems this Reyolntion to the bottouL He is a chief actor in all the scenes 
which he presents. No man can object to him as a Royalist ; the Royal 
party and the Christian religion never had a more determined enemy. In a 
word. It is Brissot. It is Brissot, the Republican, the Jacobin, and the 
Philosopher, who is brought to give ao account of Jacoblnifim, of Bepnb* 
Ucauiam and of Philosophy." 



276 gillray's cabicatubes. 

acquitted of the Articles of Impeacliment exhibited against 
yoa by the Commons for High Crimes and Misdemeanors, 
and of all things contained therein.** Lord Melville stood 
whilst the Lord Chancellor addressed him^ and made a low 
bow when he had finished. — See Howell's State Trials, 
Vol. 29. 

323. 

WESTMINSTER CONSCRIPTS UNDER THE 
TRAINING ACT. Sept. 1st, 1806. 

LOBD LAUDEBDALE (the Scottish Dove). NAPOLEON. 

TALLETBAND. FOX. LOBD EBSKINE. LOBD ELLENBOBOUOH. 
LOBD TEMPLE. LOBD H. PETTT. LOBD MOIBA. SHERIDAN. 
LOBD GBEKVILLE. LOBD SIDMOUTH. COLONEL HANOEB. 
WINDHAM. LOBD HOWICK. 

The satire intended to be conveyed by this print is that 
the Broad-Bottom Ministers were willing ''to ground 
arms," or in other words, to make an ignominious peace 
with the enemy. Buonaparte is the Drill Serjeant ; he is 
standing on a pile of cannon balls with a drawn sword in 
his hand, and has given the word of command to ground 
arms. Talleyrand is the Constable of the corps. Fox is 
brought in his sick chair to act as Drummer to the con- 
scripts. 6. R. is marked on his drum. The Prince of 
Wales*^ feathers are on the back of his chair. The Flugel 
Man is Lord Grenville, who has already given the signal 
to the conscripts. Lord Erskine, ill disciplined, is bowing 
and presenting his musket to the Constable of the corps 
(Talleyrand). Windham is Corporal. Lord EUenborough, 
Lord Sidmouth, Sheridan, Colonel Hanger, &c., are 
grounding arms, but the gallant Moira is awkward in 
grounding his arms, and discharges his musket in the air. 
Lord Lauderdale, the Scottish Dove, is bringing an olive 
branch in his mouth, and the "Terms of Peace'* are 
carried between his feet. 



POLITICAL SERIG8. 



277 



The circamstances in which the missions of Lord Yar- 
mouth an^ Lord Lauderdale originated^ are unexampled 
in diplomatic history. A few days after Mr. Fox had 
entered o£Bce^ he received a letter from a Frenchman, who 
had just arrived at Gravesend, requesting him to forward 
a passport to him, as he had something to communicate 
which would give him satisfaction. Mr. Fox directed a 
constable to be sent to bring him in custody to his house 
in Arlington Street. To avoid repetition we will give an 
extract from Mr. Fox's account of the transaction in a 
letter to Talleyrand, dated Feb. 20th, 1806. " After a 
short and unimportant conversation, the villain had the 
audacity to tell me, that it was necessary for the tranquillity 
of all Crowned Heads to put to death the Ruler of France, 
and that for this purpose a house had been hired at Passy, 
from which this detestable project could be carried into 
effect with certainty and without risk.'' Mr. Fox proceeds 
to say, at first he did him the honour to suppose him to 
be a spy, and intended to send him immediately out of the 
country ; but on reflection he determined to detain him for 
a short time and then have him conveyed to Hamburgh, 
that ample time might be given to the French Govern- 
ment to defeat the conspiracy if it really existed. He 
calls himself Guillet de la Grevilliere, but I think it a false 
name. Talleyrand replied on the 5th of March, " I have 
laid your Excellency's letter before his Majesty. His 
first words, after having read it, were, ' I recognize here 
the principles of honour and virtue, by which Mr. Fox 
has ever been actuated. Thank him on my part.' " 
Talleyrand adds, *' It may be agreeable to you to receive 
news from this country. I send you the Emperor's 
speech to the Legislative Body. ^ You will see that our 
wishes are still for peace." 

Mr. Fox considered the communication of the Emperor's 
speech, enclosed in Talleyrand's letter, an overture of 
peace^ and resolved not to sacrifice this paramount object 



278 oillbat's cabicatures. 

of his policy to unnecessary etiquette and pedantic punc- 
tilios. He hoped the spirit of conciliation evinced might 
be esteemed a step in advance towards peace. He there- 
fore at once replied^ that England was most desirous of 
peace ; but then it must be a peace honourable to both 
nations and their allies^ any other would only be a hollow 
truce. In a private letter to Talleyrand he requested^ as a 
personal favour to himself^ the release of Lord Yarmouth^ 
who was one of tho English travellers detained prisoners 
in France since the commencement of the war. Lord 
Yarmouth was a private friend of the Prince of Wales ; 
but from the application^ Buonaparte naturally supposed 
he was a private friend of Fox^ who enjoyed his con- 
fidence. His release was immediately granted. In an 
interview with Lord Yarmouth, Talleyrand intimated to 
him that he might advantageously act as the agent of secret 
and confidential communications between the two Govern- 
ments. He hinted that Hanover should be restored to the 
King of England^ and that France would forbear the pre- 
tensions to Sicily, which she had lately put forward. Lord 
Yarmouth repaired to London, and communicated the con* 
versation to Mr. Fox. Lord Yarmouth shortly returned 
to Paris^ instructed by Fox to open the negotiation on 
these grounds^ and directed him to propose that England 
should negotiate in conjunction with Russia. Talleyrand 
objected to the interposition of Russia between two great 
Powers, capable of adjusting their own difierencea, but 
added as the negotiators of the three Powers would reside 
at Paris, the object of Mr. Fox might be attained by pri- 
vate communications with each other. The Emperor 
Alexander specifically directed his ambassador D'Oubril 
not to sign any treaty expept with a complete understand* 
iiig with England. The conferences proceeded &vourably 
for some time, but the persuasive arts of the French 
Minister held out advantages to Russia, and persuaded 
her weak minister to sign a sopurutc treaty of peace with 



POLITICAL SERIES. 279 

FrancOj in direct contravention of the Emperor Alexander's 
instructions. The demands of the French Government 
immediately rose ; Talleyrand declared that he could 
no' longer negotiate with Lord Yarmouth^ unless he 
obtained full powers from his Government. These were 
immediately forwarded by Mr. Fox, accompanied by the 
most distinct and peremptory instructions not to produce 
them, unless the French Minister would recur to the ori- 
ginal overtures, and recognize the restoration of Hanover, 
and the abandonment of the French pretensions to Sicily 
as a preliminary and sine qua non of his production of the 
full powers accredited to him. Unfortunately, influenced 
by the private assurances of the Russian Minister, that the 
perseverance in his refusal to produce his full powers 
would lead to the immediate rupture of the negotiation. 
Lord Yarmouth yielded, and produced them to the French 
Minister. Thus Talleyrand succeeded in persuading both 
the Bussian and English Ambassadors to violate their 
most clear, plain and peremptory instructions. The 
French General Clarke was appointed to negotiate with 
Lord Yarmouth. 

The French Minister now assumed a much higher tone, 
and urged that the restoration of Hauover for the honour 
of the British Crown, Malta for the glory of the Navy, 
and the Cape of Good Hope for the advantage of British 
Commerce, ought to be sufficient inducements to England 
to conclude a peace. Lord Yarmouth's dispatch, an- 
nouncing the production of his full powers, astounded the 
British Cabinet. '* The necessity of some other negotiator 
was immediately felt, and the important charge was 
entrusted to Lord Lauderdale, a nobleman whose discern- 
ment and talents eminently qualified him for the task, and 
whose uniform disposition to a pacific system of policy 
was a strong earnest of the sincerity of the British Cabinet 
in their endeavouns to obtain peace. The health of Mr, 
Fox began at this period to decline, and the nomination of 



280 gillray's caricatures. 

his 'personal friend^ and tried political adherent, was a 
pledge that the Cabinet continued to promote his views, 
and to consult the spirit of his policy/'* Lord Lauder- 
dale arrived at Paris on the 5th of August, and had an 
interview with General Clarke. As the English Gbvem- 
ment had given a coadjutor to Lord Yarmouth, the French 
Government appointed Champagny, the Minister of the 
Literior, to co-operate with General Clarke, 

The illness of Mr. Fox was most calamitous, and his 
death seems to have terminated all hopes of peace. Lord 
Grenville was then nut only nominally, but decidedly 
Prime Minister. Buonaparte might recollect the haughty 
dispatches which Lord Grenville, when Secretary of State, 
had addressed to the Directory and to his own Govern- 
ment. Lord Lauderdale is allowed to have conducted the 
negotiation with great ability, but he could never regain 
the lost ground. The spirit of conciliation had departed 
from the French Councils, their increasing demands neces- 
sarily led to the termination of the negotiations. Whether 
peace might have been attained if Mr. Fox had lived it is 
of course impossible to say, but all hope of it seems to 
have terminated with his life. We feel confident impar- 
tial history will not attribute the &ilure to the English 
Government. 

324. 
NEWS FROM CALABRIA! CAPTURE OP 
BUENOS ATRES ! Sept. 13<A, 1806. 

JOSEPHINE. NAPOLEON. TALLEYRAND. 

On the dismay of Napoleon on his defeat at Maida, the 
capture of Buenos Ayres by the English, and the 
symptoms of a general rising against him among the 
continental states. 

* We have qnoted this passage from the Annual Register for 1806. We 
haTe reason to know that the history of this negotiation was revised, or 
rather written for it by Lord Grenville. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 281 



325. 

TRIUMPHAL PROCESSION OP LITTLE PAULL 
THE TAILOR UPON HIS NEW GOOSE. 

Nov. 6th, 1806. 

BOSYILLB. HOBNE TOOKE. PAULL. SIB F. BUBDETT. 

COBBETT. 

The scene is Covent Garden during the Westminster 
Election of November, 1806. 

Bosville is distributing money among the mob to cry 
out *' Paull for ever !'' " There's a penny a-piece for you, 
lads ! and now hollo out ' Paull for ever,' and then 1*11 give 
each of you a ride in my coach and four ! Hollo, Boys ! I" 
Home Tooke is '* An old Monk from Brentford, leading 
poor Goose in a string/' Burdett is the Goose, and Paull 
is mounted upon the Goose's back ; in his right hand is 
an open pair of shears, exhibiting '* True Perth Cucum- 
bers /' in his left hand is a measure ; under him is ** India 
Cabbage :" '* Patterns for the new Parliament Dress :" 
'' Superfine Cloth :" and an inscription, " Goose upon 
Goose." '* The Triumphal Procession of Little Paull the 
Taylor upon his New Goose" advances slowly. " Porcu- 
pine (Cobbett) is dirtying his boots in attempting to give 
poor Gx)ose a shove out of the kennel." Cobbett is a 
newsman, lustily blowing a horn and roaring out, '' Glo- 
rious news ! Paull for ever ! Damnation to the Whigs !" 
In his left hand is " Cobbett's Political Register." A card 
with " Independence and Public Justice" is stuck in his 
hat. In his pocket are '' Speeches for Paull, Goose," &c. 
" Ballad-singers at bs per day" close the procession. The 
card of '' Independence and Public Justice" in Cobbett's 
hat alludes to the investigation he had proposed into the 
conduct of the Marquis of Wellesley in India, and the 
Articles of Impeachment he had exhibited against him. 



282 qillbat's caricatures. 

326. 
THE HIGH FLYING CANDIDATE {i.e. LITTLE 
PAULL GOOSE) MOUNTING FROM A BLAN- 
KET. Nov. nth, 1806. 

SIR SAHXTEL HOOD. PAULL. MONUKENT OF FOX IN COYSKT 
GARDEN CHURCH YARD. SHERIDAN. 

The scene is the front of the hustings before Covent 
Garden Church, at the conclusion of the Westminster 
Election, November, 1806. Sir Samuel Hood and She- 
ridan, the successful candidates, are tossing Paull in the 
Coalition Blanket into the air, his shears and his hat are 
flying up with him. His '* Cucumbers*' and his " cabbage'* 
are about to follow. Behind Sir Samuel Hood are banners 
inscribed '' Navy and Volunteers,'' *' Hood and Sheridan 
for ever." In Sheridan's pocket is seen " The Devil 
among the Taylors." Behind Sheridan is a man holding 
a banner, inscribed " Sheridan and Hood, Volunteers and 
the Navy," and vociferating '* Sherry and Hood for Ever." 
Another calls out *' No Stitchlouse." A monument is 
seen, inscribed, '' Sacred to the memory of poor Charley, 
late Member for the City of Westminster. We ne'er 
shall see his like again." Fox's head is placed upon the 
monument; from his mouth issues the exclamation, ''O 
Tempera, O Mores." 

327. 
POSTING TO THE ELECTION. A SCENE ON 
THE ROAD TO BRENTFORD. Nov. 1806. 

Bee. Ut, 1806. 

LORD ORENVILLS. SHERIDAN. SIR SAMUEL HOOD. HELLISH. 
MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. LORD TEMPLE. LORD CASTLB- 
REACH. PAULL. BTNG. HEAD OF FOX. NAPOLEON. BIB 
F. BURDETT. HORNE TOOKE. BOSVILLE. COBBETT. 

The Candidates for Middlesex in November 1806, were 
Byng, Sir Francis Burdett, and Mellish. They and their 



POLITICAL SERIES. 283 

friends are posting to the hustings. Sheridan and Sir 
Samuel Hood are riding on one horse (intimating their 
coalition at the late Westminster election). Sheridan is 
"waving his hat and hurrahing ; — '' Hood for ever/' still 
remains in his hat. In his pocket is '' Neck or Nothing, 
a new Coalition.'' On the horse's side is hanging, ^' Sub- 
scription of Malt and Hops from the Whitbread brewery." 
Sir Samuel Hood is waving his hat ; the card, " Sheri- 
dan for ever," is still in it. Their horse, kicking up 
behind, overthrows PauU, who is riding upon an ass ; 
his shears and '^ Impeachment" drop from his hands. 
Mellish is proceeding in a coach drawn by four horses ; 
Lord Grenville, mounted on the box, is driving; the 
Marquis of Buckingham, Lord Temple, and Lord Castle- 
reagh are standing up behind. '' The State of the Poll," 
and ''Independence," are upon the upper panels, and 
on the lower are " Rule Britannia, and the Bank of 
England for ever," and '' Integrity and Independence ;" — 
affixed to the carriage is a banner inscribed " Loyalty and 
Independence for ever." Byng is in another carriage, a 
bust of Fox upon a pole is in front of the carriage, with 
an inscription under it, '' The Good old Whig Block ;" 
on an upper panel is " The good old Whig Interest for 
ever." ''Old Wigs for ever" is on the coach door. 
Burdett is riding in front of a cart, he is waving his hat, 
and calling out " Liberty for ever." " The Life of Oliver 
Cromwell" is seen in his pocket. Home Tooke and Bos- 
yille are riding in the cart. Home Tooke holds up a 
banner, inscribed " Liberty and Equality, no Placemen in 
Parliament, no Property Tax, no Bastilles, Liberty for 
ever !" Paine's " flights of Man" are seen in Bosville's 
pocket. On the side of the cart is inscribed " No Taxed 
Carts, Burdett for ever." Buonaparte is the postillion ; 
insinuating that Burdett was friendly to the revolutionary 
principles of France, and wished to introduce them here. 
Cobbett is employed by Burdett as a drummer, his 
drumsticks are his " Political Begister," and inflammatory 



284 oillray's caricatures. 

letters. A great crowd follows — " Orator Broad Face, 
Swallow Street/' holding up a pot of porter, is conspi- 
cuous. 

328. 

THE FUNERAL PROCESSION OF BROAD- 
BOTTOM. April 6th, 1807. 

LORD LAUDRRDALE. LORD MOIRA. LORD ELLENBOROUGH. 

SHERIDAN. THE BODT OF LORD ORENYILLE IN A HEARSE. 

LORD HOWIOE. MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. THE POPE. 

LORD NUGENT. LORD 8IDM0UTH. LORD ST. VINCENT. 

WINDHAM. LORD H. PETTY. 

On the dismissal of the Grenville ministry, in March, 
1807, in consequence of their proposing to the King the 
admission of the Catholics to all rauks in the army and 
navy, the body of Lord Grenville is placed in a hearse. 
'' Gul. Baro. de Broad-Bottom obiit die Martis 24®. A.D. 
1807." The mourners following the corpse are Lord 
' Moira, Lord Ellenborough, Sheridan, Lord Temple 
*' shedding tears from Hedge Land.'' The Marquis of 
Buckingham, habited as a Catholic priest, a crucifix is 
hanging from his ribbon, and his train is held up by 
Lord Howick. Lord Sidmouth, Lord St. Vincent, and 
Windham, are the pall-bearers. The Tories had raised 
the cry of " No Popery,'' and the Pope is introduced in 
the procession prepared to oflSciate at the interment. 
Lord Henry Petty dressed as a Catholic priest, is 
preceding the hearse, his left hand bears a lighted torch, 
his bell has dropped from his right hand. The hearse 
is advancing towards a church, but the hands of a clergy- 
man are extended to refuse sepulture in it. He says, 
'' No burial here for a Broad-Bottom ; he died a Roman ; 
besides, 'tis & felo-de-se* case ; take him to the next four 

* Mr. Sheridan complained strongly of the follj of Ministers in furnishing 
the King with sach a popular pretext for their dismu«al. " He had often/' 
he said, " heard of people knocking out their brains against a wall, but nerer 
before knew of any one building a wall expressly for the purpoae.*' 



POLITICAL SERIES. 285 

cross-roads; and the family has a large stake always 
ready/'* 

329. 

VIEW OP THE HUSTINGS IN COVENT GAR- 
DEN. Vide THE WESTMINSTER ELECTION. 
November, 1806. December 13th, 1806. 

BIB SAMUEL HOOD. WHITBBEAD. SHERIDAN. PETER MOORS. 
DUKE OF NORTHUMBERLAND. PAULL. COBBETT. SIB F. 
BUBDETT. BOSVILLE. 

This is one of Gillray's happiest conceptions. On the 
extreme right of the print stand Col. Bosville, Sir Francis 
Bardett, Cobbettand a host of his ultra-liberal supporters, 
with cards in their hats bearing Paull's name. Paull is ad- 
dressing the mob, and pointing to Sheridan, designates 
him " The sunk, the lost, the degraded Treasurer.'' A 
ferocious dog, whose collar is inscribed '^ Peter Moore,'* is 
endeavouring to bite Paull. The Duke of Northumber- 
land is looking askance at Paull, and has a card, inscribed 
'* Notability," in his hat. Sheridan is in the centre, sur- 
rounded by a phalanx of distinguished Whigs, bearing his 
cards in their hats. Whitbread is consoling Sheridan with 
" a Pot of Whitbread's new Loyal Porter." He has 
'' Hood and Sheridan" in his hat, to intimate that these 
two candidates had united their interests. Sir Samuel 
Hood, drest in his naval uniform, stands on the right of 
Sheridan ; it is seen that he has lost his left arm in the 
service of his country. 

A tumultuous mob is assembled in the front of the 
hustings. Some in front of Paull are roaring out " Paull 
and Plumpers :" ^' Paull and Independence." One carries 
a cabbage on the top of a pole, and cries out '' No Cab- 
baging Candidate." Others, '^No Stitching Representa- 

* For an explanation of this expression, see page 207. 



286 qillriy's caricatures. 

tive/' Shears are upheld, and '' No Paull Gtoose'* vocife- 
rated. But the grand attack is on Sheridan. '' No Har- 
lequin Turncoat :" ^' No Stage Tricks :'^ '' No Vagabond 
Representative:^' ''Pay your debts, Mr. Treasurer:*' 
''Where's my Renter's Share?" &o. A few cry out, 
" Sherry and liberty." Some of the mob assembled before 
Sir Samuel Hood cry out " Hood for ever :" others, *' No 
two Faces under one Hood :" " No Picton," &c. 

Never had Sheridan, during the course of his political life, 
experienced so bitter a mortification, so severe a humilia- 
tion, as at the Westminster Election in November, 1806, 
On the death of Fox he had flattered himself that his own 
popularity would point him out as the natural successor of 
his illustrious friend. He reckoned on the popular favour, 
he had reason to expect the Government support, and he 
was sure of the Prince of Wales's interest. He received 
an unexpected disappointment. The Duke of Northum- 
berland put forward his eldest son. Lord Percy. Lord 
Grenville did not feel himself sufficiently strong to offend 
the irritable Duke, who commanded eight or nine votes in 
the House of Commons. Sheridan declined the contest, 
and retreated with tolerable grace ; he could not be ex- 
pected to oppose the long purse of the Duke of Northum- 
berland, and the influence of Government united. 

But at the general election in November, 1806, Lord 
Percy stood for the county of Northumberland ; West- 
minster was then open to Sheridan. Paull, who had lately 
displayed considerable talent in the House of Commons 
announced himself as a candidate, and he was most ener- 
getically supported by all the XJltra-Liberal politicians. 
To render this print intelligible, it may be necessary to 
state that Paull was the son of a respectable tailor, who had 
procured for him an appointment in India. Paull liad 
made himself master of the modem political history of 
India, and having realized a moderate fortune, returned 
home and obtained a seat in the House of Commons. He 



POLITICAL SERIES. 287 

then brought a series of charges against the Marquis of 
Welleslej^ preparatory to moving an impeachment of him. 
In sustaining these he received some able support, and 
among others from Windham. 

Among the most prominent supporters of Paull at this 
election for Westminster were OoL Bosville, Sir Francis 
Burdett and Cobbett. It is unnecessary to speak of the 
two latter ; but Col. Bosville is not so generally known to 
readers of the present day. Wm. Bosville, Esq. of Gun- 
thwaite in Yorkshire, was a gentleman of large property. 
He was a very eccentric character. He was uncle to Sir 
John Sinclair, whose son, in the Life of his &ther, has 
thus described him. '' My grand-uncle's exterior con- 
sisted of a single-breasted coat, powdered hair and queue, 
and other paraphernalia of a courtier in the reign of 
George II. ; but within this courtly garb was enclosed one 
of the most ultra-liberal spirits of the time. He assembled 
every day at his house in Welbeck Street a party of con- 
genial souls, never exceeding the number of twelve ; not 
receiving the important summons to dinner a single mo- 
ment after five o^clock. A slate was kept in the hall, on 
which any intimate friend might inscribe his name. 
Among the persons thus privileged, I may mention, besides 
&mily connections. Sir Francis Burdett, Home Tooke, 
' Parson Este,' Major James, Baron Dimsdale, Lord Ox- 
ford 'and Mr. Clifford, the barrister of 0. P. celebrity. 
Among Mr. Bosville's Liberal friends was the noted author 
of the Political Register. While Cobbett was in Newgate, 
my grand-uncle went in state, with four horses to his car- 
riage, to visit the prisoner,* and afterwards presented him 
with a thousand pounds in token of sympathy, as he 
termed it, with the persecuted sufferer.'* — See Rev. John 
Sinclair's Life of Sir John Sinclair, vol. 1.) 

* Baron Maseres, who was a Cnrsitor Baron of the Exchequer, alwaja 
^ited Ck>bbett daring his imprisonment, in full dress, with his Judge's gown 
and wig, lest he should be supposed to pay his visit secretly. 

19 



288 oillrat's caricatubbs. 

No sooner did Sheridan appear on tlie hustings than he 
was assailed by the most hideous yells and vollies of abuse; 
these he could have endured^ and was no doubt prepared 
to encounter. He had hoped by his playful wit, his sar- 
casms and his jokes, to keep the mob in good humour ; 
but there was one man in the crowd who fairly beat him, 
and compelled him to retire. It was in vain that Sheridan 
called him '' the broad-faced orator in the green coat/' 
assailed him with the keenest wit, held him up to ridicule, 
or denounced him as a hireling ruffian ; he was impene- 
trable, and seemed rather invigorated by the attack and to 
enjoy the fun. A comedy had lately appeared at Covent 
Garden, in which a dandy rov£ was repeatedly quizzed by 
a companion pointing to his clothes, and the ornaments on 
his person, and asking the annoying question, ''Who 
suffers ?" The man alluded to constantly played off this 
artillery upon Sheridan. " Sheridan, I see you have got 
a new coat ; who suffers ? Sheridan, who suffers for that 
new hat V^ and in this strain he kept up an incessant 
brawling. Sheridan, conscious of his pecuniary irregu- 
larities, could not endure this public exposure before the 
eminent Whigs by whom he was surrounded. He was 
completely cowed, his proud spirit gave way, and it was 
announced that he was taken ill, and his son, Tom Sheri- 
dan, attended and spoke for him. He gained the election, 
but the speeches at the hustings, and the pen of Gobbett, 
had inflicted a wound, which rankled in his breast. He 
felt 

" Padet hac opprobria nobis, 
Et did potniase, et noo potniue refelli/' 

330. 
A PLUMPER FOR PAULL ! OR, THE LITTLE 
TAILOR DONE OVER. Ifay IZth, 1807. 

CUFFOBD. FACLL. SHERIDAN. SIB FSAMCIS BUBDITT. 
BOBVILLS. HOBMX TOOKB. COBBETT. 

The Speaker has blown off the table Paull's " Petitioo 



POLITICAL SERIES. 289 

against Sheridan for Bribery and Corruption at the West- 
minster Election, and in its fall it overthrows Paull, who 
is lying on the floor ; his measnre, his shears^ and his 
'' Impeachment of the Marquis of Wellesley,'' have dropped 
from his hands. Clifford's brief, "Paull versus Sheridan," 
the list of witnesses, ^' Conkey Beau, Bill Soames, Drake, 
and Hart the Informer,'^ lie scattered around. Burdett is 
depicts as '' The Green Goose from Brentford.'* Bosville 
is holding up his hands in despair, the " Expenses of the 
Election'' are seen in his pocket ; he is going out of the 
House accompanied by Home Tooke. Cobbett holds up 
his *' Political Register," and points to the '' Attack upon 
Sheridan." 



831. 

PATRIOTS DECIDING A POINT OP HONOUR! 
OR, AN EXACT REPRESENTATION OP THE 
CELEBRATED RENCONTRE WHICH TOOK 
PLACE AT COMBE WOOD, ON MAY 2nd, 1807, 
BETWEEN LITTLE PAULL THE TAILOR, 
AND SIR FRANCIS GOOSE. May Uh, 1807. 

BELLENDEN KERB. SIB F. BURDETT. PAULL. COOPER. 

Upon the duel between Burdett and Paull, arising out 
of the affairs of the disputed Westminster election. Sir 
Francis Burdett, depicted as a goose, exclaims *' What, 
must I be out ! and a tailor get into Parliament ! !'* 
" You're a liar ! I never said that I would sit as Chair- 
man at your shopboard ! ! V^ Paull replies, " A liar ! Sir, 
Fm a tailor and a gentleman, and I must have satisfac- 
tion V* Burdett's second, Mr. Bellenden Kerr, is stand- 
ing behind him with a brace of pistols under his right arm ; 
Cooper, PaulFs second, looking very like Jemmy Jumps, 
is standing behind Paull with a brace of pistols under his 
left arm. A post-chaise and four is at a little distance. 

19 * 



290 gillrat's caricatures. 

The postillion has got up into a tree to witness the duel. 
Paulas wounded leg is raised up^ his shears and his mea- 
sure are between his legs. On the ground in the front of 
Paull lie " Sir Francis Goose's Letter to the Electors at the 
Crown and Anchor/' and " Mr. Paull's Advertisement/' 
By his side lie scattered '^ Cobbett's Character of Paull the 
Tailor;" "Dangers of indulging Political Envy, by Sir 
Francis Goose /' and a basket containing papers labelled 
" Westminster Election, Paull." 

When the King had dismissed the Grenville Ministry, 
and formed another Administration imder the Duke of 
Portland, Perceval was induced to relinquish his profession, 
and accept the Chancellorship of the Exchequer, upon 
being appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster for 
life. Besolutions were immediately moved and carried in 
the House of Commons, declaring this appointment an 
illegal encroachment on the rights of his Majesty's suc- 
cessor. The appointment was accordingly annulled, and a 
new one made out, restricting the appointment to the 
King's life. The new Ministers, however, perceived that 
their opponents would be too powerful in the House of 
Commons, and resolved on a dissolution. They trusted 
that " The Name of the King," and the cry of '' No 
Popery" would be "Towers of Strength" to them in the 
new elections, and they did not miscalculate. The can- 
didates for Westminster were Sir Samuel Hood, Sheridan 
and Paull. The latter was not dispirited by his recent 
defeat ; he flattered himself he should be able to beat 
Sheridan now, no longer supported by the Government 
interest. 

Mr. Paull advertised a dinner to take place at the Crown 
and Anchor tavern on the 1st of May, — Sir Francis 
Burdett in the chair. A large meeting assembled, but the 
Hon. Baronet did not attend ; it was stated by Mr. Jones 
Burdett that his brother. Sir Francis, had not given any 
promise to preside, and was surprised to find his name 



POLITICAL SERIES. 291 

advertised without his sanction. Mr. Paull explained to 
the meeting that he might have misunderstood Sir Francises 
meanings who, though willing to propose him for West- 
minster at the hustings, it seems had not understood that 
he was to take the chair at this meeting. 

Sir Francis Burdett, had addressed a letter to Mr. Paull 
on the 29th of April, stating that the advertisement had 
excited his surprise and displeasure. ^' I must say, to have 
mj name advertised for such meetings is like ' Such a 
day is to be seen the great Katterfelto,' and this without 
my previous consent, or application to me. From any one 
else I should regard it as an insult. I yielded to your 
desire that I should nominate you, although I should much 
rather avoid even that ; but as I highly approve your con- 
duct, I do not object to that one act, as a public testimony 
of such approbation, but to that single point I must con- 
fine myself.^' After the receipt of this letter it was cer- 
tainly disingenuous in PauU not to substitute the name of 
another person as chairman; and the intervention of two 
days allowed sufficient time for the purpose. When the 
dinner-party broke up, Mr. Paull waited on Sir Francis 
Burdett ; a warm altercation ensued, and a hostile meet- 
ing was arranged for 10 o*clock the next morning at 
Coombe Wood, near Wimbledon Common. Sir Francis 
Burdett was attended by Mr. Bellenden Kerr* as his 
second, and Mr. Paull by a Mr. Cooper. Mr. Bellenden 
Kerr advanced to Mr. Cooper, and told him that he had 
applied to his friends at the Horse Guards, and to Mr. 
Manton, but had not been able to procure proper pistols 
on the sudden emergency, and he was fearful of exciting 
suspicion by extending his inquiry. He therefore *' ex- 

* Mr. Bellenden Kerr was one of the clainiants of the Roxbnrghe Peerage. 
He had changed his name, which had originallj been Gawler. He was the 
Captain Gawler of the Horse Guards, who had been dismissed from the army 
in 1792, at the same time as Lord Edward Fitzgerald, for drinking seditions 
toasts at a public meeting of the English at Paris, to celebrate the French 
Berolntion. 



292 gillray's caricatubxs. 

pected that he would consent as well as Mr. Panll, that we 
should use one of theirs ; to this they both agreed. Mr. 
Cooper told me that he did not know how to load the 
pistols ; I shewed him how^ and directed him to load Bur- 
dett's, while I loaded Mr. Paull's. I then asked him what 
distance he proposed for them to stand at; he said he 
knew nothing about the matter^ and left it to me. I mea- 
sured out twelve paces^ and placed the principals at the 
extreme of the space ; I then directed him to give Sir 
Francis a pistol^ and I presented another to Mr. PauU." 
A case of pistols was discharged without effect. Mr. Bel- 
lenden Kerr then advanced^ and asked Mr. Paull if he was 
satisfied ; he replied, " No, not without an apology.'' The 
pistols were loaded a second time, and Mr. Cooper was to 
give the command to fire, but he retreated to such a dis- 
tance that Sir Francis called out he could not see him. 
Mr. Bellenden Kerr then gave the command to fire ; Bur- 
dett was wounded in the thigh, and Mr. Paull in the top 
of the leg. The wounded parties returned to town toge- 
ther in Mr. PauU's postchaise. Mr. Kerr proposed to 
Mr. Cooper to draw up conjointly and sign an official 
statement of the duel. Mr. Cooper refused. Mr. Kerr 
requested his address, this he also refused; he then 
asked what was his situation in life ? this was also refused ; 
and Mr. Kerr in his published statement says, " I do not 
know who or what he is to this day.'' 



332. 

JOHN BULL AND THE SINKING FUND:— A 

PETTY SCHEME FOR REDUCING THE 
TAXES, AND PAYING OFF THE NATIONAL 
DEBT ! February 29th, 1807. 

LORD ERSKINE. DUKE OF NORFOLK. BTNQ. LORD LAUDEBDALI. 
LORD MOIRA. SHERIDAN. WINDHAM. DUKE OF CLARSNCX. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 293 

MARQUIS OF BUCKINOHAM. LORD GRENVILLE. LORD TEMPLE. 
LORD SIDMOUTH. LORD ELLENBOROUGH. LORD H. PETTY. 
LORD LIYBRPOOL. LORD CASTLEREAQH. CANNING. 

Jolin Boll is kneeling on the '^ Bock of Broad-Bottom'd 
Security /' on his back is placed '' The Sinking Fund ; i.e. 
Taxations of 42 Millions per Annum/^ and the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer (Lord H. Petty) is standing upon it, 
shovelling down guineas to his clamorous adherents. Lord 
Grenville, the Marquis of Buckingham and Lord Temple 
are endeavouring to catch some. The Duke of Norfolk 
holds up a punch-bowl inscribed '* The Majesty of the 
People.'' Lord Erskine holds up ''The Chancellor's 
Purse.'' Lord Moira raises his military hat, with the 
Prince's feathers stuck into it — the Duke of Clarence, the 
*' Royal Jordan." Sheridan, in a harlequin's dress, holds 
up his cap with his right hand, and his wand is behind him 
in his left, &c. &c. John Bull exclaims, '' Toss away ! 
Toss away, my good Boy I Toss away f Oh, how kind it 
is to ease me of this terrible load I" Lord Henry Petty 
answers, '' Patience, Johnny ! arn't I tossing away as fast 
as I can ? Arn't I reducing your taxes to 1 Is and &d in the 
pound ? Why, you ought to think yourself quite com- 
fortable and easy, Johnny !" On the other side is seen a 
broken column overhung by a cypress tree ; on the pedes- 
tal is inscribed, '' Sacred to the Memory of Departed Great- 
ness," (Pitt). The ex-Ministers and their friends are 
lamenting their unhappy fate, that none of the golden 
shower descends upon them. Lord Castlereagh says, 
"A few scatterings this way would be very acceptable 
indeed I" Canning says, " the Petty cheat I that Sink- 
ing Fund was our invention, and not to have a snack of 
it at last, oh ! oh !" Vansittart holds in his hands '^ Fi- 
nance Resolutions," and exclaims, "My Sinking Fund 
would have cleared it ofE in half the time." Lord Liver- 
pool is despairingly holding up his hat. 



294 OILLRAY^S CABICATUSE8. 

This print is intended as a satire upon the prodigality 
with which the Broad-Bottom Ministers were accused of 
rewarding their friends. 



88S. 

ELECTION CANDIDATES; OB, THE REPUBLI- 
CAN GOOSE AT THE TOP OF THE POLL. 

May 20th, 1807. 

WINDHAM. LORD TEMPLE. LORD HOWICK. LORD GBENYILLI. 
SIB r. BUBDETT. LOBD COCHBANE. ELLIOT. SHEBIDAN. 
PAULL. HOBNE TOOEE. 

The candidates for Westminster in May, 1807, were Sir 
Francis Burdett, Lord Cochrane, Sheridan, Paull, and 
Elliott the brewer of Pimlico. A pole is erected in the 
centre of the hustings. The republican Goose (Burdett) 
is pitchforked to the top of the pole (poll) by his friend 
the Devil (represented by Home Tooke). The Goose is 
hissing at " The Sun of the Constitution;'' ''Conceit*' and 
''Vanity" are on his wings. On the Devil's (Home 
Tooke's) wings are inscribed "Deceit" and "Sedition;" 
he has a clerical band under his chin. Lord Cochrane 
holds the pole with one hand^ and with the other flourishes 
the cudgel of "Reform." In his pocket are "Charges 
against Lord St. Vincent ;" he has kicked down Elliot the 
brewer^ who stood on the Tory interest^ but soon disco- 
vered he had not the slightest chance of success. 
"Quassia" is inscribed on his body; a beer-barrel, in- 
scribed " Elliott's," is falling with him and hides his head. 
Sheridan, in a harlequin's jacket, is vainly endeavouring to 
climb up the pole, intimating he has lost the election. 
Paull is falling from the pole, his leg wounded in the late 
duel is conspicuous ; his hat, his shears Bud a cabbage are 
falling with him. Men bearing banners of " Burdett and 
Independence," &c. are parading in front of the hustings. 



POLITICAL 8EBIES. 295 

334. 
THE FALL OF ICARUS. Apnl 21th, 1807, 

MARQUIS OF BUCKINQHAM. LOBD TEMPLE. 

Earl Temple was Joint-Paymaster of the Forces during 
the Fox and Grrenville Ministry^ and occupied the official 
residence at Whitehall. He had the arrogance to place a 
brass plate^ engraved '' Earl Temple/^ on the door^ as if 
it were his own private house,— a circumstance unpre- 
cedented. On the dissolution of the Ministry it was 
nniversaUy reported that, on quitting office he had carried 
away a very large quantity of stationery ; this drew down 
upon him severe animadversions in the public newspapers, 
and it was even said, at one time, it would be noticed in 
the House of Commons. 

This print represents the official house of the Pay- 
master of the. Forces at Whitehall. A cart, with 
''Stationery Office" painted upon it is standing before 
the door; Lord Temple's black servant is handing quills, 
wax, and writing paper to the carter. Lord Temple, 
depicted as Icarus, has already made himself wings, and 
cemented them with the official wax; he has mounted 
into the air; but the sun, represented by the head of 
Greorge III. shines so intensely upon the modem Icarus, 
that his wings melt, and he is falling upon the '' stake'' 
taken "out of the public hedge."* The Marquis of 
Buckingham, as Daedalus, has already taken flight up- 
wards : '' Tellership of the Exchequer" is marked on his 
wings ; he is endeavouring to shelter himself in a cloud, 
to avoid the burning influence of the sun. Under the 
print is a poetical inscription; the last stanza runs thus : — 

" With plames and wax, and such like things. 
In qa entities not small, 
He tries to make a pair of wings 
To eaM his sndden fall I" 

* See page 210. 



296 oillbat'b caricatures. 

335. 

A KICK AT THE BROAD-BOTTOMS, L e., EMAN- 
CIPATION OF ''ALL THE TALENTS." 

March 2Srd, 1807. 

OEORQE III. LORD aRENVILLB. MARQUIS OF BUCONaHAM. 
LORD HOWICK. LORD H. PETTY. LORD ELLENBOROUGH. 
WINDHAM. LORD MOIRA. LORD TEMPLE. LORD SIDMOUTH. 
SHERIDAN. LORD ERSEINE. WHITBREAD. LORD LAUDERDALE. 

The enraged King exclaims^ " What ! what f bring in 
the Papists ! you cunning Jesuits, you I What, you 
thought I was like little Boney, and would turn Turk or 
anything! but if you have no faith or conscience, I hare I 
ay, and a little Protestant spunk too I so, out with you 
all I out, with all your Broad-BottomM Popish plots! 
Out with you ! — out ! out I out \" The King, holding hia 
sceptre in his right hand, is aiming a - blow at Lord 
Grenville ; he has seized his hair with his left, his foot is 
placed on that part of Lord Grenville, which is usually 
denominated the seat of honour. In Lord Grenville's 
left hand is the '' Catholic Bill, for bringing the Papists 
into power, and supporting the Broad-Bottom Jesuits in 
their places.'' Lord Howick holds in his left hand the 
''Bill for securing the Papists in commanding of the Army 
and the Navy, and all the Public Offices.'' The position 
of his right hand shews that he has already received a 
kick similar to that given to his colleague. The position 
of Lord Temple's hand behind him testifies a similar 
castigation. Lord Ellenborough's hand indicates a sore- 
ness in the same part. The Marquis of Buckingham and 
Windham are astonished. Lord Moira and Lord Lander- 
dale stand aghast. Lord Sidmouth and Sheridan are 
endeavouring to escape out at the door. Lord Henry 
Petty, in his Exchequer robe, and Lord Erskine, in the 
costume of Chancellor, with the purse by his side, are 
lying prostrate on the floor. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 297 

On the 5th of March, Lord Howick moved for leave to 
bring in a Bill for securing to all his Majesty's subjects 
the privilege of serving in the army and navy upon taking 
an oath prescribed by Act of Parliament, and leaving to 
them the exercise of their religion. A strange anomaly 
existed in the law at that time. By an Act of the Parlia- 
ment of Ireland^ passed in 1793, Roman Catholics in that 
country were enabled to hold commissions in the army, 
and attain to any rank, except that of Commander-in- 
Chief, Master-General of the Ordnance, or General on the 
Staff. By the Act of Union the army raised in Ireland 
was liable to serve in England; yet the instant a regiment 
landed in England, its Catholic officers were disqualified 
by law to remain in the service, and would only have the 
alternative of remaining in the service contrary to law, and 
subject to penalties, or to relinquish the military profession. 
The Bill introduced was intended to remove this anomaly. 
It had been submitted to the King, who at first objected 
to it, but on the clause in the Act of Union being pointed 
out to him, he gave a reluctant assent. Perceval opposed 
the introduction of the Bill, he did not deny the advantage 
or even the justice of assimilating the laws of the two 
countries, but contended that the Catholics had not 
experienced any annoyance from the enforcement of the 
penalties, and he doubted whether they could be inflicted 
since the Union ; he therefore regarded this measure as a 
preliminary to ulterior and more extensive concessions. 

A cry of "No Popery^' was immediately raised. On 
the 11th of March Lord Sidmouth tendered his resigna- 
tion in a letter to Lord Grenville. '' My opinion of the 
Bill respecting Roman CathoUcs, and the communicationa 
now going on with Mr. Canning for the purpose of con- 
necting him with the Government, separately afibrd suffi- 
cient ground for this conviction, and when taken together,. 
admit of no alternative.'^* On the same day he made an over' 
* Sec Pellew's Life of Lord Sidmouth, vol. ii. p. 461. 



298 OILLRAT^S CARICATURES. 

ture to Perceval for a communication on the best means of 
defeating the Catholic Bill^ and a meeting between them 
was fixed for the 13th. The King had informed his 
Ministers on the llth^ that he found the Bill went farther 
than he had originally understood^ and that to such a mea- 
sure he never could consent. On the 12th^ the Duke of 
Portland addressed a private letter to the King^ enforcing 
the danger of making the required concession to the Catho- 
lics. The letter is most artfully drawn up ; the Duke was 
stimulated to the step^ and assisted in the composition of 
the letter, by Lord Malmesbury, who was constantly en- 
gaged in political.intrigues. In the course of the letter, 
the Duke says, " But should any peculiarity of circum- 
stances have induced your Majesty to acquiesce in it, I 
should still think that by following the dictates of my own 
conscience, and voting against it, I should not offend your 
Majesty.^' Should the King feel a repugnance to the mea- 
sure, the Duke says, '^ I must fairly state to your Majesty, 
that your wishes must be distinctly known,* and that your 
present Ministers should not have any pretext for equivo- 
cating on the subject, or any ground whatever to pretend 
ignorance of your Majesty ^s sentiments and determination, 
not only to withhold your sanction from the present mea- 
sure, but to use all your influence in resisting it.'^ Shoold 
the Ministers persist in attempting to pass the Bill, the 
Duke kindly assures the King ''that persons will be 
found able to carry on your Majesty's business with talents 
and abilities equal to your present Ministers.^'t 

In the interim Lord Howick had withdrawn the Bill, 
and the King had commanded Lord Sidmouth to withdraw 
his resignation ; he did so, and consequently declined the in- 

* In 1784, the Doke of Portland had sererely censored Earl Tanpk^ 
shewing a letter of the King, expressing his ayersion to Fox*s India BiU, 
and the Honse of Commons passed resolutions declaring it to be nnoonsti- 
tutional. Lord Temple was obliged to resign in consequence. 

t See Lord Malmesburj*B Diary. Vol. It.* p. 367. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 299 

terview with Perceval. The Ministerial difficulties seemed 
removed for the present : but they held a Cabinet Council, 
and resolved to present a Memorial to the King, stating 
that they reserved to themselves the right of tendering 
advice to his Majesty on this subject, whenever they 
might think proper. It is remarkable that neither the 
Chancellor Lord Erskine, Lord Sidmouth, nor Lord 
Ellenborough,were summoned to this Council. The King 
considered this declaration a gratuituous annoyance, and 
now required a written pledge that they would not at any 
time address him again on this subject ; this pledge they 
respectfully declined, affirming it was contrary to law. 
They were bound by their oaths to tender advice to his 
Majesty on all subjects they might esteem essential to the 
interests of the Crown and the country. The King next 
day informed Lord Howick that '^ He must look out fob 

KSW MlNISl^RS.'^ 

The Lord Chancellor had an interview with the King 
upon the Recorder's Report ; the conference upon that 
subject being ended, Lord Erskine told the King '^ that 
he was sensible that when he first entered into his Majesty^s 
service, his Majesty had entertained a prejudice against 
him, that he was quite satisfied that this prejudice was 
now removed ; — ^that upon the measure which had been 
the original cause of the present state of things, he 
thought, both religiously and morally, exactly as his 
Majesty himself did, but that it would be unconstitutional 
for his Ministers to sign the required pledge, — it might 
subject them to impeachment — that the Catholics would 
desire nothing more than to have a Ministry, who were 
supported by ' all the talents ' and weight of property in 
the country, go out upon such a measure ; and that if he 
proceeded with his resolution, he would never know 
another hour of comfort or tranquillity.'' The King 
listened with great attention, and seemed greatly agitated ; 
he replied, " My Lord, you are a very honest man, and I 



300 gillray's caricatures. 

am very mach obliged to you." Lord Erskine flattered 
himself lie had made a favourable impression upon the 
King ; but his resolution was already taken. 

The King commanded the attendance of Lord Hawkes- 
bury and Lord Eldon at Windsor. He sent them^ with a 
carte blanche^ to the Duke of Portland^ to form an Ad- 
ministration. Great agitation now prevailed in the poli- 
tical world. The Duke of Portland met with several 
refusals to his offers of office and a seat in the Cabinet. 
An impression prevailed that he could not form a Ministry 
of sufficient strength and ability to resist the influence of 
the ex-Ministers in Parliament. The Marquis of Wellesley, 
after deliberation, declined the Foreign Office. Mr. Yorke 
declined from apprehension of the weakness of the new 
Ministers. Lord Lowther's Parliamentary interest was 
secured. '^ He declined taking office^ but confessed the 
Oarter in due time would gratify him.'' The Doke of 
Portland agreed to this^ and mentioned it to the King^ 
who said he should be the first promoted in the Peerage,* 
and then the Garter might follow with propriety." — ^Lord 
Malmesbury's Diary, Vol. iv. p. 379. 

The Administration was at length formed. A great 
accession of strength was gained in the person of Mr. 
Canning, a consummate debater, who had been on the 
point of joining the late Cabinet. He accepted the 
Foreign Office. "Canning,^' says Lord Malmesburyj 
" spoke as if the choice of Cabinet places was to be at 
his refusal, and declared, with a threat, that he never 
would sit in the same Cabinet with Addington.'' — ^Lord 
Malmesbury's Diary, Vol. iv. p. 867. 

The following extract of a letter from Lord Eldon to Sir 
William Scott furnishes a curious picture of what was 
passing — '* March 81, 1807 — I am most seriously huri 
that Lord Sidmouth is not among us. My earnest wish 
and entreaty has been that he should, and many others 
* He was created Earl of Lonsdale, and had the Garter. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 801 

have wished it ; but it has been urged by some that at 
this moment it cannot be ; that not an individual con- 
nected with Lord Melville could join or support ; if it 
was sOy that a large part of Mr. Pitt's friends would 
secede ; that among Lord Grenville's majority there are 
persons not adverse^ and likely enough to be friendly^ 
who are so desperately angry with Lord S., that with him 
in the Administration^ they would be against it to a man ; 
that Canning declines office if Lord S. was to have office 
now^ but would not object a few months hence ; and all 
the Pittites who talk to me hold themselves bound by 
their view of past transactions not to desert Canning in a 
question between him and Lord S. The language which 
these two have held respecting each other has done infi- 
nite mischief. In short it is a sickening scene that is 
passing. I take the Great Seal to-morrow." — {See Twists 
Life of Lord Eldon, Vol. ii. p. 30.) 

We shall close this article with an account of the re- 
markable contrast made by the King between the conduct 
of Mr. Fox and that of one of his colleagues^ as stated in 
conversation with Lord Eldon: — '' Bach change of Admi- 
nistration since 1801^ had been unpleasing to the King; 
but upon further acquaintance his prejudice against Mr. 
Fox became much abated. Some time after the dissolu- 
tion of the Whig Ministry the King said, " It was but 
just to acknowledge that Mr. Fox, though certainly forced 
upon him, had never presumed upon that circumstance to 
treat his Sovereign like a person in his power, but had 
always conducted himself firankly, yet respectfully, as it 
became a subject to behave. His manner, the King was 
wont to say, contrasted remarkably with that of another 
of the Whig Ministers, who, when he came into office, 
walked up to me in the way I should have expected from 
Buonaparte after the battle of AusterUtz.^' — {Tvrisa^s 
Life of Lord Eldon, Vol. i. p. 510.) 



302 gillrat's caricatures. 

838. 

POLITICAL MATHEMATICIANS SHAKING THE 
BROAD-BOTTOMED HEMISPHEEES. 

Jcmuary 9ih, 1807. 

LORD HAWKSSBURY. LORD 0A8TLSR1A0H. WIHDHAM. TIIRHIT. 
BTNG. GHOST OF FOX. LORD ERSKINS. LORD H. PBTTT. LORD 
TEMPLE. MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. LORD MOIRA. LORD 
GRENVILLE. LORD SIDMOUTH. LORD SLLENBOROUGH. LORD 
LAUDERDALE. LORD HOWICE. SHERIDAN. PAULL. COBBITT. 
NAPOLEON. SIR F. BURDETT. HORNE TOOES. 

Gillray thas dedicates this print ''To that last Hope of 
the Country — the New Opposition, this Representation of 
Charley's Old Breeches in Danger is respectfully dedi- 
cated.^' The Broad-Bottomed Ministers are comfortably 
seated in the Old Breeches of their late popular le^er, 
*' the Man of the People;'' they are revelling on the loayes 
and fishes furnished by the Exchequer and Treasury. A 
dog with "Tiemey^' engraved on his collar is endeavouring 
to climb up into Fox's nether garment. The Prince of 
Wales's feathers indicate the support he gave to the Whig 
Ministers. Rats are gnawing them away. PauU, seated 
on " the Bock of Independence/' is cutting asunder ''the 
Broad-Bottom Measure" with his shears; he is ''the 
Fulcrum of the Constitution" on which a lever is placed 
to remove the Cabinet incubus^ which presses so heavfly 
on the nation. Cobbett^ Burdett and Home Tooke are 
pulling at the end of the lever with all their force. By 
their side are a "New Planetary System," "Scheme for a 
New Patriotic Administration/' " New Scale of Justice," 
" No Taxation," " No Bastille," " Political Repster," Ac. 
On the other side, Lord Hawkesbury, Lord Castlereagh, 
Canning, &c. are pulling with might and main to overthrow 
the Cabinet incubus. Buonaparte, looking from an emi« 
nence, through a telescope, says, "Oh! by Gar I if I oonld 
but once put my foot upon the lever, I'd give their Broad- 



POLITICAL SERIES. 303 

Bottoms a sliake with a vengeance I f ! The head of Fox 
is looking out of his grave, exclaiming, '' O, save my 
breeches, heaven I'^* On his monument we read, '' Hic 
JACET PATER Broad-Bottomos, he lent his raiment to cover 
the needy, and hide his enemies from shame ; he went 
naked to the grave/' Britannia is weeping over a broken 
statue of Pitt ; on the pedestal is inscribed " The Pilot 
that weathered the storm." 

337. 
THE PIGS POSSESSED; OR, THE BROAD- 
BOTTOM'D LITTER RUNNING HEADLONG 
INTO THE SEA OF PERDITION. 

April 18th, 1807. 

OEORQE III. SHERIDAN. LORD SIDHOUTH. LORD ELLENBOROUQH. 
LORD HOWICE. WINDHAM. LORD HOLLAND. LORD WALPOLE. 
LORD CARLISLE. LORD ST. VINCENT. LORD TEMPLE. LORD 
ORENVILLE. LORD DERBT. MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. 

TIERNBT. COURTNEY. LORD ERSEINE. LORD LAUDERDALE. 
LORD H. PETTY. EARL SPENCER, LORD MOIRA. DUKE OF 
BEDFORD. WHITBREAD. 

Parodies npon Scriptnres in caricatures or other compo- 
sitions are, to say the least, best avoided. With this reser- 
vation the conception of this print must be pronounced 
extremely felicitous. The enraged Royal Farmer is about 
to attack the possessed pigs with his uplifted pitchfork, he 
exclaims, '^ 0, you cursed ungrateful grunters ! what, after 
having devoured more in a twelvemonth than the good Old 
Litter did in twelve years, you turn round to kick and bite 
your old master ! but if the devil or the Pope has got pos- 
session of you all, pray get out of my farm-yard ! Out 
with you all — no hangers behind ! You're all of a cursed 
bad breed ; so out with you altogether ! !'* The Farmer 

♦ A parody on the dying words ascribed to Pitt, ** Oh, save my country, 
hearen !" 

20 



304 gtllray's caricatures. 

« 

is kicking Sheridanr The pigs are running headlong into 
the sea. The herd consists of Lord Sidmouth, Lord 
EUenborough, Courtney,* Lord Derby, Lord Moira, Lord 
Lauderdale ; Duke of Bedford, late Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland, is sqeaking " Erin go bragh ;'' Whitbread has run 
his head into a porter butt, labelled *' Whitbread's entire /' 
the Marquis of Buckingham is following in the rear of 
Lord Grenville; Lord Temple is the ''Last Stake of the 
Broad-Bottomed Family ;" Lord Howick has fallen down, 
and is lying on his back upon the " Repeal of the Test 
Act /' Lord Grenville has one foot upon " Emancipation 
of the Catholic Army and Navy,'' and the other foot on 
the '' Catholic Bill,'' he is plunging into the sea. 

338. 

THE NEW DYNASTY ; OR, THE LITTLE COR- 
SICAN GARDENER PLANTING A ROYAL 
PIPPIN TREE. June 25th, 1807. 

COBBETT. SIR F. BURDETT. HORNE TOOEE. LORD MOIRA. 
NAPOLEON. TALLEYRAND. LORD aRENYILLE. MARQUIS OF 
BUCKINGHAM. 

Gillray has combined a double satire in this print, one 
on the late Ministers for the introduction of the '' Catholic 
Bill^'^ and the other on the king-making proceedings of 
Napoleon. On the right of the spectator is the " Royal 
Oak.'' On its top is placed a crown in honour of its hay- 
ing sheltered Charles II. ; it now bears the goodly fruit of 
'' Protestant Faith,'' '' Integrity of the Lords," " Indepen- 
dence of the Commons," and '' Liberty of the Press." 
Lord Howick with the " Whig Cleaver," the Marquis of 
Buckingham with a " Broad-Bottom Hatchet," and Lord 

* Courtney is placed between Lord Ellenborongb and Lord Sidmoath. 
The face presents a striking resemblance of this most intimate friend of Fox, 
who was a frequent Tisitor at St Anne*8 Hill It is said to be the only 
portrait of hini« 



POLITICAL SERIES. 305 

Qrenville with a " Cfttholic Cleaver," are labouring to fell 
the venerable tree, that is, the British Constitution. Lord 
Grenville has a crucifix hanging down his back, indicative 
of the favours he had proposed to bestow on the Roman 
Catholics. 

On the left is Napoleon preparing to plant the " Royal 
Pippin" Tree. Talleyrand has already dug a hole of suffi- 
cient circumference to receive it ; in his coat-pocket is 
seen "projet pour aggrandiser les Jardins Imperials." 
" William the Norman Robber" forms the root of the tree^ 
The branches bear memorials of '^Crooked-backed Richard 
killed at Bosworth ; Edmund, the fourth son of Edward 
III.," and other unfortunates. A crowned head of Lord 
Moira is placed on the top of the Royal Pippin Tree, inti- 
mating that he claimed to be descended from the Lrish 
royal race of Ballynahinch. Buonaparte's sword has in- 
scribed on it ^' Corsican Grafting Kiiife." Behind him are 
his newly grafted Royal Pippin Trees in Holland, Saxony, 
and Wirtemberg, &c. On the ground are '' Grafts of 
King Pippins for Brentford, Wimbledon, and Botley." 
The heads of Home Tooke, Cobbett, and Burdett are 
crowned. 

339. 

CHARON'S BOAT; OR, THE GHOSTS OF ALL 
THE TALENTS TAKING THEIR LAST VOY- 
AGE, FROM THE POPE^S GALLERY AT ROME. 

July, 1807. 

LORD CASTLEBEAOH. CANNING. LORD HAWKESBUBY. LOBD 
MOIBA. LOBD H. PETTY. LOBD EKSEINE. LOBD HOWICK. 
WHrrBREAD. LOBD TEUPLE. 8HEBIDAN. MABQUIS OF 
BUCKINGHAM. WINDHAM. LOBD SIDMOUTH. LOBD GBBNYILLE. 
LOBD LAUDEBDALE. BISHOP OP LINCOLN (pBETYMAN) . HOBNE 
TOOKE. SIB P. BUBDETT. LOBD ST. VINCENT. 

The Broad-Bottom Packet is conveying the late Cabinet 
and some of its supporters across the river Styx. Charon 

20* 



306 oillbay's caricatures. 

is personated by Lord Howick, who is rowing, — ^the ''Whig 
Club" is his oar. He exclaims, " Better to Reign in Hell 
than serve in Heaven." Earl St. Vincent is steersman, he 
calls out, " Avast ! Trim the Boat ! or these damn d 
Broad-Bottom Lubbers will overset us all." Lord Henry 
Petty is playing on a lyre, he has his foot on the dance, 
" Go to the devil and shake yourselves." Lord Erskine is 
exhibiting the eflFects of the*' Catholic Emetic." Whitbread 
holds " Wesley's Hymns in one hand, and a Pot of Whit- 
bread's Entire" in the other. Lord Moira's eyes are raised 
to heaven, he is kissing a crucifix held in his right hand, 
his left grasps the mast, which is surmounted by the 
feathers of his patron, the Prince of Wales, under them is 
*' Fitz — Ich Dien." Windham holds in his hand a '' Scheme 
for drilling Imps in Hell." The Bishop of Lincoln has 
'' Unction" on his mitre ; he holds in his clasped hands 
'' Pitt Endowments," and '' Whig Endowments," intimat- 
ing that he obtained as much as he possibly could from 
both the Pitt and Whig Administrations. Lord Lauder- 
dale is in agonies, but exclaims, '' Vive Brissot." Sheridan 
is suffering from the same effects as Lord Erskine. The 
Marquis of Buckingham holds a cup in his hand, and en- 
deavours to cheer up Lord Grrenville, " Courage, Brother ! 
take Extreme Unction and don't despair." The Broad- 
Bottom " Ballast from Stowe," with a crucifix upon it, is 
the only discernible part of Lord Grenville. Lord Temple 
has dropped overboard " Pay OflSce Stationery," and a 
" List of Places, Pensions, and Sinecures." Lord Sid- 
mouth has &llen overboard into the Styx. The floating 
Wig-Box, inscribed " Lord Double-Bottom, his Wig-Box, 
King's Bench," has evidently belonged to Lord EUenbo- 
rough. The '' Morning Chronicle" and " Oracle" are float- 
ing in the water, and a flag flying on the packet is inscribed 
'' Templa quam dilecta," the family motto of the Gren- 
ville family. " Catholic Emancipation" is on the sail. On 
the right hand top of this print, Cobbett, tmnsformed into 



POLITICAL S£BIES. 807 

a bird, is blowing letters from his Political Register into 
the packet. The Morning Post bird is conveying '' Pro- 
testant Letters'' into it. A monster bird, compounded of 
Burdett and Home Tooke, is emitting " Damnable traths*' 
among the crew. On the left of the print at the top are 
three witches riding in the air on their brooms, they 
represent the three fatal sisters or ParcaB. Canning as 
Lachesis, holds the thread of the late Administration, 
and Castlereagh, as Atropos, has cat it asunder. Lord 
Hawkesbury, as Clotho,* holds the distaff, because he has 
spun the thread of the new Administration. 

On the opposite side of the Styx are seen departed 
spirits. Pox is placed between Cromwell and Robespierre. 
Pox holds up a branch, and cries out, '' Welcome to 
Charley.*' Robespierre holds his decapitated head in his 
hand, and welcomes the boat's crew. Colonel Despard 
and Quigley are recognised by the halters round their 
necks, they welcome the new arrival. Cerberus is 
barking at the Packet's Crew. 



340. 
PHAETON ALARMED 1 March 22nd, 1808. 

prrr. canning, lord h. petty, whitbread. windham. 

LORD SIDMOUTH. LORD ERSKINE. LORD LIVERPOOL. LORD 
ST. VINCENT. PERCEVAL. LORD CASTLEREAGH. LORD ELDON. 
LORD ELLENBOROUGH. SHERIDAN. LORD GREY. LORD 
LAUDERDALE. LORD GRENVILLB. FOX. LORD MOIRA. 
LORD TEMPLE. LORD CARLISLE. TIERNEY. BUONAPARTE. 

This is one of Gillray^s finest allegorical conceptions, 
" The Sun of Anti-Jacobinism,'' Canning, who had been 
active in the overthrow of the old Ministry, and in forming 
the new, is the adventurous Phaeton of the political 
heaven, he is startled at the monstrous constellations who 



* Clotho colum retinot, Lachesis net, ct Atropos occat. 



308 OILLRAY's CAEICATUEE8. 

threaten his progress on all sides. The chariot of the 
new sun is drawn by steeds in which we recognise the 
features of Liverpool, Perceval, Castlereagh, and Eldon. 
'* Copenhagen'' and " Libra Britannicns'' are attached to 
the chariot wheels. Leo Britannicus is making a spring 
at the presumptuous charioteer. Among the threatening 
stars is Python, Lord Howick ; Wilberforce is Aquila ;* 
Lord Lauderdale enacts Pisces ; Whitbread as Aquarius^ 
is hurling a " Barrel of Small Beer" at him. Lord 
Sidmouth, a newly created star " Sangradarius/' is 
squirting at him. Erskine, as Astr^a, is endeavouring 
to extinguish the Politiqal Phaeton. Lord EUenborough 
is aiming a blow with his "Herculean Club.'' The raging 
Bull is snorting Fire : a collar with *^ Erin go brach" is 
round his neck, beads and a crucifix are attached to it, and 
a Porridge Pot containing " Emancipation" is fastened to 
his tail. Windham is Sagittarius. — Earl St. Vincent is 
*^ Cancer." — Sheridan enacts the drunken Silenus mounted 
on an ass, with a bottle of '' Port" in each hand. Lord 
Grenville is Scorpio, — the Whig cliiefs are in his claws. 
Buonaparte, mounted on the Russian Bear, is *^ Ursa 
Major." Neptune, with his trident in his hand, is 
looking out of the sea, horror-struck at the general 
conflagration. The ghosts of Pitt and Fox, as Apollo 
and Pluto, are surveying from the shades below, the 
spreading flames, which menace the destruction of heaven 
aud earth. It is a very remarkable circumstance that 
Canuinsr concluded one of his earliest Poetical Exercises 
at Eton with an ardent desire, 

*' To live in a blaze, and in a blaze expire." 

This print seems to exhibit a consummation of his 

wish. 

■ Aquila wais a tribune of the people, who refused t<> ru* when Ciffcar*8 
procciksion pn.s^ed. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 309 



341. 

DELICIOUS DREAMS ! CASTLES IN THE AIR ! 
GLORIOUS PROSPECTS 1 ApHl 10th, 1808. 

CA8TLEREAGH. PERCEVAL. DUKE OF PORTLAND. HAWKES- 
BURT. CANNING. LORD HULQRAYE. 

The new Prime Minister, the Duke of Portland, is 
regaling some of his Cabinet Colleagues. A Bowl of 
Punch, " Madeira,'' " Port,'' &c. are on the table. The 
Ministers, experiencing the effects of copious libations, 
have all fallen asleep. They are dreaming of the splendid 
achievements they meditate. A Crutch is placed by the 
Duke of Portland's Chair,* intimating that he is an old 
and worn-out Statesman. Lord Hawkesbury's hands are 
clasped, he appears to be uttering pious aspirations for 
the success of our arms. Canning, Secretary for Foreign 
Affairs, has in his pocket '* Secret Correspondence from 
Copenhagen," intimating that the Copenhagen Expedition 
originated with him. Perceval is resting his head on one 
hand, and liolds a tumbler of punch in the other. A 
tumbler of punch has fallen from the hand of the slum- 
bering Castlereagh, and the contents are running over his 
clothes ; a copy of an intended speech, ^^ nine hours and 
a half long/' detailing the military establishments for 
''The Defence of the Country," has fallen out of his 
pocket. Behind him a Cat holds in her paws an *' air by 
Catalani." We suspect, however, that the insinuation is 
intended to be applied to the Duke of Portland, who was 
fond of music and singing; and had formerly had the 

* The Marquis of Tichfield was extremely averse to his father's accepting 
the Treasury. He feared the mental and bodily fatigue would be too great 
for his advanced age and debilitated constitution. He represented this to 
the Duke, and also to Lord Malmcsbury, who, we know, wa:> urging the 
Duke to accept the Frcmicrship. 



310 QILLEAY^S CARICATURES. 

credit of a liaison with Mrs. Billington. Lord Mulgrave, 
First Lord of the Admiralty, overpowered by wine, is 
lying Tinder the table. Bats are feasting on '^ the Loayes 
and Fishes of the Treasury.'* 

In the upper part of the print we perceive the 
visions which are floating in the excited minds of the 
Ministers. " Britannia Triumphant'* is seated in a car, 
Buonaparte and the Russian Bear are chained to the 
wheels. Sailors, supposed to have captured the Danish 
Fleet, are hurrahiug, and singing ^^ Britannia rules the 
World." 



842. 

PILLARS OF THE CONSTITUTION. THREE 
O'CLOCK AND A CLOUDY MORNING. 

Feb. Ist, 1809. 

SHERIDAN. DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

The Duke of Norfolk and Sheridan, having finished 
their hbations, are reeling out of Brooks's. A sign post 
is inscribed '^To Parliament Street." The Duke of 
Norfolk is stammering out, ** And now for the Majesty 
of the People.*' A bottle of " Port '' is in his pocket. 
Sheridan staggering, calls out, '^ And now have at the 
Ministry, damme.'' In his pocket are seen ** Motions to 
badger the Minister." 

The Statesmen of former times too frequently cele- 
brated the orgies of Bacchus. " The Duke of Montrose, 
who entered Pitt's Cabinet in 1784, and again in 1801, 
used to say that ' Any one Member of the former Cabinet 
drank more wine, than the whole collected individuals 
did, twenty years later.' "* 

* Sec "Wraxall's Memoirs, vol. iv. p. 441. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 311 

343. 

BRITISH TARS TOWING THE DANISH FLEET 
INTO HARBOUR; the Broad-Bottom Leviathan 
trying Billyhs Old Boat, and the Kttle Corsican tottering 
on the Clouds of Ambition. 

CANNING. LORD LIVEBPOOL. LORD CASTLERBAGH. LORD 

HOWICK. LORD GRENYILLE. 

Lord Liverpool and Lord Castlereagh are rowing " The 
Billy Pitt/' Canning seated at the prow is towing the 
Danish fleet into the harbour of Sheemess. Lord 
Howick is uttering *' Detraction '' on the Expedition, 
Earl St. Vincent is filled with " Envy,'' and Lord Gren- 
ville is raising an '^ Opposition Clamour" against it. The 
sign of the '' Good Old Royal George" hangs out on a 
public-house in '^ Sheemess Harbour." John Bull is 
seated before the door with a pot of Porter in his left 
hand, he is waving his hat with his right, and vociferat- 
ing '' Rule Britannia, Britannia rules the Waves !" 
Buonaparte is seen in the clouds, horror-struck at the loss 
of the Danish fleet ; his '^ projet pour subjuguer la Mer" 
has dropped from his hand. 

Buonaparte, not content with issuing the Berlin and 
Milan Decrees against the commerce of England, now me- 
ditated a more deadly blow. By a secret article of the 
treaty of Tilsit, it was stipulated that, the Emperor of 
Russia should assist Napoleon in organizing a Naval Con- 
federation of the Northern Powers under the specious 
name and pretext of "The Armed Neutralitt," to 
protect the maritime rights of Neutrals, but in reality to 
compel England to accept the terms of peace, which might 
be dictated to her. Denmark had evinced great reluctance 
to become a party. But Buonaparte, after rebuking the 
deputies from Hamburgh, who had presented a petition to 
him, humbly representing that the execution of the Decrees 



312 oillbay's caricatures. 

in Hamburgh would be the total ruin of their city, took 
occasion to allude to the Crown Prince of Deiimarky *' Let 
THAT Little Prince take care op Himself/'* It 
was known that Napoleon did not utter vain threats 
against weak States. The English Government had 
obtained intelligence, on which they placed implicit re- 
liance, that a large accumulation of Naval stores was col- 
lected at Copenhagen, and that the Danish fleet was to 
convey it to Brest, and the fleet itself be placed at the 
disposal of the French Government, Mr. Jackson was 
therefore dispatched to Copenhagen to require the sur- 
render of the Danish fleet to Great Britain during the war ; 
as the Danish Government could not protect itself against 
the intended use of the fleet for the hostile purposes of 
France against England. 

The terms originally offered by Mr. Jackson, and re- 
peated by Admiral Gumbier on the 2nd of September, 
1807, were, ''That the Danish fleet should be held in 
deposit, under the most solemn, stipulation that it should 
be restored at the conclusion of the war, with all its equip- 
ments, in as good a state as it may be received.'* The 
Danes rejected the proposition, and the English fleet 
bombarded Copenhagen, which was compelled to capita- 
late on the 8th of September. The British Admiral im- 
mediately began rigging and fitting out the ships that 
filled the capacious basins, where they were laid up in 
ordinary, and they were all, together with the stores, 
timber, and every article of naval equipment found in the 
arsenals and storehouses conveyed to England, where they 
arrived the latter end of October. 

Copenhagen tjufiercd most severely during the bombard- 
ment, as is most feehngly depicted by an unexceptionable 
witness. Lord Eldon, in a letter to Lady Eldon, dated 

'^ lu one of his bulletins he said, "I'cut ctre le BKk'us da Contiucut no 
sera pas un vain mot." 



POLITICAL SERIES. 313 

September 19, says: — '^Yesterday I dined at the Ad- 
miralty, and met there several Admirals and Captains, who 
had just returned from Copenhagen, and we had full par- 
ticulars. The state of the inhabitants of Copenhagen, and 
their distresses, must have been terrible and tremendous. 
In one street our mortars destroyed five hundred persons, 
principally poor helpless women and children. It made 
my head ache and my blood run cold, to hear the accounts 
these gentlemen gave.'' — ^Twiss's Life of Lord Eldon, 
vol. ii. p. 59. 

The greatest commiseration was felt in England for the 
fate of the unhappy Danes, involved, against their will, in 
the quarrel of the two mighty belligerents. A friendly 
feeling towards the Danes had long been entertained by the 
English, and they deplored the stern necessity dictated by 
the duty of self-preservation. They hailed, however, with 
satisfaction the infusion of new vigour into the British 
Councils. The projection of the measure was attributed to 
the energetic counsels of the Foreign Secretary, and Can- 
ning was henceforward regarded as the most efficient mem- 
ber of the Administration. He was equally powerful in 
the Cabinet and the Senate. As we shall not have to speak 
again of Mr. Canning, we will here give a character of his 
oratory, drawn by the skilful hand of one who was an eye- 
witness of its eflfects. *^ Among our own orators, Mr. 
Canning seems to have been the best model of the adorned 
style. The splendid and sublime descriptions of Mr. Burke 
— ^his comprehensive and profound views of general prin- 
ciple — though they must ever delight and instruct the 
reader, must be owned to have been digressions, which 
diverted the mind of the hearer from the object on which 
the speaker ought to have kept it steadily fixed. Sheridan, 
a man of admirable sense and matchless wit, laboured to 
follow Burke into the foreign regions of feeling and gran- 
deur. The specimeus preserved of his most celebrated 



/ 



314 gillray's caricatures. 

spooches shew too mucli of the exaggeration and excess to 
which those are peculiarly liable who seek by art and 
efifort what Nature has denied. By the constant part which 
Mr. Canning took in debate^ he was called upon to shew a 
knowledge^ which Mr. Sheridan did not possess^^ and a 
readiness which that accomplished man had no sucli means 
of strengthening and displaying. In some qualities of style 
Mr. Canning surpassed Mr. Pitt. His diction was more 
various^ sometimes more simple^ more idiomatical^ even in 
its more elevated parts. It sparkled with imagery^ and 
was brightened by illustration ; in both of which Mr. Pitt, 
for so great an orator, was defective. 

'^No English speaker used the keen and brilliant weapon 
of wit so long,t so often, or so effectively, as Mr. Canning. 
He gained more triumphs, and incurred more enmity by it 
than by any other. Those whose importance depends much 
on birth and fortune, are impatient of seeing their own 
artificial dignity, or that of their order, broken down by 
derision ; and, perhaps, few men heartily forgive a success- 
ful jest against themselves, but those who are conscioas of 
being unhurt by it. Mr. Canning often exercised this 
talent imprudently 4 In sudden flashes of wit, and in the 

* ThiB strictare seems anfoanded. Sheridan*8 speech on the Begum qaes- 
tion evinced extensive knowledge, and consnmmate skill in arranging the 
details of a complicated subject, and placing them in an intelligible shape 
before his audience. Numerous other instances might be adduced. It moat 
be remembered, too, that Canning usually possessed a very great advantage 
over Sheridan in addressing the House, as he generally spoke from official 
information, to which he had access, even long before ho possessed a seat in 
the Cabinet. 

t This can scarcely be said, Sheridan became Member for Stafford in 1780, 
and continued in Parliament until 1811, a period of 31 years. Canning 
entered Parliament in 1793, and died in 1827, a period of 34 years. A slight 
difference. 

X We may apply the following observation of Dryden to Canning : " The 
most severe censor cannot but be pleased with the prodigality of his wit, 
though at the same time he could have wished the master of it had been a 
better manager." 



POLITICAL SERIES. 315 

playful description of men and things, he was often 
distinguished by that natural felicity which is the charm 
of pleasantry ; to which the air of art and labour is more 
fatal than to any other talent/' — " It cannot be denied 
that Mr. Canning's taste was somewhat influenced by the 
example of his early friend (Sheridan). The exuberance 
of fancy and wit lessened the gravity of his general manner, 
and perhaps also indisposed the audience to feel his earnest- 
ness, where it clearly shewed itself. In that important 
quality he was inferior to Mr. Pitt, — 



it 



Deep on whose front engraven, 



Deliberation sat and pnblic care ;"* 

and no less inferior to Mr. Fox, whose fervid eloquence 
flowed from the love of his country, the scorn of baseness, 
and the hatred of cruelty, which were the ruling passions 
of his nature.'* — Miscellaneous Works of Sir James 
Mackintosh, vol. ii. p. 159. 

The preceding extract is highly characteristic of Can- 
ning's oratory; we cannot conclude without presenting 
to the reader the following admirable sketch of Can- 
ning's general character, drawn by the pen of the same 
distinguished writer : — 

" He was," says Sir James Mackintosh, '* a man of fine 
and brilliant genius, of warm affections, of high and gene- 
rous spirit, a statesman who at home converted most of 
his opponents into warm supporters ; who abroad was the 
sole hope and trust of all who sought an orderly and legal 
liberty, and who was cut off in the midst of vigorous and 
splendid measures, which, if executed by himself, or with 
his own spirit, promised to place his name in the first class 
of rulers, among the founders of lasting peace, and the 
guardians of human improvement." 

* MiIton*8 Paradise Lost, book ii. 



316 qillbay's caricatures. 

344. 

BROAD BOTTOMED DRONES STORMING A 
HIVE. WASPS, HORNETS, AND HUMBLE 
BEES JOINING IN THE ATTACK. 

May 2nd, 1808. 

LORD SIDMOUTH. LORD ELLENBOROUGH. DUKE OF BEDFORD. 
WINDHAM. LORD CARLISLE. LORD SPENCER. DUKE OF 
NORFOLK. LORD ST. VINCENT. COURTNEY. LORD LAUDER- 
DALE. SHERIDAN. HORNE TOOKE. DUKE OF CLARENCE. 
LORD ERSKINE. SIR F. BURDETT. LORD MOIRA. LORD 

DERBY. TIERNEY. MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. LORD 

TEMPLE. WINDHAM. LORD GRENVILLE. WHITBREAD. LORD 
H. PETTY. LORD HAWKESBURY. JX)RD ELDON. CANNING. 

The two parties. Ministers and Opposition, fighting for 
the Treasury hive. 

345. 

L'ENFANT TROUVE ; A SAMPLE OP ROMAN 
CHARITY. May 19th, 1808. 

LORD NUGENT. LORD TEMPLE. MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. 

MARCHIONESS OF BUCKINGHAM. RIGHT HON. THOMAS ORSN- 
VILLB. LORD GRENVILLE. 

It was currently reported about this time that a basket 
containing a female infant, with a ticket addressed to the 
Marchioness of Buckingham, was left at the door of the 
Marquis of Buckingham in Pall Mall. The Marquis 
directed the child to be carefully conveyed to the work- 
house. 

Gillray has placed the following inscription under this 
print — '* L'Enf ant Trouve : a sample of Roman Charity! or, 
the misfortune of not being bom with marks of the Talent. 
What ! a relation to the Broad-bottoms ! O Sainte Marie I 
Why, there's not the least appearance of it ; therefore 
take it away to the workhouse directly.*' 



POLITICAL SERIES. 317 

The Marquis of Buckingham's black servant has just 
brought a basket, containing a child, into the parlour; 
his astonished eyes are nearly starting from their sockets, 
while he deposits it upon the table. The whole Grenville 
family is present. The playful little innocent is kicking 
up its heels, and unconsciously exhibiting the lower part of 
its person. The Marquis of Buckingham has started from 
his chair, and put on his spectacles to examine the child 
carefully. He seems to exclaim — '^Ede notam tanti 
ORNEBis ;"* but the infallible Broad-bottom mark is want- 
ing, and he repudiates the child. The Marchioness, dressed 
as a Tiady Abbess, seeks in vain for the true sign. Lord 
Nugent, Lord Temple, the Right Hon. Thomas Grenville, 
and Lord Grenville, are decidedly of opinion that there 
cannot be any aflSnity, where the never-failing criterion is 
wanting ; it is therefore unanimously resolved to commit 
the infant to the tender mercies and benignant superin- 
tendence of the parish officers. The drawers of the table, 
on which the basket and child are placed, are labelled — 
" Listsof Pensions, Lists of Places, andLists of Sinecures." 
^ Lists of Crown Grants,'' intended to indicate that a more 
kind and generous treatment of a helpless and abandoned 
infant might have been expected ; but it must be owned 
that if a foundling, placed at the door of a wealthy family, 
were to be received and brought up, "another and another 
would still succeed with unenviable frequency. 



346. 

THE SPANISH BULL FIGHT ; OR, THE CORSI- 
CAN MATADOR IN DANGER. July llth, 1808. 

On the general rising in the Peninsula against the 
French, in 1808, which led to the Peninsular War, and 
ultimately to the deliverance of Europe from the tyranny 

* Ovidii MetamorphoseoD, lib. i. ▼. 761. 



n 



318 GILLRAY^S CARICATUEES. 

pf Napoleon.* The scene is the '' Theatre de rEurope.'* 
The Spanish Bull has a " Corsican chain*' round his neck. 
He has trampled the usurper Joseph under his feet ; a 
crown is on his head^ and he grasps a paper in his hand 
inscribed " Coronation de Joseph Buonaparte^ Rex Espag- 
nol, — Gibraltar/' The Spanish Bull having disposed of 
Joseph, has just tossed Napoleon himself into the air ; from 
his hand has dropped his " Plan pour subjuguer le Monde/' 
The Prussian, Dutch, and Danish Bulls are '^ Wounded 
Bulls bellowing for help." In the boxes of the " Theatre 
de I'Europe" are seen George III. looking through an 
opera-glass, with a pitchfork in his right hand ; the Pope 
holding a ''Bull for excommunicating the Corsican 
Usurper ;" and various European and Eastern Potentates 
looking on with delight at the successful resistance of the 
Spanish bull. 

Gillray has placed at the top of this Print the following 
inscription from Baretti's Travels : " The Spam'sh bull is 
so remarkable for spirit, that unless the Matador strikes 
him dead at the first blow, the bull is sure to destroy 
him." 

347. 

THE VALLEY OP THE SHADOW OP DEATH. 

Septe7nber 24th, 1808. 

Buonaparte has entered "the Valley of Death," 
sword in hand, prepared to encounter opposition, but he 
recoils at the appearance of sights, which might have 
appalled the stoutest nerves. The *' Leo Britannicus*' is 
rushing upon him, — the Sicilian Terrier menaces him. 
The " Portuguese Wolf* is springing at him. Death, 
mounted on a horse of the " True Royal Spanish breed," 

* Talleyrand earaeatlj endeavoured to diflsnade Napoleon from attempting 
the con(|ne8t of Spain, and predicted it would bo <* Lb Commencbmsht db 
LA Fin." 



POUTTCAL SERIES. 319 



holds up an " hour-glass *' to his affrighted eyes, and is 
preparing to strike with his dart. The thunders of the 
Church are fulminated against him. The departed spirit 
of Junot says^ '' Bemember Junot ;'* and that of Dupont, 
"Remember Dupont.** *'The Turkish new moon is 
rising in blood/* and "British Influence** has obscured 
'* French Infli!ence.'* — The spirit of Charles XII. holds a 
drawn sword over Napoleon, prepared to avenge the 
wrongs of Sweden. The imperial Eagle of Austria is 
emerging from a cloud. While these perils beset Napo- 
leon in the front and on his side, the Bussian Bear has 
broken his chain, and menaces him in the rear. — " The 
Prussian Scare-crow is attempting to fly at him.** " The 
Rhenish Confederation of starved Bats, crawling out of 
the mud,** are ravenously pressing towards him. — "Dutch 
Frogs spitting out their spite,** are emerging from the 
"Lethean ditch;'* and the '^American Battle-snake is 
shaking his tail,** and spitting venom at him. Napoleon's 
brother Joseph, the ex-king of Spain, has fallen into the 
" Ditch of Styx,** and is floundering in the water without 
hope of emerging. 

This print is intended to shew that the success of the 
Spanish Insurrection against France, the expulsion of the 
usurper Joseph from Spain, and the success of the British 
arms in the Peninsula had encouraged a general resistance 
to the progress of the French arms. An infatuation had 
prevailed throughout Europe that the French army was 
irresistible, — the charm once broken, the European 
armies fought with gallantry and confidence, and con- 
quered; — ^^ possunt quia posse videntur" 

The vengeance of the oppressed has pursued Napoloon. 

** ct extra 

Processit looge flammantia Moenia Mandi.'* 

Lucretius, lib. i. 



21 



\ 



320 gtllray's caricatures. 

348. 

SPANISH PATRIOTS ATTACKING THE FRENCH 
BANDITTI — LOYAL BRITONS LENDING A 
LIFT. August 15th, 1808. 

The universal rising in Spain, and the hatred raised 
there by French tyranny and cruelty, were at this time a 
subject of great public agitation in England, and this was 
one of the prints sent abroad to keep up the excitement. 



349.^ 

THE LOYAL ADDRESS ; OR, THE PROCESSION 
OP THE HAMPSHIRE HOGS FROM BOTLEY 
TO ST. JAMES'S. October 20th, 1808. 

SHERIDAN. LORD LAUDERDALE. BOSVILLE. SIB F. BUBDBTT. 
LORD H. PETTY. COBBETT. WINDHAM. LORD SIDICOUTH. 
LOBD QBENVILLE. LORD HOWICK. 

Cobbett is seated on his "Political Hog Trough.*' The 
trough is drawn by Hampshire Hogs. Behind him is held 
up ** The Loyal Petition of the Noble and Truly Inde- 
pendent Hogs of Hampshire, humbly shewing that the 
convention with Junot was a cursed humbug upon Old 
England, and that the three damned Convention Signers 
ought to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, without judge 
or jury.'' Sir Francis Burdett is driving the hogs attached 
to the trough with a cart-whip. Cobbett is preceded by 
men carrying flags, in scribed, "The Botley Patriot and his 
Hogs for ever.*' " No Chevaliers du Bain.'* — " Given up 
to Junot all the plunder, all the horses, all the arms. O 
Diable ! Diable ! ! '* On another flag is painted a repre- 
sentation of the '* Due d'Abrantes ratifying the Conven- 
tion." Bosville is distributing ^' Pig's meat" {id est, money) 
among the swinish multitude. Lord Grenville^ Lord Sid- 



POLITICAL SERIES. 321 

mouth, and Lord Howick, are helping to shove the hog 
trough along iu its progress. Attached to the hog trough 
are various references to the Political Register. A man 
is carrying a banner, inscribed " Triumph in Portugal/' a 
new catch, to be sung by the Hampshire Hogs, to the 
tune of *' Three Jolly Boys all in a Row.'* By the side of 
the banner are *' Three Grallows," on which are hanging 
"Sir Hugh'' (Dalrymple); '^ Sir Arthur'' (Wellesley, now 
Duke of Wellington) ; and '' Sir David" (Baird) j the 
''Three Jolly Boys" who signed the Convention with 
Junot at Cintra." 

Upon the indignation excited in England by the Con- 
vention of Cintra, concluded on the 30th of August, 
1808, by which the French army was allowed to evacuate 
Portugal upon what was considered far too favourable 
terms. The first petition ridiculed in this print, is repre- 
sented as led by Cobbett, who made a fierce attack upon 
Ministers in the Political Register, and had a principal 
hand in keeping up the agitation. A suppressed stanza of 
'' Childe Harold" has been quoted, describing the effect 
of the news of the Convention when it reached England. 



« 



Pens, tongaet, feet, hands, combined in wild uproar ; 
Mayor, aldermen, laid down th' aplif ted fork ; 
The bench of bishops half forgot to snore : 
Stem Cobbett, who for one whole week forbore 
To question angbt, once more with transport leapt, 
And bit his derilish qnill again, and swore 
With foe such treaQr never should be kept : 
Then burst the blatant beast, and roar'd, and raged, and — ^slept." 



21 * 



322 qillrat's caricatures. 

350. 
PATRIOTIC PETITIONS ON THE CONVEN- 

TION. 

THE COCKNEY PETITION. 

SIB C. FLOWER AND ALDERMAN WAITHMAN. 

THE WESTMINSTER PETITION. 

HORNE TOOKE. SIR F. BURDETT. SHERIDAN. BOSYILLE. 

WISHART. 

THE CHELMSFORD PETITION. 

LORD H. PETTT. MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. EARL ST. VINCENT. 

WINDHAM. LORD TEMPLE. 

THE MIDDLESEX PETITION. 

PAUL. COUNSELLOR CLIFFORD. BTNG. 

This print was intended as a Satire on the addresses 
presented to the King^ condemning the Convention made 
at Cintra, by which the French were enabled to evacuate 
Portugal unmolested, and praying that an inquiry might 
be made into the subject. 

This print is divided into four compartments. On the 
upper compartment, on the left of the spectator, ''the 
Cockney Petition" (that is, the Petition of the Corporation 
of London), has just been presented to the King by the 
Recorder. The mover and seconder of the Address are 
Mr. Noodle and Mr. Doodle (Aldermen Waithman and 
Flower). The King, addressing Noodle (Waithman), says, 
'' Petition me ! — no such petitions, Mr. Noodle.*' And 
to Doodle (Flower) the King says, '' No Knighting to- 
day, Mr. Doodle !'* It was said that Alderman Flower 
had flattered himself with being knighted on the occasion 
of presenting the Address. Waithman, bowing very low, 
says, " Humble Petition, my Liege.*' Flower is bowing 
very low and reverentially. In his pocket is seen a paper, 
" Mover, Mr. Noodle ; Seconder, Mr. Doodle.** 

The upper compartment on the right represents Horse 



POUTICAL SERIES. 



823 



Tooke's bed-room. He is Ul in bed. Sheridan, Bosville, 
and Wishart, the tobacconist in Coventry Street, an ardent 
Whig, who had several times had the honour of proposing 
Fox for Westminster, have brought the Westminster Peti- 
tion to submit to Tooke's inspection ; but Tooke, having 
raised himself up in bed, say to Burdett, " Out with 
them ! They are too bad for us !'* Burdett is kicking 
Sheridan, and is about to cudgel the three Petitioners with 
the " Club of Reform.'' He exclaims, " Out, monsters ! 
havn't they cleared Portugal of the enemy's army V In 
Wishart's pocket is seen " Republican Snuff." By Tooke's 
bed-side is placed "Cobbett's Weekly Political Register." 

On the lower left compartment is the " Chelmsford Peti- 
tion." The Broad-bottom Patriots are addressing the 
Essex Calves I The Marquis of Buckingham says, "Aye, 
it's all for want of us !" Earl St. Vincent exclaims, " O 
this cursed Convention ! It's all the fault of the damn'd 
Ministry, by not sending me out to Portugal ! damme, 
if I had had but one of my legs in the Tagus, I'd have 
Convention'd and Abrantes'd em ! Ah, it was all for want 
of ME, Grentlemen Calves ! It's all for want of me that all 
this happened ! All for want of me." He is leaning on 
a crutch held in his right hand ; in his left he holds the 
" Essex Petition. Horrid Convention. Ministers firing the 
Park guns. Armistice in French lingos." On a sign-board 
is painted, " Essex Calves, to be sold to the best bidder. 
For particulars inquire at the Broad-bottom market." 

The lower compartment on the right represents the 
Meeting of the Middlesex Freeholders at Hackney. Paull 
is addressing the Meeting, " infamous Convention 1 
Inquiry won't do I Instant justice ! Cut off their heads, 
and try them afterwards !" Clifford, the barrister, holds 
up the "Middlesex Petition." Byng, the universally 
respected Byng, has his hat in his hand, and is about to 
address his constituents ; a reporter is preparing to take 
down his speech. 



32i gillray's caricatures. 

After the decisive victory obtained at Vimiera, by Sir 
Arthur Wellesley^ Jiinot felt it was impossible to maintain 
his position^ and was afraid he should be surrounded and 
overpowered by the British and Portuguese armies ; he 
therefore sent General Kellerman, with a flag of truce, to 
propose an armistice, and an offer to enter into a conven- 
tion for the evacuation of Portugal. This was agreed to 
by Sir Hugh Dalrymple. When the news of the battle 
of Vimiera reached England, the nation was overjoyed. 
Ministers ordered the Park and Tower guns to be fired at 
ten o'clock at night. The Convention was signed on the 
80th of August, by " George Murray, Quartermaster 
GeneraV and "Kellerman, G^niral de Division." By 
this it was agreed that " The French were not in any case 
to be considered prisoners-of- war ; all the individuals who 
composed the French army were to be transported to 
France, with their arms and baggage, and the whole of 
their private property, from which nothing was to be 
excepted. All the artillery of French calibre, and the 
French cavalry horses were to be sent to France.'' It was 
also inrther stipulated that when the English army and 
fleet got possession of the town and port of Lisbon, "they 
were not to molest the Russian squadron during its con- 
tinuance in the Tagus, nor stop it when its commander 
wished to sail, nor pursue it after it had sailed, until the 
time fixed by maritime law.*' 

The Portuguese were exasperated at the terms of the 
Convention ; they complained bitterly that the French 
should be allowed to carry ofi* all their plunder under the 
designation of private property. 

The English Admiral, Sir Charles Cotton, refused to 
agree to the article in the Armistice for the departure of 
^•>ie Russian fleet ; but signed a separate convention with 
the Russian Admiral, that the Russian fleet should be 
delivered up to the English as a deposit until six months 
after the peace between England and liussia. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 325 

As soon as the terms of the Convention wore known in 
London^ they excited general dissatisfaction. We were 
represented to have lost by negotiation all the advantages 
gained by our arms. Numerous public meetings were 
held^ in which strong resolutions were passed condemning 
the terms of the Convention, and they were embodied in 
petitions to the King, praying for an investigation into the 
subject. Public opinion was so strongly expressed in all 
p€u*ts of the country, and re-echoed from Portugal, that 
the Commander-in-Chief ordered a Board of Inquiry to be 
held at Chelsea. It consisted of seven Greneral Officers, 
and was presided over by Sir David Dundas. It met on 
the 14th of November. The Board reported that it was 
extremely difficult to form a satisfactory opinion, as the 
evidence was conflicting, but that a great advantage was 
gained by the evacuation of Portugal. The King was not 
satisfied with this report, and the Commander-in-Chief 
(the Duke of York) sent it back for the reconsideration of 
the Members of the Board. Their second report was nearly 
the same in substance. All further proceedings were 
dropped. Sir Hugh Dalrymple, however, had lost the 
confidence of the Crown, the army, and the public, and 
he was never again employed to command any expedition. 

351. 
DISCIPLES CATCHING THE MANTLE: THE 
SPIRIT OF DARKNESS OVERSHADOWING 
THE PRIESTS OP BAAL. June 28th, 1808. 

DUKB OF PORTLAND. LORD LIVERPOOL. LORD ELDON. 

CANNING. LORD CASTLERBAGH. PERCEVAL. PITT. 

LORD GRENVILLE. LORD HOWICK. WINDHAM. LORD 

LAUDERDALE. GHOST OF FOX. WillTfiREAD. MARQUIS OF 
BUCKINGHAM. LORD ERSKINE. LORD ST. VINCENT. 

SHERIDAN. LORD SIDMOUTH. LORD MOIRA. DUKE OF 
BEDFORD. 

This is a parody on the Scriptiu'o history of Elijah 



326 OILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

ascending into heaven in a " chariot of fire,*' drawn by 
" horses of fire/* and his mantle descending on Elisha. 
It is applied to the recently-appointed Administration of 
the Duke of Portland. '' The Altar of the Constitution*' 
is erected on " The Rock of Ages ;** upon it is placed the 
Bible and Crown. " Magna Charta, Fortitude and Pru- 
dence** surround the Altar. The members of the new 
Cabinet are assembled around the altar ; their attention is 
suddenly attracted to the luminous appearance of the 
Spirit of their political Elijah, drawn in a chariot of fire, 
by horses of fire, through the celestial atmosphere to the 
region of immortality. In his progress he drops his man- 
tie, and his disciples are endeavouring to catch it, hoping 
to derive inspiration from it. The Duke of Portland, Lord 
Eldon and Perceval are kneeling with their hands raised 
upwards. Lord Liverpool, Canning, Lord Castlereagh, 
and their colleagues are anxiously endeavouring to catch 
the mantle and its inspiration. On the right of the print 
is seen the departed spirit of Fox hovering over his dis- 
ciples, and dropping his ''Republican Mantle** and *' Torch 
of Discord** among them. Lord Grenville is standing on 
the " Broad-Bottom Dunghill ;** he derives '^ comfort" 
from ''Charley*s old Breeches.** Lord Howick is appalled 
by the splendid appearance of Pitt, and the Suake of Envy 
twined round his body is hissing at the chariot and the 
rider. The mask drops from Windbam*s astonished face. 
The affrighted Marquis of Buckingham drops the tiara 
from his head, and the pastoral crook from his hand. 
Egahte (the Duke of Bedford), Lord Moira and Lord 
Erskine are confounded. Lord Sidmouth, overpowered 
by the effects of this " gentle emetic,** has fallen down on 
his back, and is kicking his legs up in the air; the 
affrighted Earl St. Vincent has taken refuge between his 
friend the Doctol*'s legs. Sir Francis Burdett, as Guy 
Fawkes, is hurrying off with the Catholic Petition under his 
ai*m. lie has dropt his dark lantern upon a bai*rel belong- 



POLITICAL SERIES. 327 

ing to the ''Gunpowder Brewery,'' from which Whitbread's 
head is seen emerging. 

We are not enabled to judge on whom " The Mantle'' 
descended ; on some of Pitt's disciples it must have 
certainly set awry. The Portland Administration was 
avowedly formed on Ultra-Protestant principles, or a reso- 
lute determination to resist at all times any relaxation of 
the laws against the Catholics. Perceval was most sincere 
in this determination ; but Canning privately approved 
the measure of the late Ministers, and was eventually one 
of the most powerful and eloquent advocates of Catholic 
Emancipation. Lord Castlereagh, when Secretary for 
Ireland, had gained over many of the leading Catholics by 
holding ont to them the hope of their gaining emancipa- 
tion from the Imperial Parliament, which would certainly 
not be granted by the Irish Parliament ; and Lord Cam- 
den, who had been Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, would have 
been friendly to the measure, but was influenced by defe- 
rence to the feelings of the King. The following curious 
entry occurs in Lord Malmesbury's Diary, Vol. iv. p. 370. 
*' March 19, 1807. Lord Camden is right as to the 
Catholic Bill, hut like many others, not so much against 
the principle of the Bill, as because tlie King has declared 
himself, and he conceives it to be a sort of pledge he had 
given to Pitt, that the question must not be mooted 
during the King's life." 

The series of Gillray's political prints is now drawing 
to a close. We shall therefore take this opportunity of 
making some remarks on Lord Castlereagh. 

Lord Castlereagh commenced his political career in Ire- 
land. He was at first an ardent supporter of Paliamentary 
reform, but his family connections opened office to him, 
and he saw a new light. He was Secretary for Ireland at 
the time the Legislative Union was brought forward, and 
the success of the measure may be justly ascribed chiefly 
to his ability and exertions. It must be confessed he was 



328 gillray's caricatures. 

not always very scrupulous in the means of effecting it ; 
the venality of many of the Irish members of Parliament 
was at that time proverbial ; we must avert our eyes firom 
the degrading spectacle, and turn them to the contempla- 
tion of the solid and permanent benefit conferred on the 
British Empire. The Legislative Union will ever form 
one of the brightest jewels in the Londonderry coronet. 

When the Union was effected, his services were trans- 
ferred to England. He obtained a seat in Lord Sidmouth's 
Cabinet, and in Pitt's on the removal of Sidmouth. On 
the appointment of the Portland Administration he became 
Secretary for the Colonies, to which was assigned the 
conduct of the war. He was the author of the disastrous 
Walcheren Expedition. Canning insisted on his dismissal 
for incompetency. The Duke of Portland was irresolute, 
and while he hesitated. Lord Castlereagh became apprised 
of Canuing^s application to the Duke. He challenged 
Canning, and a duel took place between them on the 2l8t 
of September, 1809. Their resignation of office of course 
followed. On the death of Perceval Lord Liverpool again 
sought his services, and few statesmen ever exercised 
greater control over public afiairs than Lord Castlereagh 
did to the time of his death in 1822. The Peace of Paris 
in 1814 is another jewel resplendent in the Londonderry 
coronet.* We might have here closed our remarks on 
his official conduct, but the publication of the Castlereagh 
Papers by his brother, the Marquis of Londonderry, dis- 
closes a fiict, which alone would be sufficient to confer 
immortality on his name, and honour on his judgment. It 
appears he nominated Lord Wellington to the command of 
the Peninsular army, and enforced the appointment against 
the wishes and remonstrances of George III. The fact 
will probably be new to most of our readers, as very few 
take the trouble to peruse collections of State Papers. The 

* Lord Castlereagh waK elected an '* Kxtra Knight" of the Garter, Jniift 
9, 1814, and became one of the Constituent Com]nuiioub, June 30, 1S17. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 329 

circumstance is so interesting that we shall print George 
the Third's letter entire. " Windsor Castle, Oct. 3, 1809. 
His Majesty has never been induced to admit that Lord 
Castlereagh was wanting in zeal or exertion in providing 
for the reinforcement of his army in Portugal. On the 
contrary, Lord Castlereagh must remember that the King 
was not disposed to question the correctness of the repre- 
sentations made by Sir John Moore, which subsequent 
experience has too fully confirmed ; and although he was 
induced to yield to the advice of his confidential servants, 
he never could look with satisfaction to the prospect of 
another British army being committed in Spain, under the 
possible recurrence of the same difficulties. It was also 
this impression, which prompted the King to acquiesce in 
the appointment of so young a Lieutenant-General as Lord 
Wellington* to the command of the troops in Portugal, as 
he hoped that this consideration would operate with others 
against any considerable odigmentation of the army ; al- 
though that augmentation has been since gradually 
produced by events then not foreseen. In making this 
observation the King is far from meaning to reflect upon 
Lord Wellington, of whose zealous services and abilities 
he has the most favourable opinion, and whose subsequent 
conduct has proved him deserving of the confidence 
reposed in him; but as Lord Castlereagh has laid so 

* Had George III. forgotten that General Wolfe, in the 36th year of hia 
age, had captured Quebec with 7000 men, although defended by the expe- 
rienced Biarqnis de Montcalm, with 20,000 men, and the consequent surren- 
der of the whole of Canada to Great Britain ; or did be undervalue the mili- 
tary policy of Lord Chatham ? '* Considering," says Walpole, ** that our 
ancient officers had grown old on a very small portion of exi)erience, which 
by no means compensated for the decay of fire and vigour, it was Mr. Pitt's 
practice to trust his plans to the alertness and hopes of younger men. This 
appeared particularly in the appointment of Wolfe for the enterprise of Que- 
bec."— (TFbZpok's Memoirs of George II. Vol. ii. p. 346.) It might have 
been expected that the military genius and the brilliant achievements which 
had already marked Lord Wellington's career, would at once have out- 
weighed the want of a few additional yelurs in the King's mind. Uc was 
already forty years of age. 



330 gillray's cahicatubes. 

much stress upon this pointy his Majesty has considered 
it due to himself and to Lord Castlereagh, to shew clearly 
he had never entertained an idea that there had been any 
neglect on his part in providing for that service/' — {See 
Castlereagh Papers and Carrespondence, Vol. i. p. 18.) 

It only remains to speak of Lord Castlereagh's Parlia- 
mentary exertions. He had no pretensions to the charac- 
ter of an orator. His diction was inelegant^ his sentences 
involved ; the extraordinary phraseology which he some- 
times employed^ and the confusion of his metaphors^ would 
sometimes provoke the laugh or the ridicule of his oppo- 
nents ; as when he descanted on '^ the ignorant impatience 
of taxation,^' or hoped " the House would not turn its back 
on itself/' yet, notwithstanding these defects, he exercised 
a powerful influence over the House of Commons, by his 
courtesy, by his habits of business, and the advantages he 
derived from his official information. If any new or extra- 
ordinary measure, even of finance, was attempted during 
the Liverpool Administration, the charge of introducing it 
was committed to Lord Castlereagh. He unhappily com- 
mitted suicide by cutting his throat on the 12th of August, 
1822. His friends said his mind had been overworked^ 
and the verdict of the Coroner's inquest adjudged the rash 
act to have been committed " during a fit of temporary 
insanity."* 

Lord Grey, whom Gillray has placed under Fox's 
*' Republican Mantle," was first returned to Parliament 
for the county of Northumberland in the year 1786. He 
had not then quite attained his twenty-first year, and 
in consequence waited a short time after his return before 

* The Marqnifl of Londonderry has jast erected (1850) a monnmental 
statue to the memory of his brother in the north transept of Westminster 
Abbey. The figure is the size of life. He is represented in the attitude oi 
speaking. He holds a scroll in his hand, inscribed, ** Tub Peacb of 
Paris, 181 1." The statae is executed in the purest white Carrara marble 
by J. Eyan Thomas. On the pedestal is judiciously inscribed, ** Ireland 

WILL KKV£B FOAG&T TUE bXATEbMAK OM THE LEOIbLATlTE UmIOH." 



POLITICAL SERIES. 331 

he took his seat in the House. His first speech was against 

Pitt's commercial treaty with France. He displayed so 

much talent in his early speeches— his manner was so dig- 

nified, and his elocution was so graceful and impressive — 

that he was appointed one of the managers of Hastings's 

impea.chment. For many years he fought, side by side 

with Fox, the battles of constitutional liberty, advocated 

the freedom of the press, resisted the suspension of the 

Habeas Corpus Act and the restrictions imposed on public 

meetings* He strenuously opposed the war with France, 

and condemned every attempt of this country to interfere 

with the forms of Government adopted in other countries. 

He commenced his life as a Parliamentary reformer, and 

did not belie the promises of his youth, but when he became 

Prime Minister carried into effect a more salutary and eflS- 

cient reform than he himself originally contemplated. It 

was upon the rejection of his motion for Parliamentary 

Reform in 1797, that the secession of the Opposition took 

place. Despairing of carrying into effect any proposition 

of economy or reform, or inducing the Government to 

listen to any pacific overtures, the Opposition resolved to 

discontinue their regular attendance, and not assist in 

merely ''registering the edicts of the Ministry.'* Fox 

himself allowed the secession was a measure of doubtful 

policy. On the appointment of the Addington Ministry 

and the Peace of Amiens, the Opposition resumed their 

Parliamentary attendance. Mr. Grey and Mr. Thomas 

Grenville were principally instrumental in effecting the 

Foxite and Grenville co-operation in Parliament, which 

overturned the Addington Administration. We shall 

pass over the well-known circumstances attending Pitt's 

accession to office. At his death the Fox and Grenville 

Administration was formed, and Mr. Grey became First 

Lord of the Admiralty, and, on the death of Mr. Fox, 

Secretary for Foreign Affairs. The proposed admission 

of Roman Catholic officers into the army and navy caused 

the dissolution of the Ministry. 



332 qillray's caricatures. 

Lord Grey was once again an active leader of Opposi- 
tion, and continued so in connection with Lord Grenville; 
until a diflTerence of opinion arising between these two 
Statesmen on the Peninsular War, Lord Grenville retired 
from Parliament, and closed his political life. Lord Grey 
became comparatively inactive in public affairs, until the 
trial of Queen Caroline. He displayed extraordinary 
ability in analysing the evidence adduced against her, and 
vindicated the cause of a Princess, whom he represented 
to have never received the aflTections of a husband, but to 
have been insulted and oppressed by him, from the very 
commencement of the unfortunate alliance. 

On the termination of the proceedings against Queen 
Caroline, Lord Grey again relapsed into inactivity. In 
1827 a circumstance occurred, which was the most painful 
and galling to the feelings of Lord Grey which he had 
ever experienced. On the death of the Earl of Liverpool, 
Canning was appointed Prime Minister. The Marquis of 
Lansdowne, Lord Holland, and most of the leading Whigs, 
and dearest friends of Earl Grey, resolved to support 
Canning, hoping to secure thereby a more liberal system 
of Government, and annihilate the predominance of Tory 
influence. The cause of this excited feeling is thus 
admirably described by the Reviewer of Miss Martineau's 
*' History of England during the Thirty Years' Peace,** 
in the Athenceii/ni of April 7, 1849. ''Between these 
Statesmen (Canning and Grey) there had been a feud of 
twenty years' standing; envenomed by sallies of wit, 
epigram and lampoon* on one side — by reprisals of scorn, 
defiance and disdain on the other. Lord Grey believed 
his own political life to be closed j his dearest and most 
trusted associates had joined the new Ministry^ and be 
sat almost alone on the Opposition benches, surrounded 
by adversaries with whom he had no sympathy. It was 

* On Canning's being appointed Secretary for Foreign Affain. hia friend 
Lord Malmesbnry regrots '* his dangerous habit of qaizssing, which he can* 
not reftraiQ."— Afaltnesbury'5 Diary, Vol. i?. p. 367. 



POUTICAL SBRIES. 333 

the deep melancholy, the resigned calmness of his memor- 
able speech, which rendered its invective so telling and 
BO cutting. It was aptly compared by a foreign writer 
to ' the frozen wind, which chills, benumbs and renders 
powerless/ It touched the Minister with the icy finger 
of death. Canning paid a heavy penalty for the spirit of 
contempt which was the least worthy attribute of his 
genius. It met at last in deadly conflict the loftier spirit 
of scorn, and perished in the contest.*' Perhaps the last 
sentence is rather overstated, for the speeches of the 
Duke of Wellington and others of his former colleagues 
had deeply wounded his feelings ; Canning, who never 
spared sarcasm, ridicule, or ludicrous allusions when 
assailing an opponent, was himself the most sensitive of 
men. 

We shall now pass at once to the appointment of Lord 
Grrey as Prime Miniyter. His policy evinced the sincerity 
of his political professions out of office. After a most 
arduous struggle he triumphantly carried Parliamentary 
Reform, completed the measures for the Abolition of the 
Slave Trade> and laid the foundation of Ecclesiastical 
Reform in Ireland by consolidating some of the bishoprics, 
and applying the revenues of those suppressed and of the 
overgrown livings, to the improvement of small livings, 
and making better provision for the working Clergy. He 
also commenced the plan of National Education. These 
salutary measures will hand his name down to posterity 
as a benefactor of his country. Earl Grey died on the 
17th of July^ 1845, in the 82nd year of his age. 

352. 
PANDORA OPENING HER BOX. 

February 22nd, 1809. 

MART ANN CLARKE. 

The conception of this print is remarkably happy. Pan- 
dora (Mrs. Clarke) is standing at the bar of the House of 



334 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 



» 



Commons. She has just taken off the " Cover of Infamy 
from the ^' Opposition Stink Box/* Innumerable serpents 
issue forth, hissing out, '' Perjury, Deceit, Revenge, In- 
gratitude, Lies and Calumny/' The '' Broad-Bottom 
Eeservoir'* is open to receive ''Forged Letters,'* ''Forged 
" Appointments,** " Commissions and Appointments to 
the best Bidder,** " Prices of Commissions in the Army, 
A. Clarke, Seer.** "Private Communwationa from his 
Excellency the Morocco Ambassador.'* "Love Letters 
from Mr. Waddle** (Col. Wardle). " List of Mrs. Clarke's 
Pensions,** &c. 

We will recall to the recollection of the reader the attri- 
butes of the mythological Pandora, that he may the better 
perceive the felicity of the application of the allegory in 
this print. Jupiter having resolved to punish the pre- 
sumption of Prometheus in stealing fire from heaven, com- 
manded Vulcan to make a woman of clay, and breathe life 
into her. The deities of Olympus vied with each other in 
bestowing accomplishments and the power of fascination 
upon her. Venus gave her beauty and the art of pleasing, 
— the Graces imparted to her the power of captivating, — 
Apollo instructed her in music, — Mercury endowed her 
with eloquence, — Minerva gave her splendid ornaments. 
Jupiter presented her with a beautiful box, and ordered 
her not to open it till she was married, but present it to 
her husband on her wedding-day. Mercury introduced 
her to Prometheus ; the sagacious mortal, however, dis- 
trusted Jupiter and his present, and declined the con- 
nection ; his less intuitive brother, Epimetheus, accepted 
the hand and the box of Pandora. The fatal consequences 
are well known. 

On the 27th of January, 1809, Col. Wardle brought 
forward his charges against the Duke of York. He ani- 
madverted with great energy on the Duke*s corrupt abuse 
of the Half-Pay Fund. The produce of this Fund arises 
from commissions falling in by the death or dismissal of 



POLITICAL SBBIES. 335 

officers from the army ; when the commissions are sold^ 
and the amount applied to the purchase of commissions 
for meritorious officers, the Compassionate Fund, or other 
military purposes. The Fund is under the sole control 
of the Commander-in-chief. He said, he should prove 
that, from 1803 to 1806, the Duke of York had a mistress, 
Mrs. Clarke, living in great splendour in Gloucester Place. 
This lady had a scale of prices for the sale of commissions, 
and he would lay before the House Mrs. Clarke's prices 
and the regulated prices. 

Mrs. Clarke's Prices.' Regulated Prices. 



A Majority . £900 

A Company . 700 

A Lieutenancy . 400 

An Ensigncy . 200 



£2600 
1500 

550 
400 



Every sale of a commission effected by Mrs. Clarke was 
a loss to the Half-Pay Fund of the difference between her 
price and the regulated price. He then gave a long detail 
of sales effected by her, the name and rank of the officer, 
and the sums paid ; a list of exchanges of commissions as 
effected by her, &c. &c. Her patronage was also extended 
to ecclesiastics. Dr. O'Meara wished ** to preach before 
Royalty,'' and it was accomplished by the Duke of York's 
influence, &c. He moved that a Committee of the whole 
House investigate the subject. The motion was agreed to^ 
and the witnesses ordered to be summoned. 

On the 1st of February, in all the pride and bloom of 
beauty, the lovely Thais stood at the bar of the House ; 
her appearance created great sensation. Many a Member 
doubtless longed ''to take a leap at her lips.''* Her 
examination-in-chief was conducted by Col. Wardle. She 
confirmed his opening statements by oral testimony and 

* The expression of the Page in Massinger's " Maid of Honour/' Act II. 
Scene 2. 

22 



336 oillray's cabicatubes. 

written documents. In her cross-examination she exhi- 
bited extraordinary self-possession, quickness in repartee> 
and baffled her interrogators by the poignancy of her wit, 
and exciting the laughter of the House against them, and 
sometimes converted the question intended to degrade her 
into the means of annoying the Duke of York. The 
Attorney-General asked if she was not a married woman f 
She replied. You have no reason to doubt it. " Have you 
not sworn you were a widow? ^' " Never/' " Not at a court- 
martial V* " No.'' " The Judge Advocate, who is present in 
the House, can affirm that." '' He had more feeling than 
the gentleman who is now examining me, and he permitted 
me to state that without swearing to it. He knew that I 
was living with the Duke of York at the time, and that I 
was a married woman, and the Duke of York a married 
man. The Duke was not aware that I had not been 
sworn to the statement of being a widow, and when I 
applied to him for a few hundreds after our separation, he 
sent me a message, threatening to have me put into the 
pillory, or into the Bastile, if I dared to publish any of 
his letters." Attorney -General : — "Who brought that 
message from the Duke to you ?'' "A very particular friend 
of the Duke of York's." '' Who ?" '' One Taylor, a shoe- 
maker in Bond Street, very well known to Mr. Adam."* 
^'By whom did you send the request to the Duke for these 
few hundreds, to which the Duke sent that answer by 
Taylor ?" '' By my pen." *' How did you send this letter ?" 
" By the Ambassador of Morocco ?" '' What do you mean by 
the Ambassador of Morocco ?" '' Taylor, the ladies' shoe- 
maker in Bond Street." 

She invariably returned a prompt and keen retort to 

questions asked solely for the purpose of annoyance. The 

House listened with evident pleasure '' to the voice of the 

charmer." Even the grave Wilberforce made these entries 

* W. Adam, Esq., afterwards Chief Baron of Scotland. 



POLITICAL SEBIES. 337 

in his diary. "This melancholy business will do irre- 
parable mischief to public morals^ by accustoming the 
public to hear without emotion shameless violation of 
decency. The House examining Mrs. Clarke for two 
hours — cross-examining her in the Old Bailey way, — she 
elegantly dressed, consummately impudent, and very cle- 
ver, clearly got the better in the tussle. A number of 
particulars let out about her life, mother, children, &c.^^ — 
{Wilberforce's Life, Vol. iii. p. 402.) And again, "Mrs. 
Clarke, by fascinating the House, has prevented its de- 
gradation, by appearing to stifle the inquiry, and take too 
strong a part with the Duke of York. Curious to see how 
strongly she has won upon the people.'* — (Vol. iii. p. 403.) 
In the course of the proceedings, which lasted nearly two 
months, Mrs. Clarke had stated that General Claveriug 
had offered her a pecuniary compliment to procure his 
appointment to one of the new regiments about to be 
raised. As the levy did not take place, and consequently 
no money had been paid, the circumstance would have 
passed unnoticed by the House ; but General Clavering 
had the folly to obtrude himself as a voluntary witness, 
and solemnly deny the truth of the allegation. Mrs. 
Clarke reaffirmed her statement, and confirmed her testi- 
mony by the production of the Duke of York's letter in 
answer to the application. " Sandgate, August 24, 1804. 
Clavering is mistaken, my angel, in thinking that any new 
.regiments are to be raised ; it is not intended, only second 
battalions to the existing corps ; you had better, there- 
fore, tell him so, and that you were sure that there would 
be no use in applying for him.'' General Clavering was 
re-examined, and prevaricated so grossly, that the House 
committed him to Newgate. Captain Sandon was also 
committed for prevarication to the same prison. The ex- 
amination of witnesses at length closed, after an interval 
of nearly two months. Col. Wardle summed up, and con- 

22 * 



338 oillbat's caricatures. 

eluded by moving that the Duke of York had been guilty 
of corrupt practices and connivance, and praying for his 
dismissal from the command of the army. Mr* Bankes 
moved an amendment, acquitting the Duke of York of 
personal corruption or corrupt connivance, but addressing 
the Eling to remove the Duke for gross irregularities and 
negligence. In a House consisting of nearly 500 Mem- 
bers, Bankes's amendment was lost only by 95, at a period 
when the influence of the Crown was almost paramount. 
Windham made an admirable and most candid speech. 
He analysed the proceedings with consummate ability. 
He said, the House must narrowly examine the evidence 
of Mrs. Clarke ; she was a partisan. But she had answered 
eveiy interrogation with frankness and openness, without 
hesitation, equivocation, or evasion. She was a bad wit- 
ness giving good testimony. Sometimes, when her parole 
testimony might seem improbable, she had established it 
by incontestable written documents. He acquitted the 
Duke of York of personal corruption or connivance, but 
considered the irregularities which hadbeen proved required 
hi. ™.o,.l, if not Scipsted b, hi, vol. A -ig^". 
He then indignantly anm[iadverted on the conduct of Col. 
Wardle, in surreptitiously taking many of the documents 
from Mrs. Clarke's house against her will and remonstrance. 
'' It did not make greatly in favour of a cause that it began 
by a breach of confidence, and that it owed the possession 
of a main part of its evidence to an act of violence, com-^ 
mitted in a house to which admission had been procured 
upon terms of apparent friendship. This was the state- 
ment admitted, or not contradicted, by the party. Mrs. 
Clarke says, that the papers were taken from the table in 
her presence, and without her consent, and against her 
consent. If this protest of hers, made at the time, was 
mere pretence; if her resistance was merely foigned ; if the 
whole was a sort of permitted rape, or a little love struggle. 



POLITICAL 8B£I£S. 339 

' PignoB dereptam laoertis, 

Aat digito male pertiiiaci/* 

he should only observe, that it was not treating the House 
very respectfully, in a matter pretty important ; if upon 
such grounds, they were to be made to believe that Mrs. 
Clarke was an unwilling witness, and entitled to all the 
additional credit, on one side, which such a character 
would give her. But if the facts really were as she stated, 
and as the Honourable Mover did not seem to deny ; if 
the papers were in truth taken by him from her table, he 
entering the house as he did, and she protesting bona fide 
against the proceeding, other gentlemen must think as they 
liked, but he must declare for his own part, that there was 
no one article of the charges against the Duke of York, 
proved or unproved, which he would not rather confess to, 
than be guilty of the act so described. It was at least a 
pretty good reason why he should have been shy, as his 
Honourable Friends were accused of being, of mixing in a 
cause, of which such an act stood in the front/' 

On the 15th of March, Mr. Perceval moved and carried 
a resolution, absolving the Duke of York from all personal 
corruption or criminal connivance. An animated debate 
ensued. Mr. Windham said, '' He should hear, he must 
confess, with great delight, that no necessity existed for 
any further opinion, but that the Royal personage had of 
himself decided to quit a situation, which he could not 
liold, with satisfaction to himself, longer than while he 
could hold it to the general satis&ction of the country. 
Such a decision could not be construed as admitting in the 
smallest degree the truth of anything charged against him. 

* The quotation is from Horace ; the whole gtanza rnns thus : — 

*' Nnuc et latentis proditer intimo 
Gratus paellas risuB ab angnlo, 
Fignnsqae dereptnm lacertis, 
Aut digito male pcrtinaci." 



340 qillrat's caricatures. 

It was a submission to public opinion. Nothing could do 
more credit to the feelings of the country, nor at the same 
time shew more strongly the general purity of the ad- 
ministration of its affairs^ than the commotions excited by 
any thing that had the appearance even of a departure 
from that purity. It was a feeling which one could not 
wish less. A homage paid to such a feeling was no ad- 
mission of the truth of its application in the particular 
case.^' On the 1 8th of March, Wilberf orce wrote to Lord 
Muncaster, '^ Perceval carried last night his vote of pur- 
gation, but unless the Duke of York should resign before 
Monday, I am sanguine in my expectation, that we shall 
either carry the question for his removal, or for some mea- 
sure which must lead to it, as to render it prudent for him 
to take the hint.^* — {Wilberf orce' 8 Life, Vol. iii. p. 4f05.) 
On the 20th of March, the Chancellor of the Exchequer 
(Perceval) announced to the House of Commons that the 
Duke of York had resigned the command of the army.* 
Lord Althorpe moved " that the Duke of York having 
resigned the command of the army,t the House does not 
now think it necessary to proceed any further in the con- 
sideration of the evidence before the Committee.'* Perce- 
val moved to omit the word ^' now/^ otherwise proceedings 
against the Duke might be revived at a future period ; and 
this amendment was carried. 

The Parliamentary proceedings here closed ; but Mrs. 
Clarke was not yet appeased. She announced for intended 
publication. Memoirs of her Life, and particularly of her 
transactions during her connection with the Duke of Yorkj 

* The Dake of Cumberland sent Mr. R. Thornton to Wilberforoe to in- 
quire if he intended to take any further proceedings now the Duke of Toik 
had resigned. '* Thornton sajs, the Duke of Cumberland told him, the 
King and all of them were extremely angry with me. Yet what ooold I do 
as an honest man ?*'-~{Wtlherforce*8 Life, vol. iii. p. 406.) 

t Sir David Dundas was appointed his successor, and held the appoint- 
ment for two years, and then resigned. The Duke of York was re- appointed, 
and held the command of the army until his death. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 341 

accompanied with a series of Letters of the Duke of York, 
and of persons treating with her for preferment. A nego- 
tiation was opened with her for the suppression of these 
Memoirs^ and said to be concluded on the terms of imme- 
diate payment of £7000 in cash, and the grant of an 
annuity of £400 for her life guaranteed to her. All the 
disgraceful exposures might have been prevented had the 
Duke paid her the stipulated annuity of £400, for it ap- 
pears she never once annoyed the Duke until £500 was 
due to her, and her applications for payment met by scorn 
and menace. 

353. 
APOTHEOSIS OF THE CORSICAN PHCENIX. 

August 2ndy 1808. 

Gillray has placed the following inscription under this 
print : — '' When the phoenix is tired of life, he builds a 
nest upon the mountains, and setting it on fire by the 
wafting of his own wings, he himself perishes in the flames, 
and from the smoke of his ashes arises a new phoenix to 
illuminate the world.'' 

The ancients described this fabulous bird, or bird with 
fabulous attributes ascribed to it, to be the size of an 
eagle, its head crested with a beautiful plumage, its neck 
covered with feathers of gold colour, and its eyes sparkling 
like stars. It is said to live five or six hundred years, and 
when it has attained this extreme old age, it builds a pile 
of sweet wood and aromatic gums, which it sets fire to, 
and consumes itself in the flames. From its ashes it rises 
again in lusty youth and invigorated strength. 

A crown is here placed on the head of the Imperial 
Phoenix, and a '^ Cordon d'Honneur*' round his neck. He 
has erected a pile, consisting of the countries of Portugal, 
Spain, France, Algiers, Africa, &c. and has set fire to it. 
His sparkling eyes survey with satisfaction the flames in 
which he is enveloped, and has devoted himself to self- 
immolation. 



342 QILLBAY^S CABICATUBES. 

At the top of the print we see him in his renovated form 
of a dove^ bearing an olive-branch in his mouthy and con- 
veying '' Peace on earth/' This print is intended as a 
satire npon Napoleon's professions of an ardent wish for 
a general pacification made at this time. 

354. 
OVERTHROW OF THE REPUBLICAN BABEL. 

May 1«^, 1809. 

fiOSVILLE. LORD CASTLEBEAQH. CANNING. FEBGEVAL. 

HOBNE TOOKB. WISHABT. COBBETT. SIB F. BUBDETT. 
ABBOTT. WHITBBEAD. LOBD TEMPLE. LORD LAUDEBDALS. 
MABY ANNE CLABKE. COL. WABDLE. LOBD FOLKESTONE. 

GiUray has placed this inscription under the print :— 
'' And they said, Go to^ let us build us a city and a tower, 
whose top may reach unto heaven, and let us make us a 
name. But they were scattered abroad upon the face of 
the earth, and they left off to build the city.*' — Gtenesis, 
chapter xi. 

The scene is the House of Commons. Speaker Abbott 
holds in his left hand a roll, inscribed '' Justice Trium- 
phant. — Decisions of the Rt. Hon. the House of Com- 
mons. — Majority against the Evidence of a Prostitute. — 
Majority against the Machinations of Republicans and 
Levellers.^' The Speaker wields the mace in his right 
hand, and is directing blows at the assailants of the Duke 
of York. Lord Castlereagh, Canning and Perceval are 
blowing the attacks into the air, and to complete the con- 
fusion of the assailants, a "Royal Watcr-spout'^ is descend- 
ing upon them. Mrs. Clarke is overthrown. A ceinture 
of " Ligratitude*' is round her waist. " Mrs. A. Clarke's 
Old Conjuring Muff is to be sold to the best Bidder ;'' her 
phmder is dropping from her. Col. Wardle is upset. His 
** Private Reasons*' are discovered. In his fall the Colonel 
has dropped a paper from his hand, entitled, *' Abuses in 
tlio Army Department inconte&tably proved on the words 



POLITICAJi SEBIES. 343 

of a Prostitute and her Paramour/' and his " Motion for 
granting Pensions to all Whores and their Maids/' Lord 
Folkestone in his fall drops his " Patriotic Harangues,'' 
" Motions for Kicking up a Row in the House of Com- 
mons," and his " Hints from Cobbett." A 'f Barrel of 
Mischief" has fallen on the prostrate Whitbread; "Cocus 
Indicus and Quassia" are issuing out of it. He has dropped 
his *' Essay upon Political Brewing without Malt or Hops." 
Lord Temple has fallen down the '^ Broad-Bottom Ijadder 
of Ambition." " Foolscap Paper for Broad-Bottoms" and 
" Stationery for the Paymaster for attacking the Ministry" 
are scattered round him. Sir Francis Burdett is tumbling 
down the '^ Republican Ladder of Ambition ;" his fall is 
eased by the pitchfork of the Hampshire Hog Private," 
Cobbett. Cobbett himself is standing on the '^ Sand-hill 
of Opposition." Behind him are ranged Home Tooke, in 
the character of Guy Fawkes, with his lantern, Bosville, 
Wishart holding up ** the Westminster Address," &c. &c. 
A satire on those who supported Col. Wardle's charges 
against the Duke of York in the affair of Mrs. Clarke. 
The Duke of York might rejoice, but unfortunately had 
no reason to feel pride at the result of the investigation ; 
for it must be remembered that the proceedings termi- 
nated with a resolution, '' that the Duke of York having 
resigned the command of the army, the House does not 
think it necessary to proceed any further in the consi- 
deration of the evidence before the Committee." 

355. 

AN OLD ENGLISH GENTLEMAN PESTERED 
BY SERVANTS WANTING PLACES. 

May \&th, 1809. 

LORD H. PETTY. SIB P. BURDETT. COBBETT. TOWNSHBND. 
WHITBREAD. LORD SIDMOUTH. LORD OBENVILLE. LORD 
TEMPLE. MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. WINDHAM. LORD 



344 gillrat's caricatures. 

HOIRA. LORD ER8EINE. QEOROE III. DITKE OF PORTLAND. 
LORD ORET. PERCEVAL. TIERNEY. LORD CASTLEREAGH. 
CANNING. LORD LIVERPOOL. DUKE OF BEDFORD. LORD 
CARLISLE. LORD ST. VINCENT. DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

The Old English Gentleman (George III.) is Burroonded 
by a host of applicants for places. Lord Grenville, bowing 
almost to the ground, says, " Does your Honour want a 
steady Broad-BottomM coachman to drive you?'' The 
Marquis of Buckingham says, ^' We'll do anything," and 
Earl Temple adds, '^ in any way." Lord Grey, depicted 
as a Grey-hound, has his paws on the Duke of Portland, 
and says, '^ Pray, throw me a bone, — your Grace, — a 
bone !" The Duke replies, '' Ha ! ha I ha I Throw you a 
bone ! for what ? a bone to a poor silly Grey-hound, that 
can only yelp, and neither bite, nor keep the French wolf 
from the door!" Tiemey is jogging Perceval's elbow, 
and says, '' Pray, Mr. Chancellor P., do speak a word in 
our favour to his Honour !" Perceval answers, '^ A word 
in your favour, Mr. T. ! I fear I shall not find a word of 
that kind in aU England." Sheridan is soliciting Canning, 
'' Pray, Mr. Secretary C, has his Honour any wish for our 
services ?" Canning : '^ Not the least wish, I believe." 
The Duke of Bedford : '' I can look after your Honour's 
estates in Ireland, or take care of your farms at Windsor." 
Windham : '^ His Honour don't take any notice of the 
Civil Speeches I lately made." Lord Moira: *'I wish 
that his Honour would but give a nod this way ! " Erskine : 
^^ Ego, I have had my hat in my hand for this fortnight 
in hopes of an opportunity to make a bow." Lord Sid- 
mouth, bowing with his hat in his lefl hand, and a cathartic 
in his right, says, '^ Pray, your Honour, remember Doctor 
Slop, your own Apothecary, who physics the French." 
Whitbread : " If his Honour wants an Iwnest Porter^ 
I'm his man." By his side lies " Sam. Froth his knot, 
carries any weight in any weather," &c. &c. The Old 
Gentleman (George III.) says, " Well, Gentlemen, I 



POLITICAL SBBIES. 345 

bave taken a peep at 70a all ; but I'm afraid tHat you 
won't doj for some of you are too heavy and Broad- 
Bottom'd^ and the rest seem to have no bottom at all ; 
so. Gentlemen^ I think I shall be content with my old 
servants/' 



356. 

THE INTRODUCTION OF THE POPE TO THE 
CONVOCATION AT OXFORD, BY THE CAR- 
DINAL BROAD-BOTTOM. 

December Ist, 1809. 

MARQUIS OF BUCKINGHAM. CANNING. LORD GRET. 

LORD GRENVILLE. NAPOLEON. LORD TEMPLE. 

Gillray has affixed this inscription over the print : — 

'' GtoLGOTHA, OR THE PlACB OF SkULLS.*' 

The Oxford Convocation has assembled to elect a Chan- 
cellor. Lord Grenville, habited as a Cardinal^ is present- 
ing the " Catholic Petition for the vacant Chancellorship^ 
with a Plan for erecting a new Popish Sanhedrim^ on the 
rains of old Alma Mater.'* The Pope, arrayed in his 
pontificals, has his tiara on his head, his right hand holds 
his crosier, his left holds np the train of Cardinal Broad- 
Bottom (Lord Grenville). Buonaparte is seen secreted 
under the Pope's robe. The person to whom Lord Gren- 
ville presents the petition leads a " Popish Greyhound'' 
(Lord Grey) in a string ; he receives the petition cour- 
teously, and says, " Well done, my children, this is all the 
Convocation I would have." This person's mask being 
a little drawn aside, the Author of all Evil is discovered. 
The Marquis of Buckingham, habited as an ecclesiastic, 
holds up the devil's tail. The Archbishop of York has 
the *' York Mass Book" open before him. The Bishops of 
London, St. Asaph, Oxford and Norwich have the " Mass 
Book" of their respective dioceses before them ; intended 



346 GILLBAT^S CARICATURES. 

to indicate that they are about to vote for Lord Grenville. 
All the ecclesiastics are in full canonicals ; some of the 
minor dignitaries have mass-books in their hands^ others 
have skull-caps. Lord Temple, looking like a jolly priest* 
carries the cup^ containing the consecrated wafer; the 
figure next him carries a lighted torch. 

The Duke of Portland's death on the 30th of October, 
1809, caused a vacancy in the Chancellorship of the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. The choice of his successor excited, on 
this occasion, intense interest, not only in the University, 
but throughout the Kingdom. Lord Grenville announced 
himself as a candidate for the honour ; a delegation from 
numerous Members of the University invited Lord Eldon 
to allow himself to be put into nomiuation ; and another 
deputation invited the Duke of Beaufort. Lord Grrenville's 
literary attainments seemed to point him out as the best 
qualified to preside over a learned body. He was not only 
eminently skilled in the learning of Greece and Borne; but 
his attainments in general literature were of a high order. 
Lord Eldon was one of the most distinguished Chancellors 
who had ever filled the marble chair ; but, immersed in 
the active duties of a professional life, he had neglected 
literature for the severer studies of the law. The only 
pretension of the Duke of Beaufort was his elevated rank. 
Lord Eldon, however, contrived to give the contest a poli- 
tical character. He always endeavoured to persuade him- 
self and the public that his own personal interests were 
bound up with those of the Church and State ; his defeat 
would be the immediate precursor of Catholic Emancipa- 
tion, — his success would be the confirmation and security 
of the Protestant interest. He wrote to his brother. Sir 
W. Scott : — " If principles of such importance as those 
upon which the request to me has been put are really at 
issue, I wish the request had been made to some person 
of higher character and consequence in the State ; and 
though I should never have thought of offering myself to 



POLITICAL SBRIES. 347 

a contest, in which disappointment must affect my family as 
long as my nams shall he remembered, I could not possibly 
avoid compliance with that request which has been ad- 
dressed to me/' — {Twiss's Life of Eldon, Vol. ii. p. 109.) 

He endeavoured to instil these sentiments into the 
King's mind. He writes to Sir W. Scott : '' The King 
to-day said it would be hard if Cambridge had a Unitarian 
Chancellor,* and Oxford a Popish one." The election of 
Chancellor was fixed for the 13th and 14bh of December. 
Every nerve was now strained to secure the contested 
dignity. We shall extract the following paragraph from 
the Oxford Herald of December 16th. " The election has 
excited more interest than any that has preceded it in the 
recollection of the oldest Member of the University. Votes 
came from the remotest parts of the Kingdom, all the car- 
riages and horses to a considerable distance were engaged, 
and every inn was filled. The Undergraduates having left 
the University previous to the commencement of the elec- 
tion, most of the non-resident electors were supplied with 
rooms in the Colleges.'' And the annexed communication 
was furnished to the Oxford Herald of December 23rd by 
an Academic correspondent : — 

^' The casting-up the numbers and the scrutiny occupied 
above two hours, and was a stage of the election full of 
suspense and expectation. 

'' The order in which the three candidates were first 
mentioned was determined by their respective rank ; yet an 
idea had prevailed that the name of the successful candidate 
would be the first pronounced. From this misconception 
it happened, that Lord Eldon's name, as Chancellor of 

* Henry Dnke of Grafton, who had been Prime Minister, and is " damned 
to everlasting fame" by the Letters of Junius. He became a convert to 
Unitarianism, and attended Dr. Lindsey's chapel in Essex Street. He left 
a manuscript memoir of his conversion, which his son, the late Duke, com- 
mitted to the flames. He also left a Memoir of his Political Life, which is 
in the possession of the present Duke, who permitted Sir Denis Lc Marchant 
to make extracts from it, which are printed in the Appendix to yoL iv. of 
Walpole's Memoirs of George the Third, p. 376—423. 



348 qillrat's cabicatubes. 

England, being first in the Ust, a momentary persuasion 
was entertained that his Lordship had the majority of 
votes, and his friends had begun to testify their joy. But 
when their names were read over a second time, in order 
to declare the numbers. Lord Grenville's was called the 
first, a precedence which signified his legitimate election. 
A loud shout instantly burst forth from the friends of the 
Chancellor elect. This sudden expression of feelings at 
success in a great object is too natural a circumstance to 
be marked by any severity of censure, but in the present 
instance, considering the place where it was shewn, it was 
perhaps a little inconsistent with the decorum of an Aca- 
demical body/' 

The following were the numbers declared at the con- 
clusion of the election : — 

Lord Grenville . . 406 

LordEldon ... 393 

Duke of Beaufort . . 288 

The number who voted amounted to 1087, and the 

whole who had a right to vote amounted only to 1274. 

There remained, therefore, only 187* persons who did not 

vote on this occasion. All the Bishops, who had a vote 

for the election of Chancellor in the University of Oxford, 

voted for Lord Grenville, except two who voted for Lord 

Eldon. 

Lord Eldon was grievously disappointed at the result. 
He complained '^ that he had been sacrificed to a Fox- 
hunting Duke," and even in a letter to Sir William Scott, 
doubts whether he may not feel himself compelled to 
resign the Great Seal. What shall we say to the absurdity 
of such a declaration ? In speaking of so great a man as 
Lord Eldon, we will only call it extraordinary self-delusion, 
but we may be sure that he never seriously contemplated 
for a moment the resignation of the Great Seal. He held 
it " digito pertinaci,'* until the dissolution of the Adminis- 
tration by the death of Lord Liverpool. 

* Of these 187 persons some no doubt paired off. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 349 

357. 

TRUE REFORM OF PARLIAMENT, i. e. PATRIOTS 
LIGHTING A REVOLUTIONARY BONFIRE IN 
NEW PALACE YARD. June Uth, 1809. 

COL. WARDLE. COBBETT. LORD FOLKESTONE. COUNSELLOR 
CLIFFORD. BOSVILLE. HORNE TOOKE. WHITBREAD. 

QRATTAN. SIR F. BURDETT. LORD TEMPLE. MARQUIS 
OF BUCKINGHAM. 

The Parliamentary Reformers, assembled in New Palace 
Yard, are about to sacrifice a hecatomb of the Ancient 
Laws and Constitution of England. Sir Francis Burdett 
is addressing the assembled patriots, previous to the fiery 
celebration. He tells them, that " it is only in the House 
of Commons that the people of England are spoken of 
with contempt and caluminated. Can things be remedied 
by Bills ? No ! it must be by an honest House of Com- 
mons. What is the use of Magna Charta, Habeas Corpus, 
or the Bill of Rights V Below him is seen the " Resolu- 
tion of the Whig Club, that it is the decided opinion of 
this Club, that no substantial and permanent good can be 
derived by the country, from any change of Ministry, 
unless accompanied by an entire change of system, 
accomplished by an entire Reform of the Parliament.*' 
Whitbread is bringing on his shoulder, " Pro Bono 
Publico, a well-pitched old beer-barrel to crown the 
bonfire.*' It is painted ^' Whitbread's Entire." He 
empties out of it into the Revolutionary Bonfire, "Respect 
to the Crown,*' " Rules and Orders of the House of Com- 
mons," and " Dignities of the House of Lords." Home 
Tooke, depicted as Guy Fawkes, has the lighted '' Torch 
of Sedition" in his right hand, and a dark lantern in his 
left. He is setting fire to the " Rights of the House of 
Brunswick to the Throne," to " Magna Charta," to the 
Bill of Rights," " Habeas Corpus," &c. Bosville is by 



350 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

his side, conveying to the flames the " Act against 
Fomenting Treasons/' Lord Folkestone is preparing to 
burn the "Act against Seditious Meetings,'' and the ''Act 
against Bribery and Corruption." Col. Wardle is seated 
on the right side of Lord Folkestone ; he is preparing to 
consign to the conflagration the '' Act against Defaming 
the Eoyal Family," and Grattan is destining to the same 
fate the '' Act of Union between Great Britain and Ire- 
land," and the Law against Irish Eebels. Cobbett is 
holding up to view on a pitchfork, *' Elements of Reform, 
by W. Cobbett, the Hampshire-Hog Reformer." Clifford, 
the O.P. barrister, is preparing to throw into the Revolu- 
tionary Bonfire, the '' Laws of England," *' Penal Statutes," 
and " Trial by Jury." 

Two of the Broad-Bottoms, Lord Temple and the Mar- 
quis of Buckingham, are slinking away alarmed at the 
progress of the measures they had secretly encouraged* 
Lord Temple says, " Come away, brother Broad-Bottom, 
come away." The Marquis replies, '' Ay, they may want 
to reform our pockets, perhaps." In the Marquis's left 
pocket is a list of ^' Exchequer Pickings,"* and in his 
right hand pocket '' Family Pickings.' 



}> 



358. 

THE LIFE OF WILLIAM COBBETT, Writtin by 
Himself. (Plate 1.) September 29th, 1809. 

This series of bitter satirical prints against the grand 
radical of the day are parodies on the autobiographical 
sketch in his own Begister, published during this year. 
They need little further explanation than that given in the 
inscriptions beneath each plate, the first of which repre- 
sents the pretended amusements of his childhood. 

* The Marqois of Buckiogham was a Teller of the Exchequer. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 351 

359. 

THE LIFE OF WILLIAM COBBBTT, Written by 
Himself. (Plate 2.) September 29th, 1809. 

The second represents him flying from the embarrass- 
ments into which he had run himself at home, and 
enlisting for a soldier. 



360. 

THE LIFE OF WILLIAM COBBETT, Written by 
Himself. (Pijite 3.) September 29th, 1809. 

Cobbett's exploits as a corporal. 



361. 

THE LIFE OF WILLIAM COBBETT, Written by 
Himself. (Plate 4.) September 29th, 1809. 

His delinquencies as sergeant-major. 



362. 

THE LIFE OF WILLIAM COBBETT, Written by 
Himself. (Plate 5.) September 29th, 1809. 

He obtains his discharge, returns to England, and 
accuses his officers. 



363. 

THE LIFE OF WILLIAM COBBETT, Written by 
Himself. (Plate 6.) September 29th, 1809. 

His flight to America. 

23 



352 gillray's caricatures. 

364. 

THE LIFE OF WILLIAM COBBETT, Written by 
Himself. (Plate 7.) Sepieniber 29ih, 1809. 

SIR p. BURDETT. BOSVILLB. CLIFFORD. 

HORNE TOOKE. COBBETT. 

He returns to England^ and plots against the Govern- 
ment. 

365. 

THE LIFE OF WILLIAM COBBETT, Written by 
Himself. (Plate 8.) September 29th, 1809. 

The denouement of this eventful history. 

Cobbett was unquestionably one of the ablest political 
writers of his age. He commenced his career as a political 
writer, under the signature of Peter Porcupine, in America^ 
about the period of the breaking out of the war of the 
French Eevolution. We believe his first publication was 
an answer to an address of Dr. Priestley to the Americans, 
in which the Doctor represented himself as a martyr in 
the cause of civil and religious liberty, come to lay his 
bones in their land of freedom. There was at this time 
a numerous party in America enamoured of the principles 
of the French Revolution, and perhaps grateful for the 
services rendered to their country by the French during 
the American War. These men incessantly laboured to 
animate their country against England. Cobbett opposed 
the speakers and writers of this anti-English party vrith 
energy and effect, and upheld the rights, interests and 
character of his country, with so much ability and success, 
that Windham did not hesitate to declare in the British 
Parliament, ''he deserved a statue of gold'* for his 
services. Prosecutions, however, were commenced against 
him in America, and to avoid the consequences of an 
unfavourable result he returned to his native country. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 353 

He arrived in England with very slender resources, but 
the fame of Peter Porcupine had preceded him. Ho 
opened a bookseller's shop in Pall Mall, and set up a daily 
newspaper called *' the Porcupine ;'* this was discontinued 
in a few months : it is a very different thing to write an 
occasional political essay, or to supply the leaders of a 
daily paper. The bookseller^s shop was soon closed; 
Cobbett was not calculated to endure the confinement of 
a retail shop, nor had he either capital, or knowledge of 
the taste and literary wants of the public, to conduct 
either a retail or wholesale bookselling business. Ho 
hit on the happy expedient of publishing his " Weekly 
Political Register." 

He was now in his element. No one, since the time 
of Swift, ever addressed himself more efiectively to the 
common sense of the people ; he stripped every subject of 
technicalities, and pla.ced every topic within the sphere 
of their apprehension. They who would not have appre- 
hended the meaning of the suspension of the Habeas 
Corpus Act, readily comprehended the suspension of 
" the Personal Security Act.** He elucidated the most 
complicated subject, as, for instance, the monetary system, 
or, as he called it, ''Paper against Gold," with marvellous 
simplicity and perspicuity, and subjects, hitherto supposed 
to be only intelligible to political economists, were rendered 
familiar topics of conversation. 

The Peace of Amiens afibrded ample opportunities for 
the display of Cobbett's political powers. He analysed 
every article of the treaty with extraordinary ability, and 
pointed out to public indignation the sacrifices made by 
the preliminaries of peace. The reputation of his Weekly 
Register was now firmly established, and its circulation 
widely extended. His politics were entirely changed. He 
became the champion of democracy, and the assailant of 
every Administration, Politicians of every sliade felt a 
deep interest in the publication; this was not n little 

23 * 



354 GILLRAY^S CARTCATtTEES. 

enhanced by tlie intrepidity of liis assertions^ his caustic 
satire, and the unrestrained personalities and invectives in 
wliich he indulged. Every one took in his Register, for 
every one expected to see a friend or connection satirised. 
The spleen of many was gratified, all were amused. Lord 
Eldon seems to have been particularly annoyed at the 
extensive circulation of the Register, even among his own 
friends, and complained that the Attorney-General did 
not prosecute it. He wrote to Sir William Scott : " As 
to the prosecution of the Morning Chronicle, and as to 
your friend Cobbett, I know what I should have done as 
to those publications long ago, if I had been Attorney- 
General; but it seems to me that ever since my time it has 
been thought rigfit to leave the Government character and 
individual character without the protection of the law 
enforced, because I had proved* its eflScacy, when it was 
called into exertion.*' — ^^ As to Cobbett, I am quite out of 
patience about those who unll take in his paper; but I 
observe that all my friends, in short every body one knows, 
abuse him, but enjoy his abuse, till he taps at their own door, 
and then they do not like the noise he makes — not a bit 
of it/'— {Twiss's Life of Lord Eldan, Vol. ii. p. 107, 8.) 

At length, however, in his Register of July 10, 1809, 
Cobbett published animadversions on the flogging of some 
local militia men in the Isle of Ely, and on the punish- 
ment being inflicted by soldiers of a German Regiment 

* We are surprised Lord Eldon should plame himself on hia political prcH 
secutions. He twice filed inf ormatiotis ag^nst Mr. Peny, the pn^rietor of 
the Morning Chronicle, and in both instances was defeated by the Terdictof 
the jury. He had no reason to pride himself on the result of the trials of 
Hardy, Home Tooke, and Thelwall for high treason. His obstinate pene- 
Terance in the trials of Home Tooke and Thelwall after the acquittal of 
Hardy is now generally condemned. He could not feel flattered by Burke's 
significant question in reference to them : ** How comes it, that in all the 
state prosecutions of magnitude, from the Revolution to within these two 
or three years, the Crown has scarcely ever retired disgraced and defeated 
trom its Courts ?"—{Bwrhe*8 first Letter on a Regicide Peace, 1796.) 



POLITICAL SERIES. 355 

stationed there. This he represented to be an indignity 
to the English character. If the punishment were to be 
inflicted^ it ought to have been by their own countrymen, 
and the backs of Englishmen ought not to have been pro- 
faned by the stripes of foreigners. The Attorney-General 
(Sir Vicary Gibbs) prosecuted the paper as a libel, calcu- 
lated to excito mutiny in the army. Cobbett was found 
guilty by the jury. He perceived at once the very serious 
situation in which he was placed; he recollected his 
energetic attack on Lord EUenborough^s appointment to a 
seat in the Cabinet, and dreaded the vindictive character 
of that political judge, whose influence would chiefly 
determine the amount of his punishment. He therefore 
endeavoured to negotiate with the Government, and 
engaged the good oflSces of Mr. Reeves,* the celebrated 
Chairman of the Crown and Anchor Loyal Association, to 
propose that he should not be brought up for judgment, 
and that, in consideration of this, he should bind himself 
to discontinue the Weekly Register, and abstain from all 
political writing. Sir Vicary Gibbs and the Government 
were inexorable. He was brought up for judgment, and 
sentenced to be imprisoned two years in Newgate, and to 
pay a fine of £1000. The sentence was astounding. It 
had too much the appearance of vindictiveness. Either 
the long imprisonment, or the heavy fine might have 
satisfied the offended majesty of the law. 

The publication of the Register was continued, and 

* Mr. ReeTes's admiration of the patriotic writings of Peter Porcupine 
induced him to seek Cobbett's acquaintance on his arriyal in England. They 
were mutually pleased with each other, and their acquaintance ripened into 
friendship. It is to their mutual credit that subsequent difierencos in politics 
did not dissever their friendship. Cobbett could not have chosen a nego- 
tiator more likely to have accomplished his object. But the Government 
had him now in their power, and were determined to make an example of 
him. Perliaps, too, they might think that any compromise wonld be attri- 
buted to political cowiirdice. We have already given an account of Mr. 
Reeves *8 ultra-Tory pamphlet, for which he was prosecuted. See page 71. 



356 GILLBAY^S CARICATURES. 

lasted thirty-throo years from its original commencement. 
At the first general election after the passing of the 
Reform Bill, Cobbett was elected member for Oldham. 
His Parliamentary efforts disappointed the expectations 
of his enthusiastic admirers. His rival in notoriety, Hant, 
displayed more talent for public speaking. Cobbett died, 
June 18th, 1835. 



366. 
TENTANDA VIA EST QUA ME QUOQUE 



rOSSIM TOLLERE HUMO. VmjiUi Georg. 

He steers bis flight 
Aloft, incumbent on the duskjr air 
That felt unnsiial weight 

August 8th, 1810. 

MARQUIS OF BUCKINaHAM. MAEQUIS OF STAFFORD. WINDHAM. « 
FOX. LORD ORENVILLE. LORD TEMPLB. LORD HENBT PETTY. 
ARCHBISHOP OF YORK. BISHOP OF LONDON. SIR WATEIM 
W. WINN. DUKE OF BEDFORD. SHERIDAN. LORD QRKY. 
WHITBREAD. LORD 8IDM0UTH. REV. W. CROWE. 

This print of Lord Grenville^s Installation is intended 
as a companion to that of his Election, No. 356. Lord 
Gronville, seated in a balloon, is ascending into the air. 
Uo is attired in his Chancellor's gown, with a crucifix on 
his back. During his upward flight he has thrown away 
his CardinaFs hat, rosary and mitre, and placed a tiara on 
his head. In his aerial progress he drops from the balloon 
'' A letter to the Earl of Fingal /'* '' Liber Valorum" 
(or. Account of the value of benefices, with precedents 
for presentations, inductions, &c.) On the upper part of 
the balloon on minute inspection may be seen a face of a 
person, whose hand extends round the balloon, and drops 
promises among the Members of the Convocation. This is 

* Ix)nl Grcuville puhlishcd, in 1810, a Letter to the Earl of Fingal, on 
the Bubjevt of Cuthulic Kmoucipatioo. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 357 

probably meant for Dr. Hodgson, Principal of Brazcnnoso 
College, who was an active canvasser for Lord Gronville, 
and was said to have procured for him more votes than 
any other person. The Marquisses of Buckingham and 
Stafford are contemplating the passing scene from the 
windows of the Oxford Theatre. Fox, metamorphosed 
into a bird, is blowing with all his might to aid the ascent 
of the balloon. Windham is entering the door of the Con- 
vocation, to which is affixed : " Ordered that no Doctor of 
Laws be admitted without Bag Wig.*' The ^' Liber Regis'* 
(or. Value of Livings in the King's Books, with precedents 
for presentations, &c.), Oxford edition, is affixed to the 
entrance. Three Bishops, mounted upon asses, are bestow- 
ing benedictions on the Chancellor, and endeavouring to 
gra.sp hold of the descending Cardinal's hat. The Arch- 
bishop of York is drawn in his state carriage, and is cheered 
as he approaches. (The Archbishop had voted for Lord 
Grenville.) Sir Watkin Williams Winn and his two bro- 
thers are hurraliing in an open chaise drawn by Welsh 
goats. Sheridan has doffed his harlequin's jacket and 
wand. He is putting his hand to his head in despair 
Annexed to his harlequin's wand is a notice, '* Lost, sup- 
posed to be stolon, a Doctor of Laws' new red Gown and 
Bag Wig." This alludes to a joke circulated at the time, 
that Sheridan would have had the degree of Doctor of Laws 
conferred on him, but he could not raise the money to 
purchase a gown. Lord Henry Petty, in an academic 
gown and wig, with a chimney-sweeper's brush and 
shovel in his hands, is dancing merrily. Crowe, the public 
orator, has fallen asleep. A pot of " Whitbread's Entire," 
has dropt from him ; on the floor by his side is his aca- 
demic cap, and " Oratio Croweiana ;" a dog's hinder legs 
are on the oration, and he is paying it the same compli- 
ment, as Hogarth's dog paid to Churchill's Poetical Epistle 
to his mastiT. Behind the public orator is a stone, in- 
scribed " Mile js from Oxford to Kome," and a blank is left 



358 GILLRAY^S CAEICATUBES. 

before ''Miles,'' as if the Popish proceeding of the Convo- 
cation in electing Lord Grenville had left it doubtful how 
much the distance had been already shortened. Under 
the balloon is seen a Broad-Bottomed elephontj with a 
man's face, intended for Lord Grenville. Over his den is 
inscribed, "Wonder of the World — ^the biggest Flying 
Elephant in the whole Fair/' 

We shall now proceed to give a short account of the 
installation of Lord Grenville, which took place on the 8rd 
of July, 1810. The uninitiated in the ceremonials of the 
University of Oxford may naturally suppose that this was 
a day exclusively or especially dedicated to the installation 
of the newly elected Chancellor into office. This, however, 
is a popular error. The following is the account of the 
ceremony of installation given by the intelligent Academic 
correspondent of the Oxford Herald of December 23rd, 
1809, to whom we were indebted for some interesting 
particulars respecting Lord Grenville's election.* " The 
form of investiture is generally conducted by a delegacy, 
which is privately received ; and this is properly the instaiU 
lotion, though the same term is applied to the Commemo- 
ration at the ensuing Act, when the new Chancellor first 
takes the chair of the University/' 

The Commemoration is always an attractive spectacle 
and scene of gaiety and festivity at Oxford. It was pre- 
eminently so on the present occasion, which combined the 
double celebration of the Commemoration and Installa- 
tion. Seventeen years had elapsed since the Installation of 
the Duke of Portland ; the charm of novelty was therefore 
added to most of the spectators. Lord GrenviDe arrived 
in a private manner at Oxford on the night of the 2nd of 
July, and took up his residence at Balliol, the College of 
the Vice-Chancellor, as is usual. The next morning Lord 
Grenville, attended by the University officials, went in 
grand pi'ocession to the Convocation, and was conducted 

* Sec page 347. 



\ 



POLITICAL SERIES. 359 

to tlio Chancellor's chair. The degree of Doctor of Laws 
was conferred on the Marqais of Backingham, Earl Jersey, 
several of the nobility, on the Right Hon. George Tiemey, 
and other distinguished pablic and literary characters. It 
is needless to enter minutely into the details of the pro- 
ceedings ; we shall confine ourselves to noticing the speech 
of the public orator, the Rev. Wm. Crowe. It was com- 
posed in very elegant Latin. The following is a translated 
extract from it. After commemorating the virtues and 
munificence of the most distinguished Chancellors and other 
benefactors, from the eArliest periods, he turned to the 
Chancellor, and said : " I have not hesitated to celebrate 
the munificence of other Chancellors in your presence, for 
I am not apprehensive that my speech can be misinter- 
preted so far as that any should think I have a design to 
stimulate you to acts of bounty by this recital of the 
bounty of others. Your good-will to the University is 
already well known, and she has proofs of your liberality* 
for instance, in the new annual prize.* Other acts I 
could willingly mention, but this is not the season. Envy 
is too often the attendant upon virtue, and death alone 
can extinguish it. It is not till then that virtue has her 
due reward. The age to come will not fail to give you 
most ample praise. But may you long live to preside 
over us, and may that day be far distant, when your 
praises will be heard without envy ! This is the wish of 
all who wish well to our University.*' 

We have stated that the Chancellor's procession to the 
Convocation was headed by the University officials ; one, 
indeed, was absent ; the procession was not graced by the 
presence of the High Steward. The office of High Steward 
is the second in dignity in the University ; it was held by 
Lord Eldon ; ho knew and felt it was his duty to attend 
the ceremonial. He wrote to Sir William Scott; '^ As to 

* Lunl Grcnville had founded an annual prize for the best composition 
in Latin prose. 



360 oillray's caricatures. 

what I am to do about the High Stewardship, I am willing 
to pause ; but upon looking into the Statutes, and my oath 
of office, I may be called upon to do what I never will do. 
The short result seems to me to be, and perhaps the best 
result, that a few weeks will send me to dear Encombe as 
a resting-place between vexation and the grave." Surely 
this was an indication of a littleness of mind, and a mise- 
rable exhibition of party feeling and personal mortification 
unworthy of Lord Eldon, and extraordinary in a Lord 
Chancellor, for it is the usual practice for a retiring or 
dismissed Lord Chancellor to attend his successor into the 
Court of Chancery on the first day of the new Chancellor's 
taking his seat in the Court. He ought to have resigned 
his office or discharged its duties. If he felt that he could 
not conscientiously attend the installation of a nobleman 
who had advocated Catholic Emancipation, how did he 
reconcile to himself his attendance on the installation of 
the Duke of Wellington, who had carried the question? 
He then received the marked plaudits, which were so 
justly due to his distinguished attainments, and his pre- 
sence would have been equally greeted on the former 
occasion, and perhaps even more enthusiastically, because 
his attendance would have been considered a respectful 
discharge of a painful duty he owed to his Alma Mater. 
On the death of Lord Grenville, Lord Eldon wrote to his 
daughter, Lady E. J. Bankes : '' I take it, the Duke of 
Wellington will certainly be the Chancellor of Oxford. It 
is singular that the warmest supporters of the author of 
the Roman Catholic Bill, seem to be those who, on account 
of that anti- Protestant measure, threw out Peel from his 
situation of M.P.^' — (Twiss's Life of Lord Eldon, Vol. ii. 
p. 218.) Lord Sidmouth and other friends wrote to him 
to assure him that, if he offered himself for the vacant 
Chancellorship, it was almost certain he would be elected 
without opposition ; but ho replied with becoming dignity 
that " should ho thus lute in life be elected to this office. 



POLITICAL SERIES. 361 

it would under the circumstances add comparatively but 
little honour to one who had held the Great Seal for nearly 
a quarter of a century/' Lord Eldon died January 13, 1838. 
The newly elected Chancellor William Wyndham Lord 
Grenville was bom Oct. 25, 1759. He was the third son 
of the Right Hon. George Grenville, formerly Prime 
Minister, and author of the disastrous Stamp Act, which 
caused the American War, and the loss of our North 
American colonies. He was educated at Eton ; he took a 
prominent part in the rebellion under Doctor Foster, and 
shortly afterwards removed to Christ Church, Oxford. 
Here he pursued his studies with untiring application. 
His contemporaries predicted his future eminence. In 
1 779 he gained the Chancellor's prize for a composition in 
Latin verse ; the subject was '^ Vis Electrica.^' On quit- 
ting Oxford he entered his name as a student at one of 
the Lans of Court, and intended to follow the law as a pro- 
fession. A more alluring prospect soon opened to his 
view. In February, 1782, he was elected Member for 
Buckingham, and in the September following, his eldest 
brother. Earl Temple, being appointed Lord-Lieutenant 
of Ireland, Mr. William Grenville became his private Secre- 
tary, and continued to discharge the duties of that office 
until June, 1783, when a change of Ministry took place. 
Mr. Pitt became Prime Minister in December, 1783. 
Mr. Grenville was appointed Paymaster of the Forces. 
From his entrance into Parliament his attention to his Par- 
liamentary duties, and subsequently to those of the various 
offices he filled, was unremitting. Ho exhibited the same 
perseverance, diligence and methodical habits, which had 
formed prominent features in the character of his father. 
He soon became an able debater, and a valuable coadjutor 
of his friend and relative, Mr. Pitt. On the 5th of Janu- 
ary, 1789, he was elected Speaker* of the House of Com- 

♦ lie wfts one of the yonnpost persoos wlio ever filled the Si>cakcr*b choir, 
being liitlc more than 21» years of age. 



362 gillray's cakicatubes. 

mons on the death of Speaker Cornwall, and in four months 
afterwards was appointed Secretary of State for the Home 
Department. On the 25th of November, 1790, he was 
created a Peer, in order to take the Ministerial lead in the 
House of Lords, for Lord Thurlow had become imprac- 
ticable. In May, 1 791, he became Secretary of State for 
the Foreign Department, and continued in that office until 
the dissolution of Mr. Pitt's first Administration. In 
1795 he obtained the lucrative office of Auditor of the 
Exchequer, now abolished, but which was then held for 
life. Ho warmly condemned the Peace of Amiens, as sacri- 
ficing some of the best interests of this country. This led 
him into opposition to the Addington Administration, and 
eventually to a co-operation with Fox. On Mr. Pitt's 
return to power. Lord Grenville was invited to resume 
office, but he peremptorily refused to do so without Mr. 
Fox, to whom he considered himself bound in honour, 
though not by engagement. He now became the vigorous 
opponent of Pitt. On the death of that Minister the Fox and 
Grenville Administration was formed in February, 1806. 
Mr. Fox died in the September of the same year. The 
Administration was dismissed in March, 1807, as we have 
stated in a previous article. Overtures were made to Lord 
Grenville at the time of the Regency, on the death of Per- 
ceval and on the resignations of Canning and Lord Castle- 
reagh, in 1812, but they terminated unsuccessfully. He 
considered the acceptance of office with an implied condi- 
tion of not supporting Catholic Emancipation, would have 
been the dereliction of a great constitutional principle. 

Lord Grenville's name stands high among the Parlia- 
mentary orators of his time. In the House of Lords he 
was only second to Lord Grey. His speeches abounded 
in information. He was always master of the subject on 
which he addressed the House. His diction was elegant, 
his elocution ready, he never hesitated for a word ; his 
manner was dignified, but generally too cold, formal^ and 



POLITICAL SERIES. 363 

unvaried to give due effect to the important matter con- 
tained in his addresses. He wanted the fire, spirit and 
indignant sarcasm which glowed in the speeches of Lord 
Grey, and the gracef ol delivery which gave additional force 
to them. But, perhaps, no one ever heard Lord Grenville 
on a complex or important question without acquiring in- 
formation ; he must have often carried conviction to his 
compeers, when he could not secure their suffrages. 

From the time of Lord Grenville^s retirement from Par- 
liament, he lived entirely at his seat at Dropmore, near 
Windsor, where he expended large sums in laying-out and 
ornamenting the grounds. He devoted himself to literary 
pursuits. In 1810 he privately printed a volume in quarto, 
consisting of his own literary compositions and translations 
in Greek, Latin and Italian, entitled, " Nugas Metricee.*' 
In the year 1800, in conjunction with his brothers the 
Marquis of Buckingham and the Bight Hon. Thomas 
Grenville, he had caused an edition of the Iliad and Odys- 
sey of his favourite Homer to be printed at the Clarendon 
Press, Oxford, and engaged Person to subjoin a collation 
of the Harleian manuscript of the Odyssey in the British 
Museum. The large paper copies were never sold, only 
presented to their friends. They are highly prized by 
collectors for the beauty of the typography and accuracy 
of the text. In 1 806 Lord Grenville edited the letters of 
Lord Chatham to his nephew Thomas Pitt, afterwards 
created Lord Camelford. In 1828 he published a pam- 
phlet on the supposed direct advantages of the Sinking 
Fund. He contended that the only real Sinking Fund is 
that which is supported by a surplus revenue. This was 
announced as the commencement of a work, but the con- 
tinuation never appeared. In 1829, in a pamphlet entitled 
Oxford and Locke, he defended the University of Oxford 
from the charge of having expelled Locke, against the 
aspersions of Dugald Stewart. 



set gillray's caricatures. 

In the ycai* 1829^ Lord Grcnvillc liad the satisfaction to 
SCO Catholic Emancipation^ for which ho had mado so 
many sacrifices^ carried by the combined intelligence and 
commanding inflaence of the Duke of Wellington and 
Sir Robert Peel. He died January 12th, 1834, in the 75th 
year of his age. 



END OF THE POLITICAL SERIES. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 

SATIRES ON PERSONS AND MANNERS. 

Plates 367 to 582. 



367. 
LES PLAISIRS DU MBNAGE. Aug. Ut, 1781. 

This print is chiefly interesting as being one of Gillray^s 
earlier productions, before his style of caricaturing had 
become formed. The catch it illustrated is said to have 
been — 

*' Give me the sweet delights of life, 
A smoky house, a failing trade, 
Six sqnalling brats, and a scolding jade."* 

368. 

GRACE BEFORE MEAT; or, A PEEP AT LORD 

PETER'S. (1 778.) 

GEORGE III. AND QUEEN CHARLOTTE. LORD AND LADY PETRE. 
LADY EFFINGHAM. LORD AMHERST. A CATHOLIC PRIEST. 

'' Grace before Meat," is one of the earliest, and 
most probably the first caricature designed and engi'aved 
by Gillray. It is without date. Mr. Stanley, in his edi- 
tion of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engraver8,t 
conjectures that "Paddy on Horseback," published 
March 1, 1779, was the earliest of Gillray^s caricatures; 
but from the occurrence here satirized, it is evident that 
the print must have been published either the latter end 
of October, or early in November, 1778. 

George III. had announced his intention of having a 

* This popular catch was composed hy Dr. Ilariogtoo of Bath, 
t See Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and En^^avers, with namerons 
additions by Stanley, royal 8to. 1849. 

24 



368 gillray's caricatures. 

grand review on Warley Common, on the 20tli of 
October, 1 778. Lord Petre, one of the most distinguished 
of the Catholic Nobility, invited their Majesties to take 
up their residence at his house, Thomdon Hall, during 
their progress to and from Warley. The invitation was 
most graciously accepted. 

The following account of the reception and entertain- 
ment of their Majesties on the 19th of October, is given 
in the "Morning Post'' of October 20, 1778:— ''On 
their Majesties' arrival at Thorndon Hall, they were re- 
ceived by Lord and Lady Petre at the hall door, who 
attended them to a magnificent drawing-room, where 
after the King and Queen had taken some refreshment, a 
Levee was held, at which the General Officers, &c. attended. 
At five o'clock their Majesties sat down to dinner at 
separate tables, covered with every delicacy the season could 
produce. Lady Petre, Lady Effingham, &c. &c. had the 
honour to dine with the Queen ; and Lord Petre and the 
General Officers, with his Majesty. In the evening they 
were entertained with a concert, of which several of the 
Nobility and Gentry of the County of Essex had the honour 
to partake.'* The ''Morning Chronicle " of October 21st, 
adds the following particulars. " Their Majesties' arrival 
was announced by the discharge of eleven pieces of small 
cannon, planted in the front of the house. Lord Petre's 
house and gardens were most superbly illuminated. The 
furniture of the apaii^ments destined to the use of their 
Majesties is entirely new, grand, and noble." It adds, 
"The next day, after the review, their Majesties re- 
turned to Thomdon Hall. Lord Amherst (the Com- 
mander-in-Chief), the General Officers, Colonels, and 
Lieut. -Colonels, had the honour to dine with the King." 
The "Gentleman's Magazine" for October 20th, 1778, p. 
546, gives the following account : " The King and Queen 
went from Lord Petre's house at Thorndon Place, Essex, 
where their Majesties lay the preceding night, to Warley 



HISCKLLAKEOUS SERIES. 369 

Common to review the troops encamped at Warley. After 
the review was ended, their Majesties returned to Lord 
Petre's, and next day, after visiting Ijord Waldegrave at 
Navestock, arrived at the Queen's House about five o'clock/' 

On the 22nd of October the following liberal paragraph 
appeared, in the '' Morning Post/' " Lord Petre is the 
first Catholic Peer who has been honoured with a visit of 
the late nature from the Sovereign, since the Hanoverian 
succession ; and since it was thought necessary to throw 
aside that illiberality of religious sentiment which had so 
long kept the Prince and his loyal Catholic subjects at a 
distance from each other, a fairer opportunity could not 
have offered than the present for his Majesty to lay aside 
this ill-founded prejudice, than by visiting the mansion 
of a Catholic nobleman, in the lines of his encampment ; 
the loyalty of whose family has been long tried, and 
whose own private virtues and unbounded hospitality 
pointed him out as the person on whom first to confer 
this mark of honour and esteem." 

'' The late expense which Lord Petre has been at in 
entertaining their Majesties, is calculated by a gentleman 
well acquainted with the whole, at about fifteen thousand 
pounds ; eight thousand of which were expended in addi- 
tional furniture; sixty cabinet-makers and upholsterers 
being employed for a month to prepare the apartments 
for the royal reception. The state-bed cost alone two 
thousand guineas, though, after all, their Majesties did not 
lay on it, as on such occasions they always sleep on their 
own field-bed, which was sent down for that purpose."* 

* Lord Petre died Jnly 2, 1801. He married May 1, 1762, Anne, 
danghter of Philip Howard, Esq., of Bnckingham, Norfolk. Hif remains 
were accompanied to the grave by all his tenants in monming, and the 
Volunteer Corps of the neighbourhood, and interred with military honours. 
Be annually expended £6000. in charities, a practice that was not discoTered 
till after his Lordship's death, and one proof, among many others, that he 
deserred the character which he bore of being one of the best men of the 
age. — Qentleman*8 Magacine for July, 1801, p. 677. 

24 * 



370 gillray's cakicatures. 

Gillray appears to have been scandalized at the thought 
of a Protestant Sovereign accepting the hospitality of a 
Boman Catholic nobleman^ and insinuates that he neces- 
sarily subjected himself to having Popish rites and cer^ 
monies performed in his presence. Accordingly in 
'' Grace before Meat at Lord Peter's/' he represents 
the King and Queen seated under a canopy, at the dinner 
table in the banqueting room at Thorndon Hall. Their 
Majesties and the assembled company have their hands 
devoutly clasped, and are listening to the Grace pro- 
nounced by a Roman Catholic Priest, whose hands are 
elevated, and his eyes steadfastly fixed on a crucifix. On 
the left of the King hangs a painting of a Madonna 
weeping, her head irradiated with a halo of glory. Wo 
must, however, be slow in censuring Gillray for illiberality 
in this point ; it only shews that he was not superior to 
the prejudices of his age, and perhaps his apprehensions 
had been excited by a " Bill for the Relief of Roman 
Catholics,'^ which had passed a short time before ; for 
even Horace Walpole writes thus to Cole on the 21st 
May, 1778, '^May not I, should not I, wish you joy on 
the restoration of Popery? I expect soon to see 
Capuchins tramping about, and Jesuits in hi^h places. 
We are relapsing fast to our pristine state, and shall have 
nothing but our island and our old religion.*' — See 
Horace Walpole's Letters, Vol. 5, p. 484. Walpole's editor, 
Sir Denis Le Marchant, observes in a note, ''Walpole 
alludes to the Bill for the relief of the Roman Catholics, 
which released their priests from persecution, and allowed 
members of that religion to purchase lands, and take them 
by descent. It passed both Houses without opposition. 



>i 



369. 
THE GERMAN DANCING MASTER, April 5th, 1782. 

JANSEN. 

This is said to represent Jansen, the celebrated German 
dancing-master. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 371 

370. 

EEGAEDEZ MOI. probably 1782. 

LORD CHOLMONDELET. VS8TRIS. 

This is a satire upon Lord Cholmondeley, who is 
represented as taking a lesson of the dancing-master 
Vestris.* 

On the table is seen an open volume, entitled, '^ Elec- 
trical Eel." This is a misprint for '' Electric Eel/' a 
loose poem written by the late James Perry, Esq., in 1777. 
On the floor lies another licentious poem, ''The Torpedo,*' 
dedicated to L. C. (Lord Cholmondoley). On the upper 
right hand corner of the room is a painting, representing 
Lord Cholmondeley playing at hazard with a gentleman, 
who has the head of a fox (Mr. Fox). Mr. Fox exclaims, 
"A nick, by God.*' These poems and the painting 
sufficiently indicate the taste and habits of the noble lord. 

371. 

A NATURAL CROP— alias, A NORFOLK DUMP- 
LING. Sept. 2l8t, 1791. 

DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

A characteristic portrait of the Duke of Norfolk, who 
was one of the first to set the example of wearing his 

* Reoardez-moi was the common and frequent admonition of VestriB to 
his pnpils. Ho was the most celebrated dancer and teacher of dancing of his 
age. The French bestowed on him the appellation of ** Dieu de la Danse;*' 
this inspired him with inordinate yanity, and he was wont to say there were 
-only three great men in Earopo, " Lo Koi de Prasse, Monsieur Voltaire, et 
Moi-mdmc.'' When ho introduced his son and successor on the stage he 
appeared in a full court dress, with a sword by his side, and addressed a 
grandiloquent oration to the spectators on the sublimity of his art ; haying 
finished, he turned to the young debutant, and said, '" AUons, mon fils, 
montrez votre art, ton Pire te rega/rde.** This son married Miss Bartolozsi, 
grand-daughter of the celebrated engraver, herself a distinguished comic 
actress; she is now Mrs. Charles Mathews, but retains her theatrical 
appellation of Madame Vestris. 



872 qillbat's cabicatubbs. 

hair without the elaborate dressing and powder then 
prevalent. 

The following graphic sketch of the Duke of Norfolk 
by Bate Dudly, in his Vortigem and Bowena (jocularly 
pretended to be extracted from Shakspeare^s play of that 
name^ in the possession of Ireland)^ is so spirited and 
appropriate^ that we are persuaded the reader will be 
gratified by its insertion in this place. 

'^ Should a man in these hurlie-burlie daies^ be per- 
mitted to weare a heade on his shoulders^ let him not 
quarrel about the colour of it ! but if they powder mine, 
they shall eat it into the bargaine ! I'll weare my nob as 
long as I can^ in sahle, for the frailties of my bodie I The 
knaves knewe that my sole dehghts were in rape and 
canarisy and therefore they have clapped a double taze 
on our women* and wine!'* — Vortigem and Bowena, 
Vol. I. p. 50. 

372. 

PAILLE D'AVOINB,— PAILLE D'AVOINE. 

Nov. ^Oih, 1786. 

This sketch of one of the cries of Paris, is only etched 
by Gillray, from a drawing of Samuel Egerton Leigh, Esq. 

373. 

MONUMENTS LATELY DISCOVERED ON SALIS- 
BURY PLAIN. June Ihth, 1782. 

MABQUIS OF SALISBUBT. PBINCE OF WALES. MBS. BOBINSON. 

MABCHIONESS OF SALISBUBT. 

This print indicates the Marquis of Salisbury's jealousy 
of the Prince of Wales's pointed attentions to the Mar- 

* The Duke of Norfolk, when Earl Sonej, was a strennoiu opponent o£ 
Pitt's Tax on Maid-«enrants, and in oonjonction with Fox and ShflridaD, 
succeeded in obtaining itc repeal. 



HISCSLLANEOUS SEBIES. 373 

chioness of Salisbury. Horns are sprouting out of his 
head. Bate Dudly, in his Vortigem and Rowena, con- 
cludes the sketch of the Marquis of Salisbury thus : he is 
''so great a naturalist^ that he knows the bvddinge season 
by the note of the propheticke cuckoe/' 

Gillray makes the Marquis exclaim^ ''Zounds, Sir, 
leave nay wife alone^or I'll tell the old Wig*' {id est, the 
Bjng). The beautiful and accomplished Mrs. Robinson 
(who acquired the sobriquet of Perdita, from her admirable 
performance of that character in the Winter's Tale), is the 
deserted lady. She left for publication Memoirs of her 
Life, in 4 vols, duodecimo, printed in 1801, in which she 
gave an account of her connection with the Prince of 
Wales. When she was abandoned by her royal lover 
she formed a liaison with General Tarleton. Fox also 
was one of her admirers, and one of the caricatures of the 
day represents her driving her own phaeton, with Fox by 
her side, intimating that she kept him, not he her. 



374. 
LA BELLE ASSEMBLEE. May I2th, 1787. 

LADT MOUNT-EDOECUMBE. LADT ARCHER. HON. MISS JEFFRIES. 
HON. MRS. HOBART. LADY CECILIA JOHNSTON. 

Some of the more remarkable ladies of the bon tan of 
the day, most of whom will be recognised in the following 
caricatures. Lady Archer, of riding and hunting noto- 
riety (indicated by her whip), brings a lamb as an offering, 
a contrast, it appears, to her own temper; Lady Mount- 
Edgecumbe is similarly satirized in her offering of a pair 
of doves ; Miss Jeffries brings the offerings of Flora ; and 
the Hon. Mrs. Hobart pours incense on the altar. The 
lyre is placed in the hands of Lady Cecilia Johnston, a 
well known votary of fashion. 



371' oillray's caricatures. 

375. 
THE ASSAUT D'ARMES, OR FENCING MATCH, 
WHICH TOOK PLACE AT CARLTON HOUSE, 
ON THE 9th of APRIL, 1787, BETWEEN 
MADEMOISELLE LA CHEVALIERE D'EON DE 
BEAUMONT, AND MONSIEUR DE SAINT 
GEORGE. 

Bellatrix, audetque viris concurrere Virgo, 
Ilac Tincit Marcs divina Palladis arte. 

PRINCE OF WALES. MRS. FITZHERBERT. CHEVALIER DE SAINT 
GEORGE. MADEMOISELLE LA CHEVALIERE d'eON. 

We have extracted the following account of the Cheva- 
lier Saint George from H. Angelo's Pic Nic or Table 
Talk, p. 21—25. 

" The Chevalier de St. George was born at Guadaloape. 
lie was the son of M. de Boulogne, a rich planter in the 
colony, and who became the more fond of him, as he was 
the result of an illicit connexion, by no means uncommon 
in the West Indies. His mother was a negress, and was 
known under the name of the handsome Nanon. She 
was justly considered as one of the finest women that 
Africa had ever sent to the Plantations. The Chevalier 
de St. George united in his ow^n person the grace and 
features of his mother, with the strength and firmness of 
M. de Boulogne/^ " He excelled in all the bodily exer- 
cises in which he engaged ; but the art in which he sur- 
passed all his contemporaries and predecessors, was fencing. 
No professor or amateur ever shewed so much accuracy, 
such strength of lunge, and such quickness. His attacks 
were a perpetual series of hits ; his pai*ade was so close 
that it was in vain to attempt to touch him ; in short, he 
wjis all nerve." " He had the honour of fencing before 
his Royal Highness with Fabian, a celebrated professor 
at Paris, and thrusting carte and tierce with Madame la 
Chcvaliere d^Kon." ** lie served as a Colonel of Hussan> 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 375 

under Dumouriez in Brabant. He died at Paris in 1810 
or 1811.'' 

In this print, representing the fencing scene between 
the Chevalier St. George and D'Eon at Carlton House, 
the spectator will observe D'Eon has made a successful 
thrust, and hit St. George in the sword arm. 

^Mademoiselle La Chevaliebe d'Eon. The follow- 
ing account of this extraordinary, we had almost said, 
amphibious person, is given in Mr. Britten's entertaining 
autobiography. '^ During nearly the whole of these three 
years it was my custom to dine at an eating-house in Great 
Turnstile, Holbom, on very cheap and moderate fare ; the 
cost of the meal, with beer, seldom exceeding nine pence. 
In an humble room, the parlour of this establishment, I 
became acquainted with several persons, both male and 
female ; for some of the latter sex were occasional visitors. 
One, of questionable nature in this respect, excited much 
curiosity and speculation at the time, and for many years 
afterwards. This was the noted Chevalier d'Eon. At 
the time I met him he dressed in female attire, and was 
respectable and respected. Though an occasional guest 
at this humble house of refreshment, it was evident that he 
had been accustomed to refined society, and was courteous, 
well-informed on various subjects, and communicative. I 
own that I always hailed the meeting with gratification, 
and that it induced me to prolong my dinner-time till the 
last moment. The history and adventures of this extra- 
ordinary person were full of romance, and it is to be 
regretted that they were not put on record by himself. 
' His story, (says Lysons, Environs of London, Vol. ii. 
part 2, p. 644), has for many years excited much curiosity 
and interest. After distinguishing himself in the service 
of his native country, as a soldier and negotiator, he 
assumed the habit of a female at the requisition of the 
French Court, and as such was appointed to a situation in 
the household of the Queen ; but he is now known to be 



376 oillbat's cabicatubes. 

tlie son of a gentloman of an ancient and respectable 
family at Tonnferre in Burgundy, where he was bom, 
October 2, 1728. Though subjected to many hardships 
and vicissitudes, he lived to attain his eighty-second year, 
and died at a lodging in Millman Street, Lamb's Conduit 
Street, London, May 21, 1810, and his corpse was interred 
in the old parish churchyard of St. Pancras. The body 
was examined after death by Mr. T. Copeland, and Mr. 
Capue, in presence of Mr. Adair, Mr. Wilson, and Le 
Pere Ellis^e, who verified that the deceased was a per- 
feci male. A post mortem drawing was made by Mr. C. 
Turner, and engraved. (I have a copy.) The register 
of his baptism states the child to be a boy, though the 
sex appears then to have been doubtful.* Throughout 
life the personal appearance, manners, and modest demea- 
nour of the Chevalier^ were indicative of the female sex. 
As a man, he was noted for courage, was an officer 
in the anny,t an accomplished horseman, learned in 
different languages, an elegant and skilful fencer, and 
had fought three or four duels. Li female attire, in 
England, he exhibited his address and skill at Banelagh 
and the Opera House, and also gave lessons. As an 
author, he wrote several works on Statistics, History, 
Politics, &c.:|: The Magazines and Newspapers of London 



* In the '' Biographie Uniyerselle" his name is given, Charlee-GeneTi^Te- 
Louise- Augaste-Andr^-Timothee d'Eon de Beanmont But a foot-note says, 
** Sous les Registres de la Paroisse on lui donne le nom de Charlotte, &c 
mais cette piece est remplie de fantes d'orthographo, on de oontradictiofWy 
peut-dtre faites & dessein." 

t He was Aide-de-Camp to Marshal Broglio. 

X Horace Walpole, in his Memoirs of George HI., VoL i., p. 392, says, 
<* On the 23rd of March (1764) appeared one of the most extraordinarj 
books ever published, and though written by a foreigner, and in French, by 
no means inferior in detraction to the North Britons. It was a huge qoarto, 
called, ' Lettres Memoircs et Negotiations particulieres du Cheyalier d'Eoo,* 
&c., and contained the history of his employments, troubles, quarrel with 
Monsieur dc Guerchy, and his own wonderfully imprudent and inmlent 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 377 

abound with anecdotes and accounts of tliis remarkable 
person, particularly the Gentleman's for 18 10/ *' — Britton'ft 
Autobiography, pp. 83, 84. 

We may add, that some very curious particulars of the 
Chevalier d'Eon are given in Henry Angelo's Memoirs of 
his Father, Vol. ii. pp. 55 — 60. H. Angelo knew him 
when he first appeared in this country in male attire, as a 
French captain of dragoons, and subsequently when he 
returned to England in female apparel. He candidly 
confesses that he materially assisted his father in his 
Treatise on Fencing.* We ourselves recollect to have met 
the Chevalier in the latter years of his life at the house of 
a friend. He looked a heavy unwieldy figure in his female 
habiliments, but his manners were soft, easy, and refined, 
suited to the costume he had adopted, and the sex he 
personated. 

letters to the Due de Praslin, the second Minister in power at the Court at 
Versailles. The contempt expressed for the Comte de Onerchj was 
transcendent, but yet this was not the most reprehensible part of the work. 
With the most indefensible wantonness D'Eon had inserted the childishly 
fond, but friendly letters of his patron, the Due de Nivemois. With still 
greater indiscretion, he published others of an intimate friend employed in 
the office of the Secretary of State at Versailles, in which that friend, in 
confidence, had familiarly censured his masters : and with the most 
abominable treachery D'Eon added confidential letters between the Dues de 
Nivemois and Praslin, in which, though with good will towards Mm, they 
spoke of their intimate friend, Monsieur de Guerchy, with much contemptuous 
pity, which might be excused between such near friends, though neyer to be 
pardoned by Guerchy. These letters D'Eon, when trusted with the Due de 
Nivemois' keys, had stolen or copied/' Horace Walpole's editor, Sir Denis 
le Marchant, in a note on this passage observes, '< In his passion D'Eon for- 
got the laws of decency as well as of honour, and the publication of his 
book injured him certainly not less than his enemies. It had an immense 
circulation, and the attempts to suppress it at Paris, of course, serred to 
make it more sought after. Lord Holland, who happened to be there at 
that time, used to lend his copy by the ?iour." In further illustration of the 
preceding extract from Walpole's Memoirs, we may state, that the CheTalier 
D*Eon came to England in 1761 as Private Secretary to the Due do Ifiver- 
nois, then the French Ambassador in England. 
* Published in London, 1763. 



378 gillray's caricatures. 

Gibbon makes the following whimsical comparison 
between Pope Joan and the Chevalier d'Eon. Having 
referred to the fabulous history of Pope Joan^ and her 
having had an amour with a domestic^ in consequence of 
which she became pregnant, and was suddenly taken ill 
and delivered of a child as she was going in procession 
to the Lateran Church, and died on the spot ; he adds, 
" As false, this deserves the name of a fable, but I would 
not pronounce it incredible. Suppose a famous French 
Chevalier of our own times to have been in Italy, and to 
have been educated for the Church, instead of the Army. 
Her merit or fortune might have raised her to St. Peter's 
chair ; her amours would have been natural ; her delivery 
in the streets unlucky, but not improbable." 

376. 
MARGARET'S GHOST. March 2oth, 1791. 

HI8S GUNNING, MBS. GUNNING, AND MISS MARGARET MINIFIE. 

Mrs. Gunning was accused of having attempted to 
bring about a marrige of her daughter with the Marquis 
of Blandford, son of the Duke of Marlborough, and 
the subject was much talked and written about in the 
fashionable world at this time. 

Gillray has laid the scene of this print in Miss Gunning's 
bedroom. Mias Gunning is lying ill in bed ; her mother 
is seated by her bedside. Her aunt. Miss Margaret 
Minifie is introduced as ^' Margaret's Grimly Ghost ;" her 
terrific appearance has struck consternation into the fair 
invalid, and frightened Mrs. Gunning from her propriety; 
by a sudden start she has overturned a bottle of brandy, 
placed by her side to soothe her sorrows. Mrs. Gunning 
says, " I was sitting by the bedside of my smiling-injured- 
innoccnt lambkin, and holding one of the sweet-tender 
hands of my amiablo-gcntle-doveliko cherub, when her 
aunt came into the room, with a face paler than ashes 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 379 

— 'What is the matter, Auntee Peg/ says my chaste, 
adorable, kind-beneficent-enchanting-heart-feeling-benofi- 
cent-paragon of goodness, " What's the matter, Auntee 
Peg, what makes you put on such a long face V " This 
absurd accumulation of foolish expressions of fondness is 
taken almost literally from passages in Mrs. Gunning's 
letter to the Duke of Argyll. Again, '^ He broke upon us 
th^ dishonourablc-infamous-impudent-false accusations, 
and the cruel, most cruel messages that accompanied 
them, at that moment a vow issued from my torn, my 
rent, my wounded, my agonized, my suflfering heart, and 
my dear, divine, glorious, arch-angelic angel said,'' &c. &c. 
This alludes to General Gunning's accusation of his 
daughter. 

See further particulars in the explanation annexed to 
the next print. 

377. 
BETTY CANNING REVIVED; or, A PEEP AT 
THE CONJURATION OF MARY SQUIRES, AND 
THE GYPSEY FAMILY. March 25f/i, 1792. 

MISS GUNNING, MRS. GUNNING, NAUNTEE PEG (mISS MINIPIE), 

AND GEN. gunning's GROOM. 

This caricature refers to the same occurrence as the pre- 
ceding print. It is a parody on the well known story of 
Elizabeth Canning and her pretended persecutions. It 
alludes to a circumstance which caused considerable sen- 
sation in the fashionable world. 

General Gunning had a most beautiful and accomplished 
daughter; her charms attracted many admirers, among 
others the Marquis of Blandford, eldest son of the Duko 
of Marlborough, and the Marquis of Lorn, eldest son of 
the Duke of Argyll. At first the young lady seemed to 
favour the pretensions of the Marquis of Lorn, but in a 
short time she evinced a decided preference for the Mar- 
quis of Blandford. The Duke of Argyll, who had married 



880 oillrat's cabicatubes. 

the widow of the Duke of Hamilton,* a sister of General 
Gunning, inquired of the General,t whether the Duke of 
Marlborough was apprised of his son's attentions to his 
daughter, and approved of the projected matrimonial 
alliance. The General frankly admitted he did not know, 
but would immediately address a letter to the Duke of 
Marlborough on the subject, and if he disapproved of the 
match, he would at once put an end to the affair. Accord- 
ingly he wrote a letter to the Duke, and sent it to Blen- 
heim by his groom. He received an answer expressive of 
the Duke's entire approval of his son's choice, and of his 
own deep sense of the good qualities of the young lady. 
General Gunning immediately repaired to the Duke of 
Argyll, who, having read the letter attentively, expressed 
strong suspicions of its authenticity. General Gunning 
then went to Lord Charles Spencer, the Duke's brother, 
who unhesitatingly pronounced the letter to be "an awk- 
ward imitation of the Duke of Marlborough's handwriting." 
The seal was either an impression from a small seal, which 
the Duke had ceased to use for many years, or from one 
copied from it. General Gunning returned home, and 
questioned his wife and daughter on the subject; they 
assured him the letter was genuine, or they had been im- 
posed on. The General next interrogated the groom, who, 
impelled partly by threats, and partly by solicitations, con- 
fessed he had been bribed by Miss Gunning, who had fur- 
nished him with the letter. The General then turned his 
daughter out of his house, and shortly after separated from 
his wife.;]: Mrs. Gunning published a large pamphlet, en- 
titled, " A Letter to the Duke of Argyll," in which she 
attributed the forgery to Captain and Mrs. Bowen, whom 

* This Lady was mother of the present Duke of Hamilton. 

t Another sister of the General married the Earl of CoTentTj. 

% In 1792 an action was brought by James Dnberley, Ksq., againtt 
General Gunning, for having committed adultery with his wife. The Jury 
awarded £5000. damages. In summing up, Lord Kenyon designated 
General Gunning, " a hoary, shameful, and detestable lecher.'* 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 381 

she had offended by endeavouring to prevent their mar- 
riage, at the earnest solicitation of Mrs. Bowen^s father. 
But Mrs. Gunning does not attempt to explain how the 
Bo wens became acquainted with the General's intention 
to write to the Duke of Marlborough, or transmit his 
letter by his groom. The Duke of Argyll declined all fur- 
ther intercourse with his sister-in-law, Mrs. Gunning, and 
his niece, Miss Gunning. The occurrence gave rise to 
several pamphlets. 

In this print Gillray depicts Miss Elizabeth Gunning 
consulting a female necromancer, and swearing an affidavit 
before her. " I swear that I never wished or tried, directly 
or indirectly, to get a coronet ; that I never saw or wrote 
to Lord B. (the Marquis of Blandford) or Lord L. (Mar- 
quis of Lorn) in all my life,'* &c. The old hag has a 
broom by her side, and other symbols of her art upon the 
table ; she replies, '' Well done, Bett ! we'll get through 
the business, Fll warrant you. We can write all sorts of 
hands, we've got all sorts of seals, and with the assistance 
of our old friend under the table, we shall be able to gull 
them." The friend under the table is the devil. He ex- 
claims, *' Swear !'' The groom is shadowed in the extreme 
left of the print. He says, '^ I'm ready to ride or swear." 
A sign-post points out the road to Blenheim. On the 
right hand of the print Mrs. Gunning is kindling a flame 
by blowing the fire with a pair of bellows, on which is 
inscribed, " Letter to the Duke of A." (Duke of Argyll), 
she says, '' That's right, my sweet innocent angel ! say 
grace boldly, make haste, my dear little, lovely lambkin, 
m blow up the fire, while Nauntee Peg helps to cook up 
the coronets ; we'll get you a nice little tit-bit for dinner 
before we've done, my dear, httle deary." Nauntee Peg 
(Miss Minifie) is stirring the pot upon the fire with a ladle, 
she says, ^' Puff away, sister. The soup will soon boil. 
Law's me, how soft the green peas do grow, and how they 
jump about in the pot when you puff your bellows." 



382 GILLRAY's CARrCATURES. 

378. 
THE THUNDERER. Aug. 20th, 1782. 

PRINCE OF WALES. MAJOR TOPHAM. 

MRS. ROBINSON {as a whirligig). 

Major Topham was, at the period of the publication of 
this caricature, Brigade-Lieutenant of the Second Troop 
of Horse Guards ; equivalent in rank to Captain in a regi- 
ment of Infantry. He was a man of fashion, possessed 
considerable intelligence and knowledge of the world, 
imited with agreeable manners. He had ingratiated him- 
self into the favour of the Prince of Wales, and was one of 
his early companions. Gillray has depicted him as enact- 
ing the part of Captain Bobadil. He is flourishing his 
sword in the front of the Prince of Wales, and says : " They 
have assaulted me, some three, four, five, or six of them 
together, and I have driven them afore me like a flock of 
sheep ; but this is nothing, for often in a mere frolic, I 
have challenged twenty of them, killM them — challenged 
twenty more, killM them, — twenty more, killM them, — 
twenty more, kilPd them too ; and thus in a day have I 
killed twenty score ; twenty score, that's two hundred* — two 
hundred a day ; five days, that's a thousand, — that's a — 
zounds, I can't number them half, — and all civilly and 
feirly with one poor Toledo." It would seem as if he 
wished to impress upon the Prince the value and import*- 
ance of such an ally, while indulging in the frolics and 
gaieties of youth. The Prince replies : " Fd as lief as 
twenty crowns I cou'd talk as fine as you. Captain." On 
the right hand upper corner of the print is a house of en- 

* Ben Jonscn has made the magnanimous Bobadil a sorry arithmetician ; 
we should not have supposed that he would have underrated the number he 
had slain, but rather that he would hare declared that in sober troth, 
*' twenty score" made four hundred, and confirmed the asseyeratioD ** bj the 
foot of Pharaoh/* and '* as he was a soldier and a gentleman.*' 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 383 

tertainment, called '' The Wliirligig;*' on the upper part 
of the sign-post is a female figure, who says : — 

<* Thif is the lad I'd kiss most sweety 
Who*d not ioTe a soldier ?" 

At the bottom is painted, '^ Alamode Beef hot every 
night/' Perhaps it is intended to be insinuated that Top- 
ham had introduced the Prince to some house of enter- 
tainment, unsuited to his rank and dignity. 

Major Topham, however, was not a mere vapouring sol- 
dier ; he could wield a pen as well as a sword. He became 
proprietor of the *' World'' newspaper, which he enlivened 
with fashionable news, anecdote and pleasantry; some- 
times he assumed the province of a moral censor, and many 
felt the keenness and severity of his strictures; among 
others the family of Earl Cowper. On the 22nd of Decem- 
ber, 1789, died at Florence, Gteorge Nassau Clavering, 
third Earl Cowper.''^ As soon as the news of his demise 
reached England, a character of him appeared in the 
*' World," in which he w€is held up to public scorn, as an 
infamous character, polluted by almost every vice, and 
deserving the execration of mankind. He was accordingly 
indicted for a libel on the late Earl. We have not been 
able to obtain a sight of the newspaper, but we can collect 
with accuracy the substance of the alleged libel from the 
indictment. It charges him with endeavouring '' to cause 
it to be believed that the said Earl in his lifetime was a 
person of a vicious and depraved mind and disposition, and 
destitute of filial duty and affection, and of all honourable 
and virtuous sentiments and inclinations, and that the said 
Earl led a wicked and profligate course of life, and had 
addicted himself to the practice and use of the most cri- 
minal and unmanly vices and debaucheries." Major Top- 
ham defended the action^ and instructed his Counsel to 

* He was descended from Lord Keeper Cowper, and was father of the 
late Earl Cowper. 

25 



384 oillray's caricatures. 

maintain that the dead enjoyed no immunity from just 
reprobation^ which it was as necessary to inflict to deter the 
living from a vicious course of lif e^ as it was just and pleas- 
ing to bestow praise on good men, to incite their survivors 
to a course of honourable action. The cause was tried 
before Judge Buller,* who pronounced the character of 
the deceased to be a libel, as it tended to a breach of the 
peace ! ! Topham was found guilty ! Still the Major per- 
severed. He instructed his Counsel to move for an arrest 
of judgment on the ground of the misdirection of the judge 
to the jury, and that he had been convicted on an illegal 
technicality ; for there could be no breach of the peace 
between the dead and the living. The case was argued at 
great length before the Court of King's Bench by the 
ablest counsel on each side. The Court granted an arrest 
of judgment ; but took time to consider its decision. After 
a long protracted delay (perhaps from a hope that neither 
party would pray for a decision), on the 29th of January, 
1791, Lord Kenyon delivered the judgment of the Court 
in a most elaborate speech, and ordered the rule to be 
MADE absolute, and thus virtually overset the verdict of 
the jury. We are indebted to " The Thunderer" for the 
signal triumph of this branch of the Libertt of the Press, 
which is now established on a firm basis by the solemn 
decision of the Court of King's Bench. (See Dumford and 
East's Term Reports, Vol. 4, folio, p. 126 to 130.) The 
English historian and biographer is now only restrained by 
the moral obligation, '^ ne quid falsi dicere audeat, ne quid 
veri non audeat ;" and it deserves to be recorded that we 
are indebted to Major Topham for the judicial recognition 
of this invaluable privilege. 

* Buller was generally considered a harsh judge, and nnfriendlj to the 
liberty of the press. He is now chiefly remembered from his sobriquet ol 
" Judge Thumb/' he having laid it down as the law of England, that a 
husband might chastise his wife with a stick "not thicker than his thumb." 
This dictum caused him to be assailed in epigrams, satires and caricatures. 



MISCBLLANEOOS SERIES. 385 

379. 
ORNAMENTS OP CHELSEA HOSPITAL; or, A 
PEEP INTO THE LAST CENTURY. 

Jan. \9th, 1789. 

A CHELSEA PENSIONER. DR. MESSBNQBR MONSEY. 

We think we cannot do better than present the reader 
with the following extracts from Faulkner's History of 
Chelsea, respecting Doctor Messenger Monsey. They 
render intelligible the epitaph, which Gillray has subjoined 
to the print, and which might otherwise appear exagge- 
rated and caricatured, when in fact it is little more than 
a versification of the testamentary directions of the eccen- 
trie physician of Chelsea Hospital. 

^' Dr. Messenger Mousey was bom in 1693 at a remote 
village in the county of Norfolk, of which his father was 
rector. He received a good classical education, and after 
spending five years at the University, studied physic for 
some time under Dr. Wrench, at Norwich ; from which 
place he went and settled as a physician at Bury St. 
Edmunds. Having accidentally afibrded some professional 
assistance to the Earl of Godolphin, that nobleman took 
him under his protection, and introduced him to many, of 
the first characters of the age. He was made Fellow of 
the Royal Society, and in 1742 succeeded Dr. Tessier, as 
Physician to Chelsea Hospital. His character and humour 
bore a striking resemblance to that of Dean Swift. By 
his will he directed that his body should not suffer any 
funeral ceremony, but undergo dissection; after which, 

the remainder of his ca/rcasey^ to use his own expression, 

may be put into a Iwle, or crammed into a box with holes, 
and thrown into the Thames, at the pleasure of the sur- 
geon.' ' The surgeon to whom he assigned this charge, 
was Mr. Forster, of Union Court, Broad Street ; who, in 
pursuance of the Doctor's singular will, delivered a dis- 
course in the theatre of Guy's Hospital, to a numerous 

25* 






386 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

audience, at the dissection of the body. Dr. Monsey died^ 
December 26, 1 788^ at his apartments in Chelsea Hospital, 
aged ninety.five.'* (See Faulkner's History of Chelsea, 
p. 194.) Dr. Moseley, who succeeded Dr. Monsey as Phy- 
sician to Chelsea Hospital^ observes, '' My predecessor had 
been Physician to the Hospital forty-six years and six 
months.^' 

Gillray has placed under the print the following " Epi- 
taph on the late Dr. Monsey, supposed to be written by 
himself :'* — 

** Here lie my old limbs,— mj rexation now ends, 
For I'ye liy'd mnch too long for myself and my friends; 
As to churchyards and grounds which the parsons call holy, 
'Tis a rank piece of priestoraft, and founded on folly. 

" In short, I despise them ; and as for my soul, 
Which may mount the last day with my bones from tins hole, 
I think that it really hath nothing to fear 
From the God of mankind, whom I truly revere. 

** What the next world may be I little trouble my pate ; 
If not better than this, I beseech thee, O Fate, 
When the bodies of millions fly up in a riot, 
To let the old carcase of Monsey be quiet" 

This epitaph is from the pen of Peter Pindar (Dr. Wol- 
cot). It is only necessary to add^ that Dr. Monsey^ in 
extreme old age^ was accustomed to ramble about the Col- 
lege gardens^ accompanied by one of the pensioners^ whom 
he designated '^ his crutch.^ 



ff 



379.* 
HOW TO RIDE WITH ELEGANCE THROUGH 
THE STREETS. April 8th, 1800. 

'* Tis not in mortals to command success ; 
Arrah, but well do more, Sempronius, we'll desenre it." 

LORD LANDAFF. 

In this print Gillray represents Lord Landaff exhibiting 
his equestrian elegance ; in a subsequent one^ No. 525^ he 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 387 

pourtrays him displaying his dandy pedestrianism in walk- 
ing np and down the fashionable streets in company with 
his two brothers^ the Hon. Montague and Greorge Mathews. 
Those who recollect Lord Tjandaff will at once recognize 
the exact resemblance of the rider and his manner. 

The '^Arrah^' in the motto might seem to indicate that 
Lord Landaff traced his descent from a line of ancestry^ 
natives of the Emerald Isle; it is true that a collateral 
branch of the family settled in Ireland^ but the family 
boasts its descent from the Principality of Wales. " Ed- 
ward Mathew^ or ap-Mathew^ ancestor to the noble Lord^'' 
says Lodge, '^ resided at Rader in the County of Glamor- 
gan, about the year 1660, who inherited a good estate, 
principally consisting of Chiefries,* being the remains of 
an ample fortune, possessed by his ancestors from time 
immemorial ; he was also possessed of the town of Landaff, f 
in the same county, whence the present Lord, J in whom 
it now vests, derives his title. § (See Lodge's Peerage of 
Ireland, by Archdall, vol. vii. p. 222.) " Francis, the 
only son (of George Mathew), now Lord Landaff, served 
many years in Parliament for the county of Tipperary, 
and was created a peer of this realm (Ireland), 20th of 
September, 1783. He had issue Francis James (the 
subject of Gillray's print), Montague and George.*' (See 
Lodge's Peerage, vol. vii. p. 222.) 

The reader, however, must not conclude that the family 
of Mathews was a race of dandies. One at least. Admiral 
Mathews, distinguished himself by his gallant exploits, and 
the important services he rendered to his country during 
a considerable portion of the first half of the last century. 
Chamock calls him '^a brave but unfortunate commander." 

* A Chiefrie is a small annnal rent paid bj a tenant to the Lord Paramount 

t Then a floorishing town, now dwindled into a poor Tillage, says Britton, 
in his Beauties of England and Wales, vol. 18, p. 618. Its cathedral might 
seem to have secured it a better fate. 

X The father of Lord Landaff, whose portrait is here giyen. 

§ The title is Lord Landaff of Thomas Town in the countj of Tip][)erary. 



388 gillbay's caeicattjbes. 

" But/' continues Chamock/' notwithstanding the figure 
he afterwards lived to make in the naval world, together 
with the high character he acquired, and which, surviving 
the malice of his enemies, he still continues to retain in 
the eyes of all candid and impartial men/' . • . *' His 
gallantry has never been questioned even by his bitterest 
enemies; and the heaviest charge they were ever able to 
adduce against him, was that he understood the practical 
part of his duty better than the theory of it, or in plainer 
English, that he himself knew better how to fight than to 
command others to do the same/' (See an interesting 
Memoir of Admiral Mathews in Chamock's Biographia 
Navalis, vol. iii. p. 252 to 273.) 

879.** 
SAMPSON OVERCOME BY A PHILISTIAN. 

SIB SAMPSON WRIGHT. 

Sir Sampson Wright, the chief magistrate of Bow Street, 
is seated at the office table, prepared to commence his 
official duties. A gentleman of a commanding figure 
stands before him, his fist is clenched, and almost thrust 
into Sir Sampson's face; he says, ''Ton rascal! I'll break 
every bone in your body." Sir Sampson's terrified son 
exclaims, " Lord, Lord, my poor Pap '11 be killed !" 
On the right hand of Sir Sampson is a person, apparently 
an attendant official; his hands are outspread in a state of 
consternation. On the table lie '' Dirty Shillings," that 
is, shillings taken for swearing affidavits, or fines inflicted 
on the poor for street rows ; at the bottom of the print, 
instead of the artist's name, &c. is "Livented by a Thief." 
" Published by Bonde, at the Thief Office, Bow Street," 
" Engraved by a Pickpocket." Under the print is sub- 
scribed : — 

<< If e'er we want a very valiant knight, 
Have we not Sampson— bold Sir Sampson Wright ?'* 

" This plate is humbly dedicated to the Magistrates of 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 389 

Westminster^ as a grateful tribute due to the rmshaken 
integrity of a late be-Jcnighted Justice, by his and their 
obliged servant^ On-Slow Dry-Butter/' This plate has no 
date^ but we think it must have been published about the 
latter end of the year 1 782^ as it speaks of a laie he-knighted 
Justice/' Sir Sampson Wright was appointed to succeed 
the late Sir John Fielding (whose clerk he had originally 
been) in 1780. He was knighted the 4th of September, 
1782. The verses quoted above are taken from the '' Beau- 
ties of Administration, a Poem,'' published in 1782. We 
are persuaded that this caricature refers to some occur- 
rence relating to some member of Lord Onslow's family, 
from the dedication being signed On-Slow Dry-Butter." 
We think the magistrates of Bow Street about this time 
granted warrants to enter private houses to search for faro 
tables and implements of gaming. This was decided to 
be illegal, and would of course render the person, whose 
mansion was invaded, little scrupulous in menacing the 
magistrate who had granted the illegal warrant. 

Sir Sampson Wright appears to have discharged his 
magisterial duties generally with credit to himself and 
advantage to the country. He died in 1793. The 
Gentleman's Magazine for April of that year, in recording 
his death, calls him ^' the distinguished Magistrate of the 
Bow Street Office." 

379 *** 

ANECDOTE MAgONIQUE. A MASONIC ANEC- 
DOTE. Nov. 2\8t, 1786. 

The allusions to this print are explained in a great 
measure by the inscriptions and verses at the bottom. It 
relates to the exposure of the quackery of that celebrated 
impostor Cagliostro, while he was in London, and his 
portrait is conspicuous among the group. His real name 
was Joseph Balsamo. He was born at Palermo in 1 743, 
and after sundry vagaries, practised as a physician, and 



390 gillbay's caricatures. 

acqnired considerable notoriety by assuming to bave bad 
intercourse witb tbe invisible world, and to bave discovered 
tbe Elixir vitsB, or balsam of life. He became a freemason, 
and formed a new order of masonry, which he called the 
Egypticm, and of which he made himself Grand Master. 
A female branch of the order was headed by his wife, 
who was no less profligate than himself, and who, under 
pretence of certain splendid ceremonies, abstracted a 
considerable number of valuable jewels from her simple , 
disciples. 

Cagliostro, after extorting large sums by impositions of 
every kind on the credulity of the Londoners, particularly 
persons of rank, indiscreetly went to Borne, where, upon 
an information laid against him by his own wife, he was 
seized by the Inquisition, and died within its walls, in 1 794. 
His adventures are given in a scarce little volume, trans- 
lated from the Italian, and printed at Dublin in 1792. 
. In the Morning Chronicle of September 16, 1791, is 
advertised, price 38 Gc2, '^ The Life of Joseph Balsamo, 
commonly called Count Cagliostro. Printed for G. 
Kearsley, Fleet Street.'* We have not been able to put 
our hand on this little volume, and should not have 
thought it necessary to notice it, but for the purpose of 
extracting the note which Kearsley has subjoined to his 
advertisement. '' N.B. Compared with other villains who 
have at different periods infested the world, Cagliostro 
raises a degree of wonder at the subtilty of his schemes, 
the enormity of his depredations, and his hazardous 
escapes, which no others are entitled to," 

380. 
SHAKSPEARB SACRIFICED; oe, THE OFFER- 
ING TO AVARICE. June 20th, 1789. 

ALDERMAN BOYDELL. 

In the centre of the print is a whole-length portrait of 
Alderman Boydell, attired in his Aldermanic gown ; it is 



MISCELLANEOUS SEBIES. 391 

a striking resemblance of his person and manner. He is 
advancing to offer sacrifice on the altar of Avarice. On the 
altar is seated Avarice^ with a bag of money onder each 
arm; on his shoulders stands a boy^ with a peacock's 
feathers on his head^ and a pipe in his mouthy blowing up 
the bubble of '' Immortality/' On the altar is inscribed a 
List of the Subscribers to the Sacrifice {id est, to Boydell's 
edition of Shakspeare) . Representations of various pictures 
in the Shakspeare Grallery are disposed round the print. 
The wily Richard Duke of Gloucester is selected from 
Northcote's picture ; at a little distance is Tyrrell smother- 
ing the young King Edward V. in the Tower. The aged 
and impetuous Lear^ seated in his chair of state^ is casting 
off his daughter Cordelia. Cardinal Beaufort is breathing 
out his agonised soul^ taken from Sir Joshua's picture. 
The Witches of Macbeth are taken from Sir Joshua's pic- 
ture. Hamlet is starting at the ghost of his Father^ copied 
from Fuseli's picture. The figure of Midas in Midsummer 
Night's Dream, is taken from Wheatley's painting, &c. &c. 
Death, representing the Grave Digger in Hamlet, with a 
spade in his hand, is preparing to entomb all these pro- 
ductions. By the side of Boydell is an inscription, " The 
cloud-capt towers, the gorgeous palaces, the solemn tem- 
ples, yea, the great globe itself shall dissolve, and like 
the baseless fabric of a vision, leave not a wreck behind." 

At the bottom of the print is, " Soon as possible will 
be published, price one Guinea, No. 1 of Shakspeare 
Illustrated, with the text, annotations, &c. complete ; the 
engravings to be carried on, in imitation of the Alderman's 
liberal plan. Further particulars will shortly be given in 
all the public papers." 

It is impossible to refuse our unqualified admiration of 
the extraordinary talent exhibited in the design and exe- 
cution of this print ; the felicity displayed in the selection 
and grouping of the subjects, and the concentration of so 
many objects in one point of view, strike the spectator. 



392 GILLRAT^S CARICATUBSS. 

and give additional poignancy to the satire. This cari- 
cature must certainly rank in the very first class of the 
productions of Gillray's genius. We must not, however, 
suffer our admiration of great talent to make us unjust- 
We lament that Gillray should have made so furious an 
onslaught on so praiseworthy an undertaking, calculated 
to give liberal encouragement to our celebrated painters 
and engravers, and to call from obscurity neglected genius 
pining for employment. 

'' Satirical criticism,^' says Johnson, '' may be considered 
useful, when it rectifies error and improves judgment. 
He that refines the public taste is a public benefactor/' 
We freely admit the justice of this canon of criticism, but 
we think we are entitled to add, that he who by satire, 
ridicule or caricature, counteracts a laudable design, cal- 
culated to improve the fine arts, and diffuse taste, acts 
inconsiderately, and runs the risk of inflicting a public 
injury. 

It may not be irrelevant to give a short sketch of 
BoydelFs life as connected with the fine arts. He was 
born at Staunton in Shropshire, Jan. 19, 1719. His 
father was a land-surveyor, and intended his son should 
be brought up to his own profession. The lad early dis- 
covered a talent for drawing, which his father encouraged, 
thinking it would be serviceable to him in his intended 
business. But accident often decides the future course of 
a man's life, and this was strongly exemplified in BoydelFs 
case. Having by chance seen an engraving of the seat 
of a neighbouring gentleman. Sir John Glynne, and the 
old castle attached to it, engraved by Toms, he imme- 
diately recognised its exact resemblance, and became 
enamoured of an art, which could multiply copies to an 
indefinite extent. He now panted to be an engraver, 
and conmiunicated his wish to his father, who discouraged 
the project, and remonstrated with him on the folly of 
relinquishing a well-established business, to embark in an 



HISCELIiANEOUS SERIES. 393 

nndertaking with which he was unacquainted^ and which 
he had neither money nor connections to enable him to 
pursue. Genuine enthusiasm, however, is seldom tram- 
melled by the dictates of prudence, or the remonstrances 
of affectionate solicitude. At the age of 21 years, Boydell 
walked up to London, sought an interview with Toms, and 
boimd himself apprentice to him for seven years. He was 
unremitting in his attention to his business, and in the 
evenings attended the Academy in St. Martin's Lane, to 
improve himself in drawing. By these means he made 
rapid progress in the art of engraving, and surpassed his 
master in skill. Toms generously allowed him to buy up 
the two last years of his apprenticeship on easy terms. 
He was now launched on the ocean of life, and commenced 
business on his own account. His first publication was 
six small landscapes, which he sold for a shilling each ; 
these he stitched together, and the book was called by 
collectors, '^ The Bridge Book,*' as a bridge was introduced 
into the scenery of each pfate. His exertions continued 
unremitting, and by continued application he executed an 
hundred and fifty-two landscapes ; these he collected into 
a portfolio, and sold for five guineas. The publication was 
eminently successful, and the profits arising from it enabled 
him to extend the sphere of his business ; and he used 
to say with pride, in after life, that it was the only book 
which had made a Lord Mayor of London. His own taste 
and judgment had now become materiaUy improved, and 
he had the rare tact of discerning that he himself should 
never attain sufficient excellence to vie with his foreign 
competitors. He therefore resolved to abandon the pur- 
suit of the art, and by liberal encouragement to secure 
the services of the first talent of the country. In Woollett 
he found an artist who realised all his wishes. The Temple 
of Apollo, from Claude, and the engravings of the two 
premium landscapes by the Smiths of Chichester, were 
among the first fruits of this connection. Boydell had 



894 gillray's caricatures. 

agreed to pay WooUett fifty guineas for engraving the 
plate ; the engraving surpassed his expectations or his 
hopes^ he gave the artist an hundred pounds. He remu- 
nerated him for the two landscapes with similar liberality. 
The Niobe and Phaeton^ after pictures of Wilson, were 
universally allowed to be chef-d'ceuvres ; they established 
the fame of the artist, and extended the business of the 
shop from which they issued. The celebrity of these pub- 
lications enabled Boydell to establish a correspondence 
with the most eminent Continental printsellers, whom he 
supplied with his publications. He was now decidedly the 
first printseller in Europe. He did not confine himself to 
the publication of single prints, but put forth some expen- 
sive books of prints, as the Houghton Gallery, in two vols, 
and Earlom's Liber Yeritatis, or a series of engravings 
from Claude's landscapes, 2 vols. His assiduous applica- 
tion to his business, his liberal encouragement of artists, 
and the high merits of his publications, had established a 
most prosperous trade, and effected a most important 
change in one branch of our commerce. Large sums of 
money had hitherto been remitted to the Continent 
annually for the purchase of prints ; by his exertions 
the current of commerce was turned, England became an 
exporting country and the balance of trade was largely in 
our favour. On the 5th of August, 1782, Boydell was 
elected Alderman of the ward of Cheap. He served the 
office of SherifE in 1785, and was elected Lord Mayor in 
1790. Boydell had reaUsed an ample fortune, and might 
have retired to enjoy it, or carried on his business with 
ease and comfort by the assistance of his nephew and 
partner, Josiah Boydell. 

We have said that an accidental circumstance made 
Boydell an engraver and a printseller. Another accident 
opened a new prospect to his view, and induced him to 
embark in a most costly undertaking. Li November, 
1786, he happened to meet adinner party at his nephew's. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 395 

Mr. Josiah Boydell's. The company consisted of Benjamin 
West, Romney, Paul Sandby, Hayley the poet, Hoole the 
translator of Ariosto and Tasso, Nicol the bookseller, and 
Mr. Brathwaite of the Post Office. 

In such a company it is not surprising that Literature 
and the Fine Arts should form a large part of the conver- 
sation. The Alderman was complimented on the liberal 
enconragement he had given to the art of Engraving, and 
the remarkable fact that by the exertions of an individual 
an important change should have been made in the com- 
merce of the country, and the balance of trade with the 
Continent so signally turned in our favour. The Alder- 
man, acknowledging the compliment, said he was not yet 
satisfied with his efforts ; that, old as he was, he still che- 
rished the ambition to refute the stigma cast npon us by 
foreigners, that England possessed no genius for historical 
painting. The success, which he had been the fortunate 
instrument of producing, in the Art of Engraving, con- 
vinced him that his countrymen only wanted proper 
encouragement and fit subjects to excel in historic paint- 
ing ; and this encouragement he would find, if subjects 
could be found. Nicol immediately observed, that there 
was one great national subject, on which there could be 
no difference of opinion — the Works of Shakspeare. The 
suggestion was received with acclamation and adopted by 
the Alderman; and so early as December of the same year, 
the plan of Boydell's edition of Shakspeare was matured, 
and a prospectus published. 

A new and unexpected difficulty, however, arose. The 
first application was naturally made to Sir Joshua Beynolds 
to furnish a picture. It was deemed indispensable to 
obtain a painting by Sir Joshua to decorate the intended 
Shakspeare Gallery; but he received the proposal with 
coldness, and even with aversion. He hinted that it would 
be a degradation of his art to paint an historical picture 
for a printseller. This was an extraordinary feeling in one. 



396 gillray's caricatures. 

who wonld not have hesitated to have painted the portrait 
of the same individual^ and who had already painted an 
admirable portrait of Mr. William Strahan^ the King's 
printer, equally connected with trade. Boydell was now 
in despair, but an able negotiator was found in George 
Steevens, the celebrated editor of Shakspeare, who highly 
approved of the plan of the magnificent edition of his 
favourite poet, and had undertaken to revise the text. 
We will give the account in the words of Northcote the 
painter, who had been Sir Joshua's pupil. '^ George 
Steevens, the editor of Shakspeare, undertook to persuade 
him to comply, and taking a Bank bill of five hundred 
pounds in his hand, had an interview with Sir Joshua ; 
and, while using all his eloquence in argument, he in the 
meantime slipt the Bank bill into his hand, he then soon 
found that this mode of reasoning was not to be resisted, 
and a picture was promised." (Northcote's Life of Sir 
J. Reynolds, vol. ii. p. 226.) The painting from the scene 
of Macbeth meeting the Witches with their cauldron was 
the first contribution of Sir Joshua to the Shakspeare 
Gallery ; for this Boydell paid him a thousand pounds. 
The Death of Cardinal Beaufort was the next ; for this 
Sir Joshua received five hundred pounds. Puck was the 
last picture he painted for the Gallery. The picture of 
Macbeth was at first attacked with severe and unmerited 
criticism. *' My own opinion of this piece,'' says North- 
cote, '^ is that the visionary and awful efiect produced both 
in the conception and execution of the background of this 
picture is certainly without a parallel in this world ; its 
novelty and its excellence bid defiance to all future 
attempts at rivalry. Had the figure of Macbeth been but 
equal in the requisite to this appalling scene, the picture 
would have stood without a companion on earth." 

Sir Joshua's assistance being secured, and his counte- 
nance thus given, no difficulty could present itself on the 
part of any other artist. Indeed, the most eminent 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 397 

painters highly approved of the design^ and the work now 
proceeded with all reasonable speed. The Shakspeare 
Grallery was opened in Pall Mall in 1789.* In the preface 
to the descriptive Catalogue of the Pictures, Boydell says, 
'^ I hope upon inspection of what has been done, and is 
now doing, the subscribers will be satisfied with the 
exertions that have been made, and will think that their 
confidence has not been misplaced ; especially when they 
consider the difficulties that a great undertaking, like the 
present, has" to encounter where Historical Painting is 
still but in its infancy. To advance that art towards 
maturity, and to establish an English school of historical 
painting was the great object of the present design.'* By 
what stretch of ingenuity pictures like Dogberry, Verges, 
the Town-Clerk and Sexton, by Smirke— Mrs. Page and 
Mrs. Ford, by Peters — Justice Shallow, Palstaff, Bardolph 
and Bull-calf, by Douro — or Puseli's picture of Titania, 
Queen of the Fairies, Bottom, &c. — could be included in 
the category of historical painting, we are at a loss to 
conjecture. But if Boydell did not establish a school of 
Historical painting, he did better — he instituted a school 
of English painting, in which every artist in the kingdom 
might display his peculiar genius, taste and fancy. The 
picturesquef beauties of Shakspeare afforded a boundless 
field for the display of every description of talent, for it 
has been truly said of our immortal bard, that 

^ Eadi change of many-ooloored life he drew. 
Exhausted worlds, and then imagined new." 

And from these creations of his imagination the artist was 

* The premises which formed the Shakspeare Gallery are now the pro- 
perty of the British Institution, but the statue of Shakspeare, by Banks, in 
alto-relievo, remains, and faces the front of the building in Pall Mall. 

j- We use, with a little latitude, the word *' picturesque** in the sense 
employed by Gilpin. He defines picturesque objects to be those which 
please from some quality capable of being illustrated in painting, or such 
ohjeels as are proper for pair^ting. 



398 otllrat's cabicatubes. 

at liberty to select and embody what was most congenial 
to his own talent. Another great advantage to the fine 
arts afforded by the Shakspeare Gallery was, every artist 
could contemplate the works of his •contemporaries, and 
instead of trusting to the resources of his own single 
mind, collect valuable suggestions from the varied excel- 
lence placed before him, and become familiarly acquainted 
with the very last line and boundary to which science had 
advanced, and skiUuUy apply the acquired knowledge to 
his own use. '' The greatest natural genius,'* observes 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, ^' cannot subsist on its own stock ; 
he who resolves never to ransack any mind but his own, 
will be soon reduced from mere barrenness to the poorest 
of all imitations ; he will be obliged to imitate himself^ 
and to repeat what he has before repeated. When we 
know the subject designed by such men, it will never be 
difficult to guess what kind of work is to be produced.'' 

When the Shakspeare Gallery was first opened, the 
exhibition was crowded with visitors, and continued to be 
so for several years. Every thing seemed to promise suc- 
cess, when that stupendous event, the French Revolution, 
burst like a torrent on the astonished world. Its fatal 
effects were felt throughout Europe, and all commerce con- 
nected with the fine arts was paralysed. Boydell no longer 
received orders of any consequence from the Continent^ 
but still he struggled manfully with his difficulties. It 
is painful to proceed — the Shakspeabe was completed, 
— ^BUT ITS Pbojectob WAS BuiNED. He communicated his 
embarrassments to his friends. Great sympathy was felt 
for one, who clearly shewed that he had expended three 
hundred and fifty thousand pounds in his efforts to pro- 
mote the fine arts. Government, recognizing his merit, 
allow him to dispose of the Shakspeare Gallery, and a 
portion of his stock, by lottery. The sale of the tickets 
proved extremely successful, and he lived to know that the 
last ticket was sold shortly before his death. He died 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 399 

December 11, 1804, aged 85. The produce of tlie sale of 
the tickets discharged all his debts, and left a considerable 
surplus to his descendants.* Tassie, of Leicester Square, 
the dealer in gems, was the fortunate gainer of the grand 
prize, and the Shakspeare Gallery became his property. 
If Boydell really intended to make "A Saceipicb on the 
Altar op Avarice,'* never was sacrifice attended with a 
more unfortunate result. 



381. 

BOMBARDINIAN CONFERRING UPON STATE 
AFFAIRS WITH ONE IN OFFICE. 

" Important Blanks in Nature's mighty roll.'* — Churchtll. 

sir grey cooper, secretary to the treasury, 
lieut.-qeneral sir robert hamilton. 

Sir Grey Cooper says, " Then — ^my Lordf introduced the 
affair you and I know of." General Hamilton replies, 
'^ Hum. — Aye. — Mum." This is intended as a satire on 
General Hamilton's self-importance, and his affectation of 
being acquainted with secrets of State, and mysteries of 
the Cabinet. The following is the account given of Sir 
Robert Hamilton in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 
under the head of " Hamilton of Silverton Hall." " Sir 
Robert Hamilton. — ^This gentleman having adopted the 
profession of arms, attained the rank of Lieutenant- Gene- 
ral, and was Colonel of the 108th foot, a regiment reduced 
at the peace in 1763, when General Hamilton was appointed 

* His niece Mrs. Nicol (formerly Mary Boydell) inherited her ancle's 
taste for the fine arts. She was a most amiable lady. She formed a very 
fine collection of modem prints, the great part of which was purchased bj 
the late Duke of Buckingham by private contract ; the remainder was sold 
by auction by Mr. Evans. Her supreme delight was to obtain a choice 
impression of a print, — and to make others happy. 

t Lord North. 

26 



400 GILLEAY^S CAKICATUBES. 

to the Colonelcy of the 40tli. Sir Bobert married first, 
Mary, daughter of W. Price WiUiams, Esq., by whom he 
had one son. He married, secondly, in 1775, Anne, daugh- 
ter of Sir John Heathcote, Bart, of Normanton, in the 
county of Butland, and was succeeded at his decease, by 
his grandson, the present baronet.'^ He died in August, 
1786. 

This print is without date ; it was probably executed 
about 1780 or 1781 ; it cannot be later than March, 1782, 
as Sir Grey Cooper retired from office on the dismissal of 
Lord North's administration. The spectator will observe, 
behind Sir Bobert Hamilton, a porter with a package on 
his head, and a female with child-bed linen under her arm ; 
they are about to knock at the door of Lieut.-General 
Bombardinian; the position of the two dogs must also be 
remarked ; there is a temple on the upper comer of the 
print, a cart is standing before it, emptying out some filth. 
A pun is intended on the first syllable of the appellation 
which Gillray has bestowed on the General, Wo cannot 
be more particular in our allusions. 

" Tu, quern Neqaitin Frocadores 
Delectant nimiom, salesqae nndi," 

must search them out in the scandalous chronicles of the 
day. 

882. 

A PEEP INTO THE SHAKSPEABE GALLEBY. 

April 26th, 1791. 

ALDERMAN BOYDELL. 

Some pictures in Alderman BoydelPs Shakspeare Gral* 
lery were wantonly cut, upon which his enemies set abroad 
a report that he had secretly cut them himself, in order to 
excite public sympathy. The libel is here embodied in 
graphic representations, and is rendered more bitter by the 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 401 

allusion contained in the words erased '^ The monster 
broke loose/' as though it had been an old plate turned to 
a new pui-pose. The '^ Monster '* was Renwick Williams, 
who excited public terror and indignation by prowling 
about the streets in the West End^ and catting and stabbing 
ladies. He was sentenced to six years' imprisonment for 
wounding a young lady in St. James's Street. 

This print exhibits a whole-length portrait of Boydell ; 
he has a large knife in his hand, and is catting one of the 
pictures in the Shakspeare Gallery. He says to himself, 
'^ There I there I there's a nice gash I There ! this will 
be a glorioas subject for to make a fuss about in the 
newspapers ; a hundred guineas reward will make a fine 
soand. 0, there will be fine talking about the Gallery, 
and it will bring a rare sight of shillings for seeing of the 
Cut Pictures ; — there, and there, again. Egad 1 there's 
nothing like having a good liead-piece ! Here I here ! and 
there ! there I and then these small pictures won't cost 
a great deal of money replacing ; indeed, one would not 
like to cut a large one to pieces for the sake of making 
it look as if people envied us. No I that would cost 
rather too much, as my pocket begins — ^but mum — that's 
nothing to nobody. Well, none can blame me for going 
the cheapest way to work, to keep up the respectability 
of the Gallery; — there, there, there, there !" 

Gillray is, in general, a good-natured satirist ; he play- 
fully ridicules the foibles or follies of the age, and only 
lashes vice with a justifiable severity. But he has here 
pursued Boydell with a rancour which would almost seem 
to arise from resentment of some supposed injury or per- 
sonal affront. This Plate must be allowed to be an 
indefensible attack on the moral character of a man who 
would have scorned the act ungenerously imputed to him. 
Boydell had the ill luck to have his publications, and their 
appearance by subscription, attacked by another able 
satirist, — by Mathias, in his Pursuits of Literature : — 

26 * 



402 oillbay's cabicatubes. 

" Shall I new anecdotes from darkness draw, 
Which e'en Strawberrian Horace never saw; 
Prefix some painting, or antique vignette, 
To please old Boydell's fond subscribing set. 
With wire-wove, hot-pressed paper's glossy glare, 
Blind all the wise, and make the stupid stare." 

Mathias^ however^ subsequently paid his homage to the 
press of Bulmer, the printer of Boydell's Shakspeare, by 
printing at his office the beautiful series of the Italian 
publications edited by himself ; also his edition of Gray's 
Works, in 2 vols. 4to., and the Pursuits of Literature, 
in 4to. 

If Boydell was the object of unjust satire, he was, at 
least, in one instance, the subject of unfounded panegyric. 
The Eev. Mr. Perring, a student of Christchurch, Oxford, 
preached a sermon, on the 8th of January, 1804, before 
the Corporation of London, in which he pronounced a 
panegyric on the Corporation generally, and then said, 
there was one among them who had contributed greatly 
to the promotion of the Fine Arts. '^ He has, at a great 
expense, adorned a magnificent Bible ;" the Eev. Divine 
having thus confounded Boydell's Shakspeare with Mack- 
lin's Bible. 

We are not anxious to bestow indiscriminate praise on 
Boydell, or conceal an instance of his weakness. We 
think Gillray might have found a fair subject for carica- 
ture in Boydell's absurd vanity in parading up and down 
the Shakspeare Gallery decorated with the gold chain he 
wore as SheriflF of London, many years after the expira- 
tion of his Sherifialty. Boydell, however, considered this 
chain as the symbol of the success of his undertakings, 
and we may, perhaps, be allowed to plead, in extenuation, 
the good-natured apology of Sydney Smith for similar 
displays of ostentation : " There are some sayings in our 
language about vierit being always united with modesty , 
&c. (I suppose because they both begin with an ?w, for 
alliteration has a great power over proverbs, and proverbs 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 403 

over public opinion ;) but I f anoy, that in the majority of 
instances, tho fact is directly the reverse/' (Sydney 
Smith's Moral Philosophy, 1850, p. 9.) 

383. 
THE FINISHING TOUCH. Sept 29<A, 1791. 

LADT ABCHEB. 

A characteristic picture of this celebrated lady, equally 

remarkable for the love of play and the love of driving. 

She was esteemed one of the best whips of the day. We 

have a perfect recollection of her, and can testify that the 

portrait is an admirable likeness. We have stated, in a 

former article, that Lady Archer used to have her face 

enamelled; she is here seated at her toilet, putting on the 

Finishing Touch of rouge. Bate Dudly has thus described 

her: — 

** Mine was the earlie arte 

To banish Nature's bloshes from the cheeke ! 
I learnt it of a dyw's wife in Spaine, 
Whose face in Tyrian die was so engrain'd. 
That Tuthie cocks assail'd her as she past." 

Vortigem cmd Bowena, toI. i. p. 29. 

884. 
LA DERNIERB RBSSOUECE; oh, VAN BUT- 
CHELL'S GARTERS. Od. 3rd, 1791. 

HONOUE^LE MRS. HOBABT (lADT BUCKINGHAHSHIBE). 

The Honourable Mrs. Hobart bas her right leg placed 
on a footstool; she is putting on the garters of Van 
Butchell. On the right hand comer of the room there 
is a picture representing Nina terrified at the sudden 
appearance of the supposed ghost of her lover kneeling 
before her, and making protestations of his affection. 

The story of Nina was very popular in France, and gave 
rise to a Play and a Novel, bearing her name. Le Texier 
read the French Play in London in the course of his Dra- 
matic Headings. It particularly attracted the attention o£ 



404 gillray's caricatures. 

Mrs. Hobart, and she procured a translation to be mado, 
which was published with the following title, '^ Nina, ob 
THE Madness of Love/' a Comedy,* translated from the 
French. Prefixed is a Dedication : '' To the Honourable 
Mrs. Hobart, this translation of Nina, a work that is 
much indebted to her for the fame it has received in this 
country.'* The name of the translator or dedicator is not 
given, but it was George Monck Berkeley. The date of 
1787 is subscribed to the advertisement. 

Mrs. Hobart, now better known as Lady Buckingham- 
shire, was a distinguished votary of fashion ; still more 
celebrated for her love of play, and the far-&med loss of 
her faro-bank and its contents. She lived in St. James's 
Square, next door to Dr. Porteus, Bishop of London, — 
to the great annoyance of that worthy Prelate. A large 
assemblage of persons met at her house almost every 
evening, to indulge their passion for play, Sunday not 
excepted, until the Bishop sent her a letter of remon- 
strance on the violation of the Sabbath. — Sacred music 
was said to be substituted. 

The Hon. Mrs. Hobart had two sons and two daughters ; 
both her sons died. We presume Gillray has depicted her 
as trying on the garters of VanButchell as her "Demiire 
Ressource," — her last hope of obtaining a healthy and 
vigorous heir to the title and estates to which her husband 

* In the Comedy, Germeail, the Lover of Nina, has been detained in the 
coontiy much longer than he expected. — A report of his death is circolated^ 
and obtains erodit Nina is overwhekned with sorrow; the affliction pro- 
dncos an aberration of mind. One day, when she was walking in her 
father's garden, attended by her companion Eliaa, Germenil suddenly 
appeared, and threw himself at her feet, with many protestations of Iotc. 
The frantic Nina supposed it to be his apparition. This is the subject of 
the picture hanging up in Mrs. Hobart's room. Mr. Berkeley, in his dedi- 
cation, says, the Comedy '* is much indebted to her for the fame it has 
acquired in this country :" it is therefore extremely probable that she 
performed the character of Nina in the Private Theatricals at Branden burgh 
House, then the residence of the Margravine of Anspach.— We know that 
she performed in the Dntmatic Entertainments given there. Gillray haa 
depicted her in the character of CowsUp,»see Plate 403. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 405 

was next in succession. We know not whether there be 
any foundation for the insinuation intended to be con- 
veyed, but it is not incredible. It is not easy to calculate 
the extravagant expectations and fatuity of credulity. We 
know that Dr. Graham attracted many persons of rank 
and fashion, merchants and opulent tradesmen, to his 
''Temple of Health"* in PaU Mall, to sleep in his 
" Celestial Bed,*' which he promised would be attended 
with the efficacy, which Mrs. Hobart is said to have 
expected from the garters of Van Butchell. 

Martin Van Butchell must not be confounded with the 
ordinary class of empirics. His father was tapestry-maker 
to George II., to which was attached a salary of fifty 
pounds per annum. He had his son instructed in the 
French language, then an attainment rarely acquired by 
persons in the inferior situations of life. He lived in the 
parish of Lambeth, near the place where the Obelisk now 
stands, and close to a house of entertainment called "The 
Dog and Duck," which had a garden annexed to it, in 
humble imitation of Yauxhall. The father of Van Butchell 
let his house out in lodgings; foreigners often took apart- 
ments in it, and young Van Butchell, from his knowledge 
of French, acted as valet-de-place to them : he possessed 
very agreeable manners, and recommended himself by 
these means to his employers. Sir Thomas Bobinson en*- 
gaged him as travelling tutor to his son, but he eventually 
declined the oflfer, having been informed that Sir Thomas 
was extremely arbitrary, and that his situation would be 
very uncomfortable. He then entered into the service of 
Viscountess Talbot, as Groom of the Chambers, and re- 
mained with her nine years. The situation must have 
been both easy and lucrative, as he was enabled to prose- 
cute his favourite studies of Mathematics and Medicine^ 
particularly Anatomy. The money he had saved in Lady 

* Dr. Graham's '* Temple of Health" was the house in Pall Mall, latelj 
oocopied by Messrs. Payne and Foss, the eminent booksellers. 



406 gillray's caricaturbs. 

Talbot's service enabled him to place himself as a papil 
under the celebrated John Hunter. At the expiration of 
his pupilage^ he commenced business as a dentist^* and 
acquired so much reputation^ that a lady is said to hare 
paid him eighty guineas for a set of teeth. His eccentricity 
now began to develope itself. — He applied to the Marquis 
of Salisbury^ then Lord Chamberlain^ to be appointed 
dentist to his Majesty ; and on the Marquis declining to 
make the appointment^ he inserted an advertisement in 
the newspapers — " That the Marquis of Salisbury need not 
trouble himself to apply to his Majesty to appoint Mr. 
Van Butchell his dentist/' He now extended his busi- 
ness^ and acted as a general practitioner. He is said to 
have possessed considerable knowledge of his profession; 
and an assiduous student under John Hunter could have 
scarcely failed to acquire skill. He was very successful in 
curing Fistulas without cutting. He seems to have consi- 
dered the medical profession overstocked in London ; and 
that the only method by which a practitioner, without 
connections, could hope to attract attention, was to affect 
eccentricity. Accordingly he rode about town with a long 
beard, and painted various coloured spots on his white 
horse. But his principal reliance seems to have been on his 
eccentric advertisements. We will insert two specimens. 
'^Causes of Crim. Con. — Barrenness. — And the King's 
Evil; — ^Advice, — One Guinea. — Come from ten till one, — 
for I go to none. The Anatomist and Sympathizer, — 
who never poisons, — ^nor sheds human blood. — Balm is 
always good/' And again: — ''British Christian Lads. 
Behold — Now is the day of salvation. — Get understand- 
ing, — as the highest gaip. — Cease looking boyish.— 
Become quite manly. — Girls are fond of hair.'* 

The death of his first wife afforded another opportunity 

* John Hunter, under whom Van Butchell studied, gave lectures to hii 
pupils on the natural histor|r and diseases of the teeth; which he afterwanU 
published in quarto. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 407 

for obtaining notoriety. He cansed her to be dissected. 
Mr. Craikshank,* the celebrated surgeon, told the writer of 
this article, that when the dissection was about to com- 
mence, he requested Mr. Yan Butchell to withdraw, as the 
spectacle would be too painful for a husband to witness, 
but he declined, saying that he had always devoted his 
particular attention to anatomy, and he felt bound to be 
present at the operation. When his wife's eyes were about 
to be extracted, he was again entreated to retire, as the 
sudden turning up of her eyes upon him might powerfully 
affect his feelings ; but he was inexorable ; he remained 
imto the end. We are persuaded that the whole scene 
was intended by him for effect in the newspapers. His 
wife's body is now deposited in the museum of the College 
of Surgeons. The reader who may be desirous to obtain 
further particulars of him may consult Kirby's Wonderful 
Museum, vol. 1, p. 191, and Caulffeld's Eccentric Magazine, 
4to. vol. 1. 

385. 

PATENT BOLSTERS;— LE MOYEN D'ETRE EN 
BON-POINT. Oct.lSih', 1791. 

MBS. FITZHEBBEBT. 

About this period female dress seems to have attained 
the climax of absurdity, we had almost said of indelicacy. 
Ladies of rank thought proper to invest themselves with 
'^ Pads" to affect pregnancy ; this gross folly was not con- 
fined to married ladies, but, proh pudor ! extended to 
widows, and even to ladies who never had husbands.f 
Fashion always descends with a rapid step. Imitators 
were soon found in every class of society. Milliners and 

* Mr. Crnikshank was first the pupil, then the anatomical assistant, and 
ultimately the partner of Dr. Wm. Hunter in Anatomy. 

t It is surprising that young unmarried ladies of the highest respectability 
could thus expose themselves to the remark of Sheridan's Mrs. Candour—- 
** Poor dear girl, who knows what her situation may be ?" 



408 oillra.y's cabicatuses. 

mantua makers exhibited in their windows pads suited 
to every stage of pregnancy. This justly subjected the 
wearers to ridicule and satire. We shall give an extract 
from a tract called *' Humorous Hints to Ladies of Fashion, 
who wish to appear Pregnant, 1793.*^ "The parks, the 
theatres^ every place of public resort present such a preg- 
nant display, that a foreigner just arrived would suppose 
all the distinguished heroes of Ireland had driven English- 
men into exile, and had planted their standards uncon- 
trolled in the fields of Venus throughout Great Britain.'* 
Indeed, we might say with Hudibras : — 

** Tea, 'tis in Tain to think to gueas 
At women by appearances." 

There was published, " The Pad, a Farce in one act (by 
Robert Woodbridge), performed at Covent Garden with 
considerable applause, 1793, 8vo." " An amusing Satire 
on a ridiculous and indecent Female Fashion of the day, 
the wearing of a false Protuberance about the Waist, by 
which it was rendered difficult to distinguish the pure Maid 
from the pregnant Matron," See Biographia Dramatica, 
1812. 

The fashionable female folly did not however cease here. 
The protuberances caused by the pads in the front of the 
waist, were rivalled by exuberant projections at their backs. 
The subject of dress," says the Rev. J. P. Malcolm, 

is now nearly exhausted, but I cannot part with the fol- 
lies of thirty years without permitting an observer to speak 
pi one of them.'' " Among the many enormous exube- 
rances of modem dress, I believe there is one lately sprung 
up, which you may not have noticed. You will perhaps 
be surprised when I tell you it is the cork rump. To ex- 
plain this technical term, you are to know that the ladies 
have thought it conducive to elegance to make an addition 
to the hinder part of their dress, by sewing several pieces 
of cork under the straps of their stays, in order that by the 
protuberance of this new addition to the rump, their waist 






MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 409 

may seem the smaller and the more delicate/^ (See Mal- 
colm's Anecdotes of the Maimers and Customs of London 
during the 18th century, 4to. p. 448.) 

This dress-epidemic could not last long. The good 
sense of our fair countrywomen was sure to prevail, and 
repudiate these excrescences.* We have great pleasure in 
extracting from Malcolm the following paragraph. 

''The ladies have at length, much to their honour, 
thrown aside these hateful attempts to supply nature's de- 
ficiencies or omissions, the false breasts, jpocZ^ and bottoms, 
and now appear in their native grace and proportion, which 
distinguishes an EngUshwoman ; the hair cleansed from all 
extraneous matter, shines in beautiful lustre, carelessly 
thrown round the head, in the manner adopted by the 
most eminent Grecian sculptors, and the form appears 
through their snow-white draperies in that fascinating 
manner, which excludes the least thought of impropriety. 
Their hats and bonnets of straw, chip and beaver are gene- 
rally well-proportioned and handsome, and their velvet 
pelisses, shawls and silk spencers are contrived to improve, 
rather than injure the form.'' (Malcolm, p. 448.) 

886. 
AN ANGEL GLIDING ON A SUNBEAM INTO 
PARADISE. Oct. 11th, 1791. 

MBS. SCHWBLEKBEBQ. 

The flight of the celebrated favourite of Queen Char- 
lotte, the butt of so much of Peter Pindar's satires, to 

* The French gare the Tarious appellations of Boofant, Fanier, or Tonr- 
nare, to the cork mmp. Our Gallic neighboors, howeyer, entertained a 
different opinion of the delicacy of its nse from what we have ventored to 
express. '* Ces paniers qni d'abord n'avoient 6t6 faits qoe ponr donner k 
la robe on pea plos de developpement prirent an tel accroissement que 
lenr largeor fat port^ jusqa'li qaatre pieds. Lorsqae la jeane Marie 
Antoinette Yonlat, le matin an moins, so d^barrasser d'an v^ment anssi 
ridicule que difforme, on raccusa d'indecence." (See "Dictionnaire de la 
Conversation et de la Lecture," voL 17. Pari8> 1835. Article,— >Co6tame.) 



410 gillbay's cabicatubes. 

Hanover, laden with her savings. An amusing account of 
Mrs. Schwelenberg will be found in Madame Darblay's 
Diary. 

887. 
BRITANNIA. June 25th, 1791. 

A rather ludicrous burlesque on the map of Groat Bri- 
tain, the work of some amateur artist, and etched by 
GiUray. 

388. 

A WITCH, UPON A MOUNT'S EDGE. 

Oct. 17 th, 1791. 

LADT MOUNT-EDOECUHBE. 

A caricature of Lady Mount-Edgecumbe, and a play 
upon her name. 

889. 

LES TROIS MAGOTS. THE ^THREE SCAMPS. 

Nov. Ut, 1791. 

THE THBEE BABBYMOBES. 

The Earl of Barrymore and his two brothers, three of 
the wildest rakes of the day, whose follies were so noto- 
rious and extravagant, that they received the popular 
nicknames of Newgate, Hellgate, and Gripplegate. They 
had a sister, to whom the Prince of Wales gave the nick- 
name of Billingsgate. 

890. 

THE POWER OF BEAUTY— ST. CECILIA CHARM- 
ING THE BRUTE; ob, THE SEDUCTION OP 
THE WELCH AMBASSADOR. Feb. 1792. 

SIB W. W. WYNNE. (?) LADY CECILIA JOHNSTON. 

Some forgotten anecdote of the scandal of the day. 



HISCELlANEOnS SERIES. 411 

391. 

LE COCHON ET SES DEUX PETITES 2 or, EICH 
PICKINGS FOR A NOBLE APPETITE. May, 1792. 

DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

Another subject of contemporary scandal, the hero of 
which, in this instance, is the celebrated Duke of Nor- 
folk, who was nicknamed the Rotal Duke, because he was 
always drunk, or, to use the vulgar phrase, ''royal.*' Gill- 
ray has frequently represented him as an inebriated votary 
of Bacchus ; he has here represented him sacrificing to 
Venus. After dining at the Piazza Coflfee House, he would 
sally forth, and in a state of intoxication might be seen in 
the saloons of the theatres, or other places of public resort, 
seated on a sofa between a couple of fair Cyprians, quaffing 
his wine and conversing with them. He used to wear a 
grey coat, turned up with a black velvet collar, black small 
clothes, and black silk stockings, and would ask them, 
" If they could take up with a country curate.*' 

892. 
ST. CECILIA. April 24th, 1 782. 

LADY C. JOHNSTON. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds had painted a picture of Mrs. 
Sheridan^^in the character of St. Cecilia, the patroness of 
music and singing. She is seated before a harpsichord. 
To mark her amiability, he placed two children on her lap, 
to amuse whom she is playing and singing. ''Among 
the families visited by Mr. and Mrs. Sheridan,*' says 
Moore, "was that of Mr. Coote (Purdeu), at whose 
musical parties Mrs. Sheridan frequently sung, accom- 
panied occasionally by the two little daughters of Mr. 
Coote, who wore the originals of the children introduced 
into Sir Joshua Reynolds's picture of Mrs. Sheridan as St. 
Cecilia.'' Moore has subjoined this most interesting note 



412 gillbat's caricatures. 

fco this passage. '' The charm of her singing, as well as 
her fondness for children, are interestingly described in a 
letter to my friend Mr. Rogers, from one of the most 
tasteful writers of the present day : — ' Hers was truly '' a 
voice of the cherub choir,'' and she was always ready to 
sing without any pressing. She sang here a great deal, 
and to my infinite delight; but what had a peculiar 
charm was, that she used to take my daughter, then a 
child, on her lap, and sing a number of childish songs, 
with such a playfulness of manner, and such a sweetness 
of look and voice, as was quite enchanting.' " 

This print is a parody on Sir Joshua's picture. Gillray 
has represented Lady Cecilia Johnston playing on a harp- 
sichord, but instead of the two children has substituted 
two cats, to denote her irritable and peevish temper. 
The manners of Mrs. Sheridan are universally eJlowed to 
have been most fascinating ; whether there really were 
any grounds for Gillray's sarcasm we are unable to 
discover ; if well founded we might say with Hamlet : — 
'* Look here upon this picture, — and on this." 

393. 
A SPENCER AND A THRBADPAPER. 

May 17M, 1792. 
A satire on the costume of the day. One of tho cha- 
racters may possibly be Lord Spencer. 

394. 
A VESTAL OP —93, TRYINQ ON THE CESTUS 
OF VENUS. AprU 29th, 1793. 

" Upon her fragrant breast tho tone was brac'd ; 
In it was every art, and every charm 
To win the wisest, and the coldest warm." 
Engraved from a ba88<HrelievOt lately fcmnd upon some fragmenta oj 
Antiquity, 

LADY CECILIA JOHNSTON. 

Lady Henrietta Cecilia (whose maiden name was West), 
was the daughter of the Earl of Delawarr by his wife, the 




MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 413 

Lady Charlotte Macarty. She was bom January 25, 
1727, and married May 4, 1762, to Lieut.-General James 
Johnston. 

Burke, in his Supplementary Volume to the History of 
the Landed Gentry, gives the following account of her 
husband. ^' James Johnston, bom in Dublin, was 
appointed Comet of Hawley's (13th Dragoons) in 1736, 
and on General Hawley^s removal to the 1st Royal 
Dragoons in 1739, was transferred to that corps, and 
served with it at Dettingen, and the campaign in Flanders, 
where he obtained the Majority of the regiment in May 
1745, having repeatedly distinguished himself in affairs of 
outposts. He was promoted to the Lieut. -Colonelcy of 
the 13th, Mostyn's Dragoons, in 1754 ; and on his friend. 
General Conway, being appointed Colonel of the Royal 
Dragoons, he was again transferred to that corps and pro- 
ceeded in command of it to join the Allied Army, under 
the command of Ferdinand of Brunswick. Here again 
he was particularly distinguished on several occasions, 
especially at Warburgh, Kirk Deuchem, and Elampf en ; 
in the latter aflFair he was severely wounded. In 1762, he 
was appointed Major-General in Germany, and continued 
to serve with that rank till the close of the war. On the 
Army marching into winter quarters in Nov. 1762, the 
Hereditary Prince of Brunswick, imder whose command 
he had formerly been engaged with the enemy, particu- 
larly at Kampfen, sent General Johnston a very handsome 
gold snuff-box with a flattering autograph letter, begging 
his acceptance of it. Peace being signed, the English 
regiments returned to England in 1763, and in the 
autumn of that year, Major-General Johnston was ap- 
pointed Lieut.-Govemor and Commander-in-Chief of the 
Island of Minorca, whither he proceeded immediately, 
and retained that command till 1774, when he returned to 
England. From that period until his decease, he was 
much employed on the staff at home ; and for several 



414 qillray's caricatures. 

years commanded camps of exercise, whicli were formed 
on Salisbury Plain. He died in Dec. 1797, being a 
General in the Army, Colonel of the Inniskillen Dragoons, 
and commanding the Eastern District, consisting of the 
counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex. General John- 
ston, when Major in the Boyal Dragoons, was reputed the 
handsomest man, and best swordsman in the army ; and 
many anecdotes are told of his exploits both in the field 
and in casual rencontres, which in those days, when no 
gentleman ever went out without his sword, were of 
frequent occurrence. Although of a Scotch &mily, ho 
was, from the circumstance of his being bom at DubUn, 
usually called Irish Johnston, and is so called by Horace 
Walpole, who frequently mentions him in his letters to 
Sir Horace Mann, Marshal Conway, &c., to distinguish 
him from his relation of the same name and standing in 
the army, who died Colonel of the Scotch Greys, in 1795. 
By his wife, the Lady H. Cecilia West, eldest daughter of 
John, Earl of Delawarr, he had a daughter Caroline, mar- 
ried to Colonel Evelyn Anderson,* brother to Charles, 
first Lord Yarborough, who died in 1823, leaving no 
issue — and one son/' Thus far, Burko in his History of 
the Landed Gentry : we may add that Lady Cecilia had 
another daughter, Hester Maria, who died in her infancy ; 
and that her son, Henry George, was Major of the 
Yorkshire Hussars. He died before his mother. 

In this print, Gillray has depicted Lady Cecilia Johnston 
as a Vestal of — 93, that is, of 1793. She is in a sitting 
posture, with Ovid's Art of Love in her pocket. Cupid is 
encircling her with the Cestus of Venus, (a pa^) which 
one of the attendant Loves is adjusting to her person, and 
Cupid is preparing to fasten it on, while another of the 
Loves holds up a mirror, in which the delighted Lady 
Cecilia surveys herself with transports of delight. The 
arrows are falling out of Cupid's quiver, and his bow with 

* Of the coantj of LincolD. 



MISCELTJINEOUS SERIES. 415 

an arrow in it lies below him. On the left of the print is 
a fire burning on the altar of Vesta. 

This print and its inscription, puzzled us extremely. 
We were aware there would be no mythological impro- 
priety in investing a married woman with the Cestus of 
Venus, because Homer makes Juno borrow it to recover 
the waning aflFections of Jupiter : but we could not com- 
prehend by what licence of sarcasm, or caricature, Lady 
Cecilia Johnston, a lady of unblemished character, who 
had been married upwards of thirty years and had three 
children, could be denominated a vestal, and represented 
as superintending the sacred fire on the altar of Vesta. 
We applied to an eminent collector to inquire if he could 
account for this representation of Lady Cecilia Johnston, 
and were informed, the plate had been altered from the 
original design; a former portrait having been effaced, 
and that of Lady Cecilia substituted. ^' Ibi efiusus est 
omnis labor.^' The problem was solved. Gillray in altering 
the plate, forgot to remove the altar of Vesta, and make 
a corresponding change in the inscription. He gratified 
his spleen, but the incongruity injured his print. 

This exemplifies a remark of the Duke of Norfolk, 
that he never knew a painting altered,* without some 

* The Duke's remark is equally applicable to literary compositions. 
When Pope first published the Dundad, be made Theobald the hero of the 
poem, in revenge of Theobald's attack on his translation of Homer, and his 
edition of Shakspeare ; having subsequently quarrelled with Gibber, he 
dethroned Theobald, and elevated dbber to the unenviable pre-eminence ; 
bnt the shafts of ridicule, which were successfully levelled against Theo- 
bald's feeble attempts at emendatory criticism, his love of black-letter 
literature, and 

** All such reading as was never read/' 
fell pointless on the author of the Careless Husband ; Theobald and 
Gibber had no pursuits in common. One spleudid exception, however, must 
be made to the general remark on the usual infelicity of alterations and re- 
cODStmctions of literary compositions. The enlargement of the Rape of tlic 
Lock by the introduction of the machinery of the Sylphs and Gnomes, is 
one of the finest conceptions of modem genius, and is managed with con- 
summate skill and judgment. 

27 



416 qillray's cabicatueeb. 

material injury to it. When the Duke repaired and 
enlarged Arundel Castle, lie converted the Chapel into a 
dining-room, at one end of which he placed a very large 
painted window, executed by Eginton. It represents 
King Solomon (the Duke of Norfolk) entertaining the 
Queen of Sheba at a banquet. The guests are portraits 
of the Duke's family or friends; among them is Lady 
Elizabeth Howard, third daughter of the last Lord 
Fauconberg, and wife of Bernard Edwin Howard, Esq. 
After the painting was completed, but before it was put 
up. Lady Elizabeth eloped with Lord Lucan, and the 
marriage was dissolved by Act of Parliament in 1794. 
Mr. Howard was extremely urgent with the Duke to have 
another portrait substituted for that of his divorced wife ; 
the Duke, however, was immoveable; he said, '* he was 
sure some circumstance would be overlooked in making 
the alteration, and the harmony of the design destroyed.^' 
The painting remains in its original state to the present 
time, and will now, of course, be so transmitted to 
posterity.* 

We have not been able to discover the cause of Gillray'a 
bitter attacks upon Lady Cecilia Johnston; she was a 
votary, not a slave of fashion. The Female Jockey Club, 
which draws severe characters of Lady Buckinghamshire, 
Lady Archer, and many of the leading ladies, wholly 
abstains from all allusion to Lady Cecilia Johnston. The 
most solid testimony to her good conduct is, that on the 
death of her husband, Lieut.-General Johnston, she had 
apartments assigned to her in Hampton Court Palace, 

* Dallawaj in hu History of Sussex, Vol. 2, part 1, Key. A. Tieroey 
(Chaplain to the late Dnke of Norfolk), in his History of the Town and 
Casile of Amndcl, and Horsfield in his History of Sosaex, omit all notice 
of this paiDtiag. Britton in his Beauties of England and Wales, mentiooa 
the painiinp^, but only notices the portraits of the Duke and Duchess of 
Norfolk as King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba ; he erroneously places 
the painted window in the drawing-room, instead of the banqueting-room. 
(Beauties of England, Vol. 14, p. 81.) 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 417 

where she continued to reside, until her decease in March 
1817. 



395. 
SPOUTING. May 14th, 1792. 

MRS. ARMISTEAD. FOX. 

This is said to allude to a lover's quarrel between Fox 
and his favourite, Mrs. Armistead, which occurred about 
this time. 

396. 
A DUET. May Uth, 1792. 

Allusion to some story of contemporary scandal, now 
forgotten. The gentleman is said to be a city pastrycook, 
well known by the nickname of Captain Rolling-pin, one 
of the last heroes of the ancient city trained bands. 

397. 

FLEMISH CHARACTERS. January Isf, 1793. 

This and the following were engraved from sketches 
made by Gillray during his tour through Flanders, where 
he accompanied Loutherbourgh. in 1793, to prepare for 
the grand picture of the taking of Valenciennes. 

398. 
FLEMISH CHARACTERS. January Ut, 1793. 

899. 

AND CATCH THE LIVING MANNERS AS THEY 
RISE. May 7th, 1794, 

A satire on the ridiculous costume of this period, espe- 
cially the enormous feathers worn by the ladies on their 

27 * 



418 oillray's caricatures. 

heads. These are two exquisites of the year 1794, 
probably members of the Manners family, judging by the 
title of the plate, which is no doubt a pun, as well as a 
quotation. 

This is the first of a series of plates, intended by Gillray, 
*' to shew tlie very age and body of the times, his fonn and 
pressure.^' It is a satire on the enormous height of the 
feathers worn by ladies of fashion at this period; a 
TALL lady was compelled to stoop in passing through the 
doors of her rooms, and when she attended Queen Char- 
lotte's drawing-room so attired, and invested with a hoop 
of the amplitude required by Court etiquette, she was 
compelled not only to stoop, but to pass sidling through 
the doors of her apartments, and to enter her carriage in 
a similar manner. This reminds us of an anecdote related 
by Monstrelet, and other historians, that when Queen 
Isabel of Bavaria kept her court at Vincennes, in 1416, 
it was found necessary to heighten and widen the doors 
of all the state aparments, that the head-dresses of the 
Queen and her ladies might have room to enter. 

400. 
MODERN ELEGANCE. A PORTRAIT. 

May 22nd, 1795. 

LADY CHARLOTTE CAMPBELL (KOW LADY CHARLOTTE BURY). 

Horace Walpole has written on his* impression of this 
print, " Lady Charlotte Campbell, second daughter of 
John Duke of Argyll, 1795.'' Lady Charlotte Campbell 
is universally allowed to have been one of the most 
celebrated beauties of the period, to have possessed 
considerable intellectual acquirements, and the most fas- 
cinating manners. Bate Dudly has given this bewitching 
description of her, — 

* This impression of the print is now in the possession of W. Smith, Esq. 
formerly tlic eminent ])rintseller. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 419 



a 



Look what a shape I 



Limbes fondlie fashioned in the wanton moulde 
Of Nature ! Warm in Loye's slie wytcheries, 
And scominge all the draperie of Arte, 
A spider's loome now weaves her thinne attire, 
Through which the roguish tell-tale windes 
Do frolicke as they liste I" 

VORTIOERN AND ROWENA. 

Lady Charlotte Susan Maria CampboU, was bom June 
21, 1775, she married June 14, 1796, Colonel John 
Campbell of Shawfield, who died 15th of March, 1809. 
She married secondly the Rev. Edward Bury, who died in 
1832. She is the author of " The three Great Sanctuaries 
of Tuscany, Valombrosa, Camaldoli and Lavema, a Poem, 
with historical and legendary notes, and engravings from 
drawings illustrative of the scenery, by the Rev. Edward 
Bury,'' oblong folio, 1833. Also '' Family Records, or 
the Two Sisters,'' 3 vols. 12mo. 1833. The Vox Populi, 
however, will make her un auteur malgre lui, and pertina- 
ciously persists in ascribing to her pen, '^ A Diary illus- 
trative of the Times of George IV." 4 vols. 8vo. 1837-39, 
but her Ladyship repudiates this production, and assured 
a noble poet she did not write it ; he replied, '' he felt 
confident she did not, as no lady of any delicacy of mind 
could have written it." No answer being returned, we 
do not know whether Lady Charlotte Bury received the 
remark as a sarcasm or a compliment. 

401. 
COUNT ROUPEE. June bth, 1797. 

p. BENFIELD. 

An equestrian sketch of the well known Paul Benfield, 
who, returning from India with £300,000, entered into 
partnership with Boyd, and established the firm of Boyd 
and Benfield, one of the most extensive mercantile firms 
in London. He obtained a seat in Parliament, and was 
prosecuted for bribery. Pitt, then a young man, was 



420 gille^t's caricatubes. 

on his first circuit, and^ bis senior counsel being taken 
ill^ conducted the defence. The house was most exten- 
sively engaged in loanSj but failed in consequence of their 
losing an enormous sum they had invested in the Frendi 
funds^ which was confiscated on the breaking out of the 
Revolution. By the treaty of 1814, however, the French 
government was bound to reimburse the English holders, 
which enabled Boyd and Benfield to pay their creditors 
208. in the pound, with interest for the long intervening 
period of the war. 

The title given to Benfield by Gillray is no doubt in 
allusion to the circumstance of his wealth having been 
acquired in India. 

402. 
FOLLOWING THE FASHION. Dec. 9th, 1794. 

Another satire on contemporary fashions, which hardly 
requires any explanation, beyond what the print itself 
conveys. 

403. 

JJNTER COWSLIP, WITH A BOWL OF CREAM. 

June ISth, 1795. 

COUHTESS OF BUCXINGHAMSHIBB. 

Lady Buckinghamshire in the character of Cowslip, 
which she performed in the private theatricals at Branden- 
burgh House. 

404. 
CHARACTERS IN HIGH LIFE. June 20th, 1795. 

DUCHESS 07 RUTLAND. LADY OSBTBUDS MANNERS. 

A continuation of the satires on the enormities of &8hion. 
The persons represented are the Duchess of Rutland and 
her unmarried sister^, Lady Gertrude Manners. 



lilSCELLANlOUS S£RI£S. 421 

405. 

PARASOLS FOR 1795. June \5th, 1795. 

Fasliions again. At tliis time the ladies wore great and 
&ntastic head-dresses of straw^ and the gentlemen's hats 
were made absurdly wide, which might well be considered 
as serving the purpose of a parasol. 

406. 
THE SHADOW OP A DUKE. June 25th, 1795. 

COLONEL THOBNTON. 

Colonel Thornton imagined that he resembled the Duke 
of Hamilton, whose manners and gait he imitated with the 
utmost care, it was said in the conceit of being mistaken 
for the Duke when he walked the streets. 

407. 
A SLICE OP GLOSTER CHEESE. June 2nd, 1795. 

PRINCE WILLL&M OF GLOUCESTER. 

This is said to have been a striking likeness, in form and 
manners, of the late Duke of Gloucester, who, when young, 
was remarkably thin. He was nicknamed a single slice of 
Gloster. 

Prince William of Gloucester was bom in the Theodole 
Palace at Rome, January 15, 1776. He was sent to the 
University of Cambridge to finish his education; on 
quitting the University he entered the army, and in pro- 
gress of time became a Field Marshal in the British army. 
He succeeded his father as Duke of Gloucester in August, 
1805. On the death of the Duke of Gh:afton he became a 
candidate for the Chancellorship of the University of Cam- 
bridge, and was opposed by the Duke of Rutland. The 
election took place on the 26th of March^ 181 1. The votes 



422 qillbat's caricatures. 

were, for the Duke of Gloucester, 476 ; for the Duke of 
Butland, 356. He was installed on the 29th of June 
following. On the 26th of July, 1816, he married his first 
cousin, the Princess Mary, the fourth daughter of George 
III. He was a Whig in his political principles. His 
marriage with the sister of George I Y. did not induce him 
to compromise his independence. When the Bill of Pains 
and Penalties against Queen Caroline was introduced into 
the House of Lords he uniformly voted in favour of the 
Queen. He died in November, 1834. The Duchess of 
Gloucester survives him. 

408. 

FOR IMPROVING THE BREED. SKETCHED AT 
WIRTEMBERG. Oct. 24^th, 1796. 

KINO OF WIBTEMBEBQ. 

A burlesque picture of the Duke of Wirtemberg, who 
was rem^kable for his obesity, published when he came 
over to marry the Princess Royal. 

409. 
A liADY PUTTING ON HER CAP. June 30th, 1795. 

On the turban-caps worn by the ladies at this time, 
which were remarkable for the quantity of materials the 
ladies contrived to wrap round their heads. 

410. 

THE GREAT SOUTH SEA CATERPILLAR, 
TRANSFORMED INTO A BATH BUTTERFLY. 

July 4th, 1795. 

SIB JOSEPH BANKS. 

Sir Joseph Banks was a great favourite with George IIL 
by whose influence ho was elected President of the Royal 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 423 

Society^ a place which some thought might have been 
filled more worthily, although, considering all the cir- 
cumstances, this is a matter of very great doubt. The 
King^s interference in appointments connected with science 
and art was a common subject of disapprobation. On Sir 
Joseph's return from the voyage round the world, in 
company with Captain Cook, he was made a Knight of the 
Bath and a Privy Councillor. 

** From Joseph Banks onto Sir Knight, 
Then Friyy Conncillor, in spite 

Of nature, brain, and education I — 
If, for the last, he hands has kiss'd, 
There's not a reptile on his list 

E'er knew a stranger tranefnuttxtum** 

Pbtbb PnrDAB. 

It is the sunshine of royalty which is represented as 
having produced the metamorphosis. 

Sir Joseph was profoundly versed in the science of 
Natural History, and was held in the highest esteem by 
his contemporaries. On his death, which took place June 
19th, 1820, Cuvier pronounced a public ^loge upon him, 
and the Linnaean Society caused a statue of him to be 
executed by Chantrey, which is now placed in the British 
Museum. 

411. 
THE AECHDUKB. Nov. 15th, 1796. 

ASCHDUKE CHAXLES. 

The Archduke Charles of Austria, though a brave and 
skilful general, was rather strange and eccentric in private, 
and furnished plentiful material for ridicule and satire. 

412. 
A DECENT STORY. Nov. 4th, 1 795. 

This plate, etched by Gillray from the sketch of an 
amateur, needs no explanation. 



424 gillray's caeicatdbes. 

413. 
TWOPENNY WHIST. January Wih, 1796. 

BETTT (the shop woman at Mrs. Homplirey^B). 

HBS. HUMFHBET. MB. JEFFSET. WATSOK. 

This appears to be intended as a sketch of one of the 
ordinary evening parties at the house of Mrs. Humphrey, 
the publisher of GiUray's Caricatures. Mrs. Betty is the 
winner of the game, to the evident astonishment of some 
of her companions. 

414. 

A MODERN BELLE GOING TO THE ROOMS AT 
BATH. January ISth, 1796. 

Another satire on the monstrous head-dresses. Some 
such contrivance as this seemed very necessary to allow a 
lady to take her place in a sedan* 

415. 

THE FASHIONABLE MAMMA; OR, THE CON- 
VENIENCE OP MODERN DRESS. Feb. 13th, 1796. 

This is an ingenious adaptation of fashion to convenience. 
This lady, who is said to have been a Viscountess, then one 
of the chief leaders of the heau monde, contrives to do the 
duties of a mother, although, as the carriage outside shews, 
on the point of starting for a route. 

416. 

LADY GODIVA'S ROUT; OR, PEEPING TOM 
SPYING OUT POPE JOAN. March 12ih, 1796. 

LADT BUCKINOHAMSHIBB. DB. SNETD. LADT COVENTBT. 

It would not be easy now to point out all the persons 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 425 

represented in this satire on fasUonable life^ whicli is espe- 
cially aimed at the rather extreme scantiness of clothing, 
which characterized the costume of the ladies at this 
period. The eyes of the personage who acts as candle- 
snuflFer are evidently occupied with some totally different 
object to that which requires his attention. 



417. 

HIGH CHANGE IN BOND STREET; OR, LA 
POLITESSE DU GRAND MONDE. March21, 1796. 

This is understood to be a very fair attack on the want 
of courtesy in the gentlemen frequenters of Bond Street 
(the grand fashionable lounge at the time it was published), 
some of whom shewed no hesitation in taking the wall, 
and even the pavement of the ladies, throwing them, as 
here represented, into the street. Matters are certainly 
improved, but even now street politeness is not always 
carried to the utmost extent. 

418. 
A BURGESS OF WARWICK LANE. July 3rd, 179B. 

DB. BUBOESS. 

Dr. Burgess, a medical practitioner, who resided in Mor- 
timer Street, was one of the remarkable characters of his 
day, and was frequently made the subject of prints and 
caricatures. He is called a Burgess of Warwick Lane, 
from the College of Physicians being there at this period. 

419. 

LA BELLE ESPAGNOLE ; OR, LA DOUBLURE 
DE MADAME TALLIEN. Feb. 25th, 1796. 

This is said to represent a Creole lady from Spanish 



426 QILLBAT^S CARICATURES. 

America, who was at this time a celebrated performer in 
the ballet, and who bore a striking resemblance to Madame 
Tallien, also a Creole. 

420. 

MY POLL AND MY PARTNER JOE. April 18th, 1796. 

One of those offsprings of wit which requires no expla- 
nation but what itself furnishes. 

421. 

OH! THAT THIS TOO SOLID FLESH WOULD 
MELT. March 20th, 1791. 

An illustration of the great bard which would hardly find 
a place in the Shakespeare gallery. 

422. 
CYMON AND IPHIGENLi. May 2nd, 1796. 

A rather broad parody on the classic story. 

423. 

THE LOSS OF THE FARO BANK; OR, THE ROOKS 
PIGEONED. Feb. 2nd, 1797. 

LORD BUCKINOHAMSHIRB. LADT BUCEINOHAMSHIRB. MBS. 
CONCANNON. FOX. SHERIDAN. COLONBL HANOSR. 
LADT ARCHER. 

This and the following prints were intended as satires on 
the rage for gambling which was at this time the corse of 
fashionable life. The three ladies of this party. Lady 
Bnckinghamshire, Mrs. Goncannon, and Lady Archer, 
were so notoriously addicted to the faro table, that they 
were commonly known by the derisive appellation of 

Faro's (Pharaoh's) Daughters.^' The present caricature 



f( 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 427 

is said to refer iyo an incident which happened at the house 
of Lady Buckinghamshire, when at the faro table. Lord 
Buckinghamshire suddenly entered aghast, with the infor- 
mation that the bank was robbed, and the thieves were 
fled, to the great consternation of the whole party. It was 
suspected that this robbery was a mere trick to suit the 
convenience of the table-holders, for all the party were re- 
duced at times to considerable distress by their gambling 
propensities. The print contains an insinuation against 
Fox, as being at least privy to the cause of the disaster. 
Gillray has here assumed the licence of a caricaturist, as 
Fox had left off play for many years. 



424. 
DISCIPLINE A LA KENYON. March 27th, 1797. 

LADY ARCHER. LADY MOUNT-EDGECUMBE. LORD KENYON. 

LADY BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

The trio of gambling ladies brought under the lash of 
the law. When giving judgment on a case relating to 
gambling, that had been brought before the Court over 
which he presided as Judge, Lord Kenyon gave utter- 
ance to his honest indignation against the fashionable vice 
of the day; and concluded, in allusion to its prevalence 
among the aristocracy, and the ruin it was bringing on 
society, by declaring, " If any prosecutions of this nature 
are fairly brought before me, and the parties are justly 
convicted, whatever may be their rank or station in the 
country, though they should be the first ladies in the land, 
they shall certainly exhibit themselves on the pillory.'' 
The satirist has pictured the possible consequences of this 
threat. 



428 GILLRAT^S OARICATURES. 

425. 

EXALTATION OP PHARAOH'S DAUGHTERS. 

May 12th, 1796. 

LADY BUCEINOHAMSHIBB. LADY ABCHSB. 

Two of the same trio undergoing Lord Kenyon's '' dis- 
cipline.^ 



ff 



426. 
GEORGT A COCKHORSE. Nov.2Srd, 1796. 

COLONEL HANOEB. 

Colonel George Hanger, afterwards Lord Coleraine, was 
one of the most celebrated cliaracters of his day^ and is 
often figured in the present series of prints. He is here 
represented at the tavern called the Mount, in Lower 
Grosvenor Street, celebrated at this time as the meeting- 
place of a club of wits who lived joyously. 

427. 

SANDWICH CARROTS! DAINTY SANDWICH 
CARROTS. Dec. 3rd, 1796. 

LORD SANDWICH. 

The scene represented here is said to have been one of 
the usual amusements of Lord Sandwich. A guinea was 
the usual mark of his attention to the lucky flower-girl, 
or itinerant barrow-woman, who attracted his glance. 

428. 

A CORNER NEAR THE BANK ; OR, AN EXAMPLE 
FOR FATHERS. Sept. 26th, 1796. 

This is understood to represent a clerk of the Bank of 
England, well known in his day, for his attentions to the 
city frail ones. The scandalmongers of the past have only 
handed his name down to us as '^ old P .^' 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 429 

429. 
A PEEP AT CHRISTIE^S > OR, TALLY-HO AND 
HIS NIMENEY-PIMENEY TAKING THE 
MORNING LOUNGE. Sept. Uh, 1796. 

MISS FABREN. EABL OF DEKBT. 

Miss Farren acted with inimitable skill the character of 
Nimeney-Pimeney in General Burgoyne^s Heiress. For 
some reason or other, this lady^ one of the most admired 
beauties of her day, was an object of determined hostility 
with Gillray . But a few months after the date of this cari- 
cature, she became the second wife of the Earl of Derby, 
who, for his political principles, was also a very frequent 
subject of Gillray^s wit. Lord Derby was a great hunter, 
and here, viewing the pictures at Christie's, they are sup- 
posed to be shewing their several tastes. It may be 
remarked, in regard to the allusion apparently made here, 
that no slur was ever cast on Miss Farren's virtue. In 
evidence of which we think it right to record that when 
Miss Farren became Countess of Derby, she addressed a 
letter to Queen Charlotte, to inquire whether she would 
be admitted to her Drawing-room. The Queen replied, 
that she would be very happy to receive her there, as she 
always understood her conduct to be very exemplary. 



430. 
CONTEMPLATIONS UPON A CORONET. 

March 20th, 1797. 

MISS FABBEN. 

Another satire on this celebrated actress, who, as the 
period of her marriage approached, is represented as making 
a nearer contemplation of the object of her ambition. 



430 qillray's caricatubss. 

431. 
MODERN GRACE; OR, THE OPERATICAL FINALE 
TO THE BALLET OP "ALONZO E CARO!" 

May 5th, 1796. 

A satire on the opera^ where the ballet had attained to 
an extraordinary popularity. A great outcry was set up 
by the strict moralists against the exposure of the person 
exhibited by the danseuses. 

432. 
THE MARRIAGE OP CUPID AND PSYCHE. 

May 3rd, 1797. 

EABL OF DERBY. MISS FABBEN. 

A satii-e on the marriage of the Earl of Derby with Miss 
Farreu. The reader need hardly be informed that this is 
a parody on the beautiful antique gem of the marriage of 
Cupid and Psyche^ known as the Marlborough Gem. 

433. 
PTLADES AND ORESTES. April Ut, 1797. 

COUNT NASSALIN. PRINCE WILLIAM OF ORANGE. 

The abdicated Stadtholder spent much of his day thus 
perambulating Old Bond Street, with his Secretary, Count 
Nassalin ; the Prince himseK, who was remarkable for his 
heavy corpulence, being frequently in a state of somno- 
lence during his walk. 

434. 

HEROES RECRUITING AT KELSEY'S; OR, GUARD 
DAY AT ST. JAMES'S. June 9th, 1797. 

CAFfAIN BURCH. 

The tall hero regaling himself is understood to represent 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 431 

Captain Burcli of the Royal Household Troops, the officers 
of which troops, when on guard at St. James's, were great 
frequenters of this celebrated fruiterer's in St. James'i 
Street. 



4^5. 

A HINT TO MODERN SCULPTORS AS AN OR- 
NAMENT TO A FUTURE SQUARE. 

May 3rd, 1796. 

PRINCE OP WALES. 

A satirical portrait of the Prince, in the costume of his 
regiment, which he is supposed to be going to review. 
About this time it was in contemplation to erect statues 
in some of the squares of London. 

436. 

UN DIPLOMATIQUE, SETTLING AFFAIRS AT 
STEVENS'S. June 9th, 1797. 

BABON DE HASLANO. 

One of the diplomatic body (the Bavarian minister), 
who was in the practice of enjoying himself alone at 
Stevens's, in Bond Street, one of the most fashionable 
taverns of that period. 

437. 

STAGGERING BOBS, A TALE FOR SCOTCHMEN; 
OR, MUNCHAUSEN DRIVING HIS CALVES 
TO MARKET. Dec. Ut, 1796. 

GEOBGE HAKGEB. 

A caricature on Colonel Hanger, afterwards Lord Cole- 
raine. The noble Scot alluded to is said to have been 
Lord Galloway. 

28 



432 gtllray's caricatures. 

438. 

PORTRAIT OP AN IRISH CHIEF; DRAWN FROM 
LIFE AT WEXFORD. July 10th, 1798, 

QRATTAN. 

Grattan, the great Irish patriot, in the character of an 
Irish rebel. The rebellion broke out in the county of 
Wexford in the May of 1798, and the rebels made them- 
selves masters of that city, which remained for a time their 
chief post. This print is supposed to allude to an inter- 
view between Grattan and Arthur O'Connor at Grattan's 
country house. Grattan refused to join the "United 
Irishmen, '^ but Government struck him out of the Privy 
Council, and the Corporation of Dublin removed his portrait 
from their court room. Gillray has put into the month of 
Grattan the words No Union, Erin go Bragh /* 

439. 
PUSHPIN. ApHl nth, 1 797. 

MRS. WINDSOR. THE DUKE OP QUEENSBERRY. 

Peter Pindar^s " little gamesome Piccadilly Duke" oc- 
cupied in one of those very intellectual games, which were 
fashionable at this time. The lady with whom he is at 
play is said to have been a well-known priestess of Venus, 
usually designated by her customers as " Mother Windsor." 

440. 

THE GORDON KNOT; OR, THE BONNY DUCHESS 
HUNTING THE BEDFORDSHIRE BULL. 

April 19th, 1797. 

DUKE OF BEDFORD. DUCHESS OF GORDON AND HSB DAUQHTEB8. 

On the projected marriage of a daughter of the Duke of 

* *• Ireland for ever 1" 



MISCSLLANEOUS SERIES. 433 

Gordon to the Duke of Bedford. Other caricatures appeared 
on the supposed anxiety of the Duchess to secure the noble 
son-in-law, some of which were not over delicate. John, 
sixth Duke of Bedford, who was a widower, paid some 
marked attention to Lady Georgiana, but appears after- 
wards to have repented, and went to Paris. The Duchess, 
however, immediately followed, accompanied by her 
daughter, when the Duke renewed his attentions, and they 
were married six years after the publication of the present 
caricature, viz. in June, 1803. The three Graces in the 
distance represent three other daughters of the Scottish 
Duke ; the one with the dog is Charlotte, Duchess of Rich- 
mond ; the middle one, Susan, Duchess of Manchester, 
is pointed out by the inscription " Manchester velvet /' 
and the third is Lady Louisa ; the broom is supposed to 
indicate that she is exposed for sale. She was afterwards 
married April 17th, 1797, to Charles, second Marquis 
Comwallis, and is now the present Dowager Duchess of 
Comwallis. 

441. 

HOMER SINGING HIS VERSES TO THE GREEKS. 

June 16thj 1797. 

CAPTAIN MOBBIS. SHERIDAN. FOX. 

This is understood to be an excellent and characteristic 
portrait of the celebrated song-writer. Captain Morris. It 
is enough to say that the allusions are to the licentious 
character of many of his effusions. 

Captain Morris, of the Life Guards, was distinguished 
by his social qualities, the vivacity of his conversation, 
the inexhaustible fund of merriment and anecdote which 
enlivened it ; and above all, by the facility with which he 
composed convivial songs, and the hilarity with which he 
sung them. These qualifications rendered him an universal 
favourite, and introduced him to the society and sumptuous 

28 * 



434 OILLEAY^S CABICATUBES. 

hospitality of the bon vivans of the first circles. He was 
always a welcome guest at the table of the Dake of Nor- 
folk in St. James's Square, Arundel Castle^ and the social 
dinners which the Duke delighted to give at the Piazza 
Cofiee House. In short, he was the great lion of the 
dinner table ; he might be considered the poet laureate 
both of Bacchus and Venus, for he well knew how 

« to entwine 

The Myrtle of Venns with Bacchns's Vine." 

It is to be regretted that Morris did not devote his 
talents to a higher species of lyric compositions, as he might 
have attained considerable reputation ; but, like Anacreon, 
his lyre would only chaunt love and wine. Morris was 
passionately fond of dining out, and he suited his songs 
to the taste of his company, for 

** Those who live to please, mnst please to liye." 

He was, however, annoyed one day, when a person in the 
company, after Morris had concluded one of his luxuriant 
songs, expressed his surprise that he never attempted any 
other species of songs ; another observed, *' Oh, Morris 
could not write in any other strain.'' He replied, that at 
the next meeting of the party he would refute the remark, 
by singing in a difierent strain. He accordingly sung 
'^ Sensibility's Tear," from which we extract some 
stanzas, more particularly as it was unknown to all the 
musical gentlemen of the present day with whom we have 
conversed. 

SENSIBILITY'S TEAR. 

" Thoagh Bacchns may boast of his care-killing bowl, 
And Folly in thonght-drowning revels delight, 
Snch worship, alas ! hath no charms for the sool 
When softer devotions the senses invite. 

To the arrow of Fate, or the canker of Care, 

His potions oblivions a balm may bestow ; 
But to Fancy, that feeds on the charm of the Fair, 

The death of Reflection is the birth of all Woe. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 435 

What soal that 's possessed of a dream so diyine, 

With riot would bid the sweet vision begone ? 
For the tear thai bedews 8en9%bility*a shrine 

Is a drop of more worth than cM Baechu8*s wine. 



Come, then, rosy Venns, and spread o'er my sight 

The magic illosions that ravish the soul ;' 
Awake in my breast the soft dream of delight, 

And drop from thy Myrtle one leaf in my bowl. 

Then deep will I drink of that Nectar divine, 
Nor e'er jolly God from thy banquet remove ; 

But each tube of my heart ever thirst for the wine, 
That 's mellowed by Friendship and sweeten'd by Love." 

Ltba Ubbanica, vol. 1, p. 174-5. 

The company applauded the song, and allowed he had 
redeemed his pledge. 

Moms was a frequent attendant at the meeting of the 
Whig Club, and the celebrations of Pox^s election for 
Westminster ; on these occasions he always sung new and 
appropriate songs, but they were never embittered by 
party rancour. 

Morris always strenuously advocated the principles of 
the Revolution of 1 688. The Duke of Norfolk was so 
deeply impressed with the soundness of his constitutional 
principles that he paid him the highest possible compliment 
by introducing his portrait in one of the painted windows 
of Arundel Castle, as one of the persons compelling King 
John to sign Magna Charta. 

The windows (says the Rev. M. A. Tiemey, in his His- 
tory of Arundel,) are thirteen in number, of which nine 
are finished, and fitted with stained glass. The largest 
occupies the north-west end of the hall, immediately op- 
posite to the entrance. It is a splendid performance by 
Backler, from the design of Lonsdale, and describes the 
Ratification op the Great Charter by King John, who, 
with an indignant but powerless frown, seems to pause in 
the act of aflSxing his signature to the instrument, as if 



436 GILLRAY^S CARICATURES. 

to upbraid the uncompromising patriotism of the Barons. 
On his right stand Cardinal Pandulf^ the Pope^s legato^ 
and the Archbishop of Dublin ; on his left are seen Car- 
dinal Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Almeric, 
the Master of the Knights Templars ;* in the foreground 
appears Baron Fitzwalter,t and his page, J and behind 
him are the Lord Mayor of London, § and the attendant 
guards. The background aflfords a distant view of the 
camp at Bunnymede. For chasteness of drawing, and 
correctness of outline, for depth of colouring, and spark- 
ling brilliancy of effect, this window certainly claims a 
high degree of merit, and can scarcely be thought inferior 
to any similar production of modern art.'' Vol. i. p. 85. 
We are sure that the Duke of Norfolk || esteemed Captain 
Morris worthy of the position he occupied, or he would 
have considered he compromised his own dignity by 
assigning the place to him. This historical painting will 
transmit Morris's name to posterity in a dignified manner. 
We are now about to relate an anecdote which we be- 
lieve is unparaUeled in literary history. When " verging 
on ninety-three," ho was invited by the Beef Steak Club 
to attend their meeting once more (to use his own words) 

* Portrait of Captain 'Morris. We observe Dallawaj, in his IlisUny of 
Sussex, has made a ludicroos mistake ; ho calls Almeric Master of the 
Temple, instead of Master of the Knights Templars. 

f The portrait of the Duke of Norfolk. 

J The late Henry Howard, Esq., of Greystoke. 

§ Alderman Combe. 

II We cannot take leave of the Dnke of Norfolk withont observing that 
justice has nc7er been done to one part of his character. Uo was a munifi- 
cent patron of Literature. To our own knowledge, he defrayed the entire 
expense of printing Taylor's translation of Plato, 5 vols. 4to. ; Dallaway*s 
History of Sussex, vol. 1, and vol. 2, part 1, 4to. ; and Duncumb*8 History 
of Hereford, vol. 1 , and vol. 2, part 1 , 4to. He also allowed Mr. Duncumb 
three hundred pounds per annum during the years he was compiling and 
writing his history. Exoriwre aliquis I We hope the present Duke of 
Norfolk, or one of his sncces^;or8, will complete the historical paintings in 
the windows of the Baron's Hall, an undertaking worthy to confer fame 
oven on the name of Howard. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 437 

'' before he quitted this world/' He compKed, and after 
dinner, he recited (we can scarcely suppose he sung) a 
song, composed by himself for the occasion, which he re- 
quested the members to receive as '^ the song of the dying 
swan !*' One stanza, we are sure, will excite sympathy in 
every breast. 

'< How many bright spirits I 'ye seen disappear, 
While Fate's lacky lot held me happily here I 
How many kind hearts and gay bosoms gone by, 
That have left me to mingle my mirth with a sigh." 

The buoyancy of Morris's spirits supported him in 
extreme old age ; he was never known to be querulous, 
but endured his infirmities with serenity, he could even 
playfully allude to them, and only remark, that they bade 
him to cease all converse with the Muse. 

" 1 11 take a hint from my warning congh, 
Quit my jade of a Mnse, — and Morris off."* 

In the year 1840, his poems were collected and pub- 
lished under the title of ^'Lyra Urbanica, the Social 
Effusions of Charles Morris, late Captain in the Life 
Guards.'' 

442. 
THE SALUTE. • July 10th, 1797. 

The persons intended to be satirized in this print are 
not now known. 

443. 

TITIANUS REDIVIVUS ; OR, THE SEVEN WISE 
MEN CONSULTING THE NEW VENETIAN 
ORACLE. Nov. 2nd, 1797. 

SIR J. REYNOLDS. MISS PROVIS. MACKLIN. BOYDELL. WEST. 

On a very remarkable piece of quackery which flourished 
* A punning allusion to the Morrice'Dance. 



438 OILLRAY^S CABICATUBES. 

for a moment, and deceived the Royal Academicians, under 
the title of "The Venetian Secret/' In the year 1797, a 
young female pretender to art, a Miss Provis, professed to 
have discovered the long-lost secret by which Titian and 
the other great artists of the Venetian school produced 
their gorgeous colouring, and, by dint of puffing and other 
tricks, she succeeded in gaining the faith of a large portion 
of the Royal Academy. Seven of the academicians are 
said more especially to have been her dupes, Farringdon, 
Opie, Westall, Hoppner, Stothard, Smirke, and Rigaud. 
Until her discovery was exploded, this lady sold it in great 
secret for a very high price. She would now probably 
have been entirely forgotten, but for the pencil of Gillray, 
who exposed her and her dupes to ridicule in this carica- 
ture. In the upper part of this bold picture the lady 
artist is dashing off a daring subject with extraordinary 
effect of light and shade, her long ragged train ending in 
the immense tail of a peacock. The three naked Graces 
behind her, in the original coloured copies of this carica- 
ture, are painted of the gayest hues. She is leading the 
crowd of academicians by the nose over the gaudy rainbow 
to her study to behold her specimen of Venetian art. On 
one side, the buildings erected for the Royal Accwiemy at 
Somerset House are falling into ruin, while on the other 
the Temple of Fame is undergoing repair. Below, we are 
introduced into the interior of the academy, where the 
luckless seven occupy the foremost seats, deeply immersed 
in studying the merits of the new discovery. The ghost 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds rises up from the floor, contem- 
plates the scene with astonishment, and apostrophises the 
groups in the words of Shakspeare : — 

** Black spirits and white, blue spirits and grey. 
Mingle, mingle, mingle, — yon that mingle may V* 

On the opposite side there are three persons making a 
hasty flight ; they are West, the president of the academy, 
who was not a believer ; Boydell, whose fears are excited 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 439 

for the fate of his gallery, if this new invention should 
succeed and destroy the value of what had been done 
while it was unknown ; and Macklin, who experiences an 
equal alarm for his grand illustrations of the Bible, which 
were put up by Lottery, the tickets five guineas each. 
These fears, as far as the '' Venetian Secret" was con- 
cerned, were not of long duration. 

444. 
GERMAN LUXURY; OR, REPOS A L'ALLEMAND. 

Jan. 22nd, 1800. 
A satirical print, said to have been intended to tell upon 
the German Legion, at this time brought into England. 

445. 
LOYAL SOULS ; OR, A PEEP INTO THE MESS- 
ROOM AT ST. JAMES'S. Nov. Uth, 1797. 

GENERAL DAVIES. DUKE OF YORK. COLONEL JEKYL. 

CAPTAIN BURCH. 

A scene at the mess-table, intended to represent, in 
burlesque, some of the officers of the difEerent regiments 
of the Guards. Among them wo may recognize the per- 
sonages mentioned above. 

446. 
BRIGADE-MAJOR.— Weymouth, 1797. 

Nov. 15th, 1797. 

MAJOS BEID. 

The person intended to be represented here is said to 
be Major Reid ; though others have taken it for Sir Henry 
Burrard, to whom the reader will find some refei-ence in 
the Political Series. 

447. 
THE MHilTARY CARICATURIST. Dec. 6th, 1799. 

GENERAL DAVIES. 

The officer here represented was a well-known military 



440 gilleay's caricatuees. 

caricaturist, who had the bad taste to sneer at the pro- 
ductions of GiUray, who took his revenge in the print 
before us. 

448. 

OPERATICAL REFORM; OR, LA DANSE A 
L'EVEQUE. March Uth, 1798. 

MADEMOISELLE PABISOT. M. BOSIERE. 

The Bishop of Durham (Shuto Barrington) made a 
vigorous attempt to prevent the growing licentiousness 
of the opera dance. For this he became the subject of a 
host of caricatures and jenx d^ esprit, Gillray has here 
invented a dance, a Vevique, in which the figurantes were 
to conceal their forms under the modest covering of the 
episcopal cassock. 

449. 

A COUNTRY CONCERT; OR, AN EVENING 
ENTERTAINMENT IN SUSSEX. Sept. Ist, 1798. 

Mrs. Billington lived with the Duke of Sussex during 
the absence of her husband, who, arriving suddenly one 
night at her house at Hammersmith, surprised a small 
party consistiug of the Duke of Sussex, Mrs. Billington, 
Savory of Bond Street, and another. Her husband, 
therefore, carried her off to Italy, where it is shrewdly 
suspected she met with an unfair death. 

450. 

THIRTY YEARS HAVE I LIVED IN THIS PARISH 
OF COVENT GARDEN, AND NOBODY CAN SAY 
—MISTRESS COLE, WHY DID YOU SO? 

Dec. I6th, 1797. 

COLONEL WATSON. 

The words Gillray has taken for his motto in this plate. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 441 

are those of Mrs. Cole in Footers farce of the Minor. 
This venerable lady (whose real name was Douglas) kept 
a house of accommodation for young men^ furnished with 
an assemblage of young women, whom she trained to 
prostitution. She was very scrupulous in religious obser- 
vances; she went daily to the Tabernacle, and then to the 
inn to await the arrival of the York waggon, to watch for 
any handsome young women it might bring, whom she 
inveigled by specious offers of providing them with situa- 
tions in respectable families. Hogarth has depicted a 
woman of the like character (Mrs. Needham) in this 
pursuit, with the profligate Colonel Chartres anxiously 
watching the success of her manoeuvres, that he may have 
the first choice. Mrs. Cole prided herseK on the propriety 
of her conduct, ''it was a great comfort to her that 
nobody could say, Mrs. Cole, black is the white of your 
eye,^' and she allowed '^ no knock-me-down doings in her 
house.^^ Colonel Watson was probably a roysterer, who 
violated this regulation in his drunken moods. 

451. 

NOTORIOUS CHARACTERS, No. 1. Dec. Ut, 1797. 

Mr. Bromley, in his Catalogue of Engraved British 
Portraits, p. 390, has erroneously put this Portrait into 
his Seventh Class. It ought to have appeared in the 
Tenth. See the Contents of it, p. 449. 

'* Such cursed assnrance 
Is past all endurance." — Maid of the Mill. 

SAMUEL IRELAND. 

In the year 1795, a rumour was circulated that a great 
literary treasure had been discovered, which would delight 
and astonish the world ; it was stated, that it consisted of 
The Autograph Manuscript op Shakspeare's Kinq Lear, 
containing many beautiful passages omitted by the ori- 
ginal actors in the representation, and likewise in all the 



442 qillray's caricatures. 

printed editions ; and also that passages hitherto obscure 
were now rendered clear by the restoration of the original 
readings. The newly-discovered treasure also contained 
various legal instruments^ and documents of different 
descriptions, a few drawings illustrative of the character 
of Shylock, one of his common-place books, his ring, and 
to crown all, a lock of his hair, sent with a love-posy 
to Anne Hathaway. A large portion of the public was 
indeed astounded, but more delighted at the supposed 
recovery of these relics of the great Dramatic Poet, who 
had seemed so indifferent to fame, that he never superin- 
tended the publication of any one of his plays, but when 
he had committed it to the stage, felt no further solicitude 
about it,* beyond the sphere of the theatre ; neither was 
there known to exist in manuscript any single letter of 
his, or copy of verses addressed to a contemporary poet, 
friend, or patron. Still it was not impossible that the 
affectionate zeal of one of his relatives might have pre- 
served these remembrances of him; they might have been 
laid aside and forgotten by his descendants. Where this 
extraordinary assemblage of Shakspearian treasures had 
been discovered was not revealed ; the public was only 
allowed to know that they were deposited in the house of 
Mr. Samuel Ireland,t of Norfolk Street, in the Strand, to 
whose son, William Henry Ireland, these inestimable docu- 
mcDts had been presented by a gentleman of ancient 
family, on the express condition and solemn promise that 
his name should not transpire ; he being a person remark- 

* *' It hath been no nnusaal thing (says Warborton) for writers, when 
dissatisfied with the patronage of their own times, to appeal to posterity for 
a fair hearing. Some ha?e even thought to apply to it in the first instance, 
and to decline acquaintance with the public till envy and prejudice had 
quite subsided. But of all the trusters to futurity, commend me to the 
author of the following poems (Shakspeare), who not only left it to time to 
do him justice, as it would, but to find him out as it could," 

f Preyious to this occurrence, Mr. Ireland had been advantageously known 
by the publication of his Picturesque Tours of the Thames, Medway, &c. 



HTSCELLANEOns SERIES. 443 

ably sty, and of retired habits. A committee of literary 
gentlemen was formed to examine these documents, con- 
sisting of George Chalmers, Caldecott, Pye, the Poet Lau- 
reate, Sir James Bland Burgess, Boaden, &c. They unani- 
mously reported their conviction of the authenticity of the 
documents. The public was then invited to inspect this 
Shakspearian treasure. Numerous persons of the first 
literary eminence visited Mr. Ireland's house ; Dr. Parr, 
Archdeacon Nares, Dr. Warton, and many others,* signed 
their attestations to the genuineness of the documents. 
'' It is mortifying,'^ says GiflTord, in a note in his edition 
of Ford's plays, *'to reflect that, had the youth possessed 
but a single grain of prudence, and known when and where 
to stop, his forgeries might, at this moment, be visited by 
anniversary crowds of devoted pilgrims, in some splendid 
shrine, set apart in his father's house for that pious pur- 
pose." Emboldened, however, by the attestations of such 
distinguished literary characters, Ireland now announced 
that his son had made another most important discovery 
in the stores of the nameless gentleman, an entirely un- 
published Play of the immortal Bard, called '' Vortigern 
and Rowena." Ireland very fairly declined to exhibit the 
manuscript, that the interest of the tragedy might not be 
lessened by a knowledge of its construction and plot pre- 
vious to its representation. 

Public curiosity was intensely excited. The two great 
National Theatres competed for the honour of bringing 
forward the play. Drury Lane secured the prize on the 
most extravagant and unheard-of terms. An agreement 
was signed by Richardson, on the part of the proprietors 
of Drury Lane, and by Ireland on the part of his son 
(then a minor), stipulating that three hundred pounds 

* When Fonon had examined the Shakspeare MannBcripto, Ireland oonr- 
teonsly invited him to sign bis attestation to their aathenticity. Person drily 
replied, ** Mr. Ireland, I thought my refusal to sign Articles of Faith had 
been generally known." 



444 gillray's caricatures. 

should be paid down to Ireland, and half the receipts of 
the house for the first sixty nights of the performance, 
after deducting the expenses ! ! I At length the 2nd of 
April, 1 796, arrived, big with the fate of Vortigem and 
Irelaud. We were then in our youthful days, and resolved 
to encounter the risk — we might say, the danger of endea- 
vouring to obtain a seat in the pit. The rush on the 
opening of the doors was truly awful ; we were, however, 
successful in obtaining an excellent seat. The audience 
seemed to be in very good humour, pleased at having over- 
come their difficulties. We had now leisure to peruse a 
handbill, which had been extensively circulated at the 
pit door. It was issued by Ireland ; it stated that '' A 
malevolent and impotent attack on the Shakspeare MSS. 
had appeared on the eve of the representation of the play, 
when it was impossible to answer it/' It was '' requested 
that the play may be heard with that candour which has 
ever distinguished a British audience/' At length, Whit- 
field presented himself to speak the Prologue, and addres- 
sing the audience as a Court of Criticism, called on it to 
ratify the authenticity of the play by its judgment and 
approbation. When, with extended arms, he emphatically 
pronounced the words 

"Before tub Court immortal Suakspbars stands,** 

it exceeded all power of face to preserve gravity, it was, 
however, a good humoured laugh, which was irresistible. 
Kemble had taken to himself the part of Vortigem; 
Bowena was assigned to the beautiful and talented Miss 
Miller. 

The play now commenced, and during the first three 
acts " dragged its slow length along/' In the fourth act 
the audience began to be obstreperous, and the actors could 
scarcely proceed; when Kemble came forward, and ad- 
dressed the house in the most conciliatory manner : ''Allow 
mo to remind you that the title to authenticity, which 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 445 

tliis play lays claim to, depends on your giving it a fair 
and full hearing/' This address produced the desired 
effect, the play was allowed to proceed till nearly the con- 
clusion of the fifth act, but when Kemble, in his character 
of Vortigern, said— 

"And when this solemn hockbrt is o*£r/' 

the house was convulsed with laughter, one peal suc- 
ceeded another. Never did Irish Johnson in the character 
of Dennis Brulgruddery, nor Jack Bannister and Mrs. 
Jordan as Jobson and Nell ; never did the wittiest comedy 
nor the broadest farce produce such long continued and 
tumultuous laughter, and such protracted hurrahing. At 
length the audience seemed fairly to have exhausted itself, 
then Kemble resumed by a repetition of — 

'* And when this solemn mockery is o'er." 

The loud laughter, vociferations, and noises of various 
kinds were renewed, and seemed as if they would never 
end ; '' Encore, encore, Kemble,'' was shouted again and 
again, at last a calm ensued, and the play proceeded to its 
termination. An epilogue written by Delia Cruscan 
Merry, was spoken by Mrs. Jordan. Then pubUc expec- 
tation was on tip-toe to ascertain whether the play would 
be given out for repetition ; but the farce of My Grrand- 
mother very appropriately commenced. During the in- 
terval an animated conversation took place behind tho 
scenes, between Ireland and Sheridan: Ireland urging 
that the play should be announced for repetition on 
Monday, Sheridan declined, but agreed to have a con- 
ference with him on the subject the next day (Sunday), at 
Mr. Kemble's house in Great Russell Street. The party 
met accordingly, Ireland used every possible persuasive to 
induce Sheridan to bring forward the play on the next 
night, all the expenses of scenery, decorations, &c. had 
been incurred, the house was certain to be full, and the 



446 oillray's cabicatubes. 

representation would produce a considerable sum to the 
treasury: Sheridan replied, ''that he was satisfied the 
house would be full, but John Bull, when offended, was a 
very awkward customer at a theatre, he tore up the 
benches, broke the chandeliers, and did other mischief /' 
Ireland attempted to rally. Sheridan, however, termi- 
nated the conversation, by saying, he must confer 
privately with Mr. Kemble on the subject, and their 
decision should be communicated to him. Mr. Kemble 
told the writer of this article, that as soon as Ireland was 
gone, he said to Sheridan : " Well, Sir, you cannot doubt 
that the play is a f orgery.'^ '' Damn the f ellow,'' replied 
Sheridan, " I believe his face is a forgery, he is the most 
specious man I ever saw.'' 

On the next day, Monday, April 6, appeared a critique 
on the play of Vortigem and Rowena, from which we 
shall extract the following passages. '' To say that num- 
bers did not come with their opinion more than half 
formed would be false. A volume of MSS. affirmed to be 
Shakspeare's had been published. Literary men had been 
invited to examine others. Documents almost innume- 
rable had been held forth to induce a belief that Vortigem 
was no forgery. Was it supposed that they should be 
read only to excite astonishment and impose upon our 
faith. If it were intended that the audience should as- 
semble without opinion or predilection, why were these 
proofs sent forth, why was not the play suflfered to rest 
solely on its own merits ? Is there a man of literature in 
the kingdom, who, when this newly discovered treasure 
was announced, did not feel delighted at the bare possi- 
bility that it might be true ? Is there a lover of Shak- 
speare on earth, who must not feel indignation at any 
attempt to injure the fame of a poet, who, wherever he is 
known is adored ? Is it a crime to be jealous of that fame, 
or which is of infinitely greater consequence, is it criminal 
to inquire into truth, and to publish our inquiries ? If 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 



447 



not we can see no reason for the publication of the hand- 
bill which was distributed at the doors/' ''Shakspearb ! 
the effrontery of producing such crudities, such bombast, 
such impudent and audacious plagiarisms, and challenging 
the whole kingdom to deny the farrago to be Shakspeare's, 
exceeds credibility 1 The bottle conjuror himself would 
not have calculated so grossly. Need we add the abor- 
tion was treated as it deserved ? Yet from the spirit that 
pervaded the handbill, and various advertisements that 
have appeared^ we can foretel that the funeral dirge of 
Vortigern will be bitter and vociferous.^' See ''Morning 
Chronicle/' April 4, 1796. 

In the '' Times '' of the same day appeared a very able 
critique, our limits will only permit us to extract the 
following pertinent observations : '' Look through the 
plot, and every critical eye in examining the scene can 
see its archetype, while the plot itself bears a strong re- 
semblance to Macbeth, — there is a Duncan murdered, — a 
Malcolm flies^ — a Seward comes to fight for him, — ^let 
England and Scotland change places, and the likeness is 
complete, so that it appears the skeleton of that master- 
piece, which the great God of Poetry has clothed with 
nerves and muscles, breathed into it the setherial fluid, 
and warmed it with Promethean fire. But Mr. Ireland 
in his promulgated handbill, has informed the public, it is 
in the press. Every reader will then have an opportunity 
of judging for himself, et qui vuU decipi, dedpiatur." 

Mason wrote the following epigram on the forger of 
the Shakspeare Manuscripts : — 

** Fonr f orgera, born in one prolific age, 
Much critical acumen did engage. 
The fint* was soon by dongbtj Donglas ecaredi 
Though Johnson would haye screened him had he dar*d ; 

* Laader. 

29 



448 oillray's caricatures. 

The next had all the cnnniug of a Scot,* 
The third,t Invention, Genius, — nay, what not ? 
Frand, now exhausted, only could dispense 
To her fourth son, their threefold impudence." 

The Treasurer of Drury Lane Theatre accounted to 
Ireland for one hundred and three pounds, due to him 
as his half of the receipts of the night's performance, 
after deducting expenses, so that four hundred and three 
pounds was the total amount of what he derived from the 
performance of the play. 

The reader may, perhaps, wish to know what authentic 
autographs of Shakspeare are known to exist, at the pre- 
sent time. They are the signatures to his Will, now in 
Doctors' Commons. His autograph signature affixed to a 
deed of bargain and sale of a house purchased by him in 
Blackfriars from Henry Walker, dated March 10, 1612, 
with seals attached to it. This document was presented 
by Mr. FeatherstonhaughJ to Garrick, and is now 
in the possession of Mr. Troward, son of Mr. Tro- 
ward, the partner of Albany Wallis, Garrick's executor. 
Shakspeare^s autograph signature to the counterpart of 
this deed, sold by Messrs. Evans in 1841, for £145, and 
purchased for the Library of the Corporation of the City 
of London ; and Shakspeare's autograph on the fly-leaf of 
Florio's Translation of Montaigne's Essays, sold by Mr, 

♦ Bower. 

t Chatterton, to whom Payne Knight has paid this feeling trihnte in his 
Poem on the Progress of Ciyil Society, 4to. p. 120. 1796. 
** See Chatterton, — but ah, fond Mase, forbear, 

In pity Teil the horrors of despair ; 

Nor let the indignant Toice of Fame relate 

The HeaTen-bom Poet's melancholy fate. 

Hide his untimely end, when poison gaye 

All he could hope on earth, — a peaceful graye I 

In silent sorrow consecrate his name. 

Nor let his glory be, his country's shame." 

X This was found among the title-deeds of Mr. Featherstonhaugh in 1778. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 449 

EvanSj in 1838 for £100,* purchased by Mr. Pickering, and 
resold by him to the Trustees of the British Museum. 

452. 
MONSTROSITIES OP 1799. June 25th, 1799. 

A satire on the absurd and inelegant costumes in rogue 
at the close of the last century. 

453. 
PUNCH CURES THE GOUT, THE CHOLIC, AND 

THE TISICK. July ISth, 1799. 

This and the following are excellent specimens of the 
artistes fancy, which require no particular explanation. 
The first is an illustration of the old catch — 

Pimch cures the gout, the cholic, and the tiaic ; 
And it is by all agreed the yeiy best of physic. 

These verses and the " Laus Podagras " (by Coquillet), 
convince us of the truth of Romeo's ejaculation — 

** He jests at scars that neyer felt a woand." 

454. 
THE GOUT. May Uth, 1799. 

One of the cleverest and most popular of this artist's 
numerous productions. 

455. 

A GENTLEMAN OP THE COURT OP LOUIS XVL 

A GENTLEMAN OP THE COURT OP EGALITlfi 

1799. August 15th, 1799. 

A satire on Prench manners, before and after the Revo- 

* Mr. Eyans received this yolnme from the Rev. £. Fattescm ; he in- 
herited it from his father, who resided at Smethwick, in Staffordshire, oon- 
tignons 10 the coanty which gaye Shakspeare hirth. In the emphatic words 
of Sir Frederick Maden : It ohallbnoes and defibs suspicion. See 
his admirable Tract on the Autographs of Shakspeaie, p. 7, 8. 

29* 



450 oillray's caricatures. 

lution ; at the former period they were as extravagant in 
excess of refinement, as at the latter they were in vul- 
garity. 

456. 

FRENCH TAILOR FITTING JOHN BULL WITH 
A JEAN DE BRT. Nov. I8th, 1799. 

A temporary intercourse with France brought over 
French fashions. The present caricature is intended to 
shew how ill they fitted John Bull. 

457. 

WALTZER AU MOUCHOIK Jan. 2Qth, 1800. 

This was intended for a quiz upon the then foreign 
dance^ waltzing, somewhat like the foregoing upon foreign 
dress. It may be easily distinguished as the work of an 
amateur. 

458. 

OH ! LISTEN TO THE VOICE OF LOVE. 

Nov. Uth, 1799. 

A graphic parody on the burthen of a popular song. 
A highly-finished plate, a principal object of which 
appears to be the " anatomy of expression.*' 

459. 

THE COMFORTS OF A RUMFORD STOVE. 

June 12th, 1800. 

COUNT RUMFORD. 

It is hardly necessary to state that Count Rumford was 
one of the most remarkable pretenders to science of his 
time, though not deficient in ingenuity^ as his stoves and his 
yaiious contrivances for the improvement and simplifying 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 



451 



of kitchen operations proved. Peter Pindar has well 
recorded his fame — 

*' Knight of the dish-clout, wheresoe'er I walk, 
I hear thee, Romford, all the kitchen talk : 
Note of melodious cadence on the ear, 
Load echoes ' Romford' here, and * Romford* there. 
Lo, e?ery parloor, drawing-room, I see, 
Boasts of thy stoyes, and talks of nonght bat thee.'* 

This is a portrait of the titled inventor of stoves^ and is 
said to have given great amusement to the original. 
Grarnet, the person alluded to in the inscription at the top, 
was a chymist attacked by Count Bumford in his journal 
for having differed in opinion with him. 



460. 

A MILITARY SKETCH OP A GILT STICK, OR 
POKER EMBLAZONED. June 11th, 1800. 

LOSD CATHCABT. 

A portrait of one of George the Third's favourites. 
General Cathcart. 

461. 
A SCOTCH PONT, COMMONLY CALLED A GAL- 
LOWAY. June Uh, 1803. 

LORD QALLOWAT. 

Understood to be a portrait of Lord Galloway. His 
pride in the decoration which figures on his breast seems 
to have been almost proverbial. 

** We'll sing Lord Galloway, a man of note, 
Who tnm'd his tailor, much enraged, away, 

Because he stitched a star npon his coat 
So small, it scarcely threw a ray ; 

Whereas he wished a planet huge to flame, 

To put the moon*s full orb to shame." 



452 GILLltAY's CARICATUEES. 

462. 

EQUESTRIAN ELEGANCE ! OR, A NOBLE SCOT, 
METAMORPHOSED. May 7th, 1803. 

THE MARQUIS OF DOUGLAS (tHB PRESENT DUKE OP HAMILTON). 

One of the first objects of Mr. Fox, on being appointed 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, in 1 806, was to 
effect a general peace ; to accomplish this, he was most 
anxious to secure the mediation of Russia. He proposed 
the important embassy to the Marquis of Douglas (the 
present Duke of Hamilton), who ciccepted the appointment, 
and discharged its duties to the entire satisfaction of the 
Government and country. The present print is no doubt 
allusive to his diplomatic appointment, as well as to his 
mode of riding in very long stirrups. The Duke was dis- 
tinguished as one of the most accomplished horsemen of 
the day. 

463. 
GEORGEY IN THE COAL-HOLE. July Ut, 1800. 

COLONEL HANGER. 

This caricature is founded on a story relating to George 
Hanger, who on one occasion, when brought into difficulties 
by his extravagance, set up as a coal merchant. He was 
a hanger-on of the Prince of Wales in his early days, and 
published his Memoirs, in 2 vols. 8vo. which contain many 
curious anecdotes of his contemporaries. 

464. 
A STANDING DISH AT BOODLFS. 

May 28th, 1800. 

STANDISH. 

Represents Sir Frank Standish, an individual well known 
at Boodle^s, where he was frequently seen sitting thus at 
the open window. 



MISCELLANEOUS SEBIES. 453 

465. 

GENTLE MANNERS, WITH AFFECTIONS MILD, 
IN WIT A MAN, SIMPLICITY A CHILD. 

Nov. Uh, 1798. 

QENEBAL MANNERS. 
466. 

SYMPTOMS OF DEEP THINKING. 

March 25th, 1800. 

SIB CHARLES BUNBURY, BART. 

Sir Charles Bunbury, Baronet, of Barton, in Suffolk, 
was bom in May, 1740. On tbe 2nd of June, 1762, he 
married Lady Sarah Lennox, daughter of the Duke of 
Richmond. Lady Sarah Lennox was the grace and orna- 
ment of the Court of George III. at the commencement 
of his reign, and inspired the youthful monarch with a 
passion that many persons thought might place a crown on 
her head. Never was a couple more unfortunately asso- 
ciated than Sir Charles and Lady Sarah Bunbury. She 
was full of life and spirits, highly ckccomplished, a distin- 
guished leader of fashion, to be met with in every scene 
of gaiety. Sir Charles was absorbed in the pleasures of 
the turf : he had one of the finest studs of race horses in 
the kingdom : and the training them for the race coarse 
was his supreme delight. He was the constant companion 
of sportsmen and jockies. We fear he was too often in the 
stable when he should have been in the drawing-room, and 
neglected to attend his wife to those parties of pleasure 
which her station in life entitled her to visit. Fatal con- 
sequences ensued ; ' the form which pleased a king,' and 
remained unsullied, yielded to the artifices and tlnremitting 
attentions of a seducer. In the year 1 776, at a masqued 
ball given at'Holland House, by her sister. Lady Holland, 
she eloped with the Hon. George Napier. Sir Charles 
Bunbury sued for a divorce, and the marriage was dissolved 



454 oillray's caeicatures. 

by Act of Parliament in the same year.* When Sir Charles 
was first informed of the elopement, he could scarcely credit 
it ; when convinced of the truth he became firantic, and 
then sunk into a state of despondency. He abandoned all 
his former pursuits, Bellariof no louger interested him ; 
he sold his stud, retired to the Continent, and travelled 
for two years in France and Italy. 

When returned home he fell into the company of his 
old associates, and became again an amateur and patron 
of the turf. He was elected President of the Jockey Club, 
and we believe retained the Presidency till his decease. 
He was considered an oracle on all sporting questions. 

Sir Charles Bunbury had one peculiarity, — he nevor 
wore gloves, — but might be seen every day, walking from 
his house in Pall Mall, to the club houses in St. James's 
Street, and down to the House of Commons, with his right 
hand in his bosom, and his left in his breeches' pocket. 
He was a very honourable man, and it was remarked, that 
thotigh he never wore gloves, he had always clean hands, 
which could not be said of every frequenter of the turf. 

Sir Charles Bunbury must have possessed some solid 
good qualities and very conciliatory manners, as he repre- 
sented the county of Suflfolk in Parliament for forty-three 
years ; a similar honour could only be boasted of by two 
other Commoners during the long reign of George III. — 
namely. Coke the Member for the County of Norfolk, and 
Byng the Member for Middlesex. 

Sir Charles Bunbury died in March, 1821. 

* As soon as the divorce passed, the Hon. George Napier immediate!/ 
married Lady Sarah ; by this marriage she became the mother of the gallant 
Sir Charles Napier, the late Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in India ; 
and of General Sir William Napier, whom Sir Robert Feel called *^ the 
faithful, impartial, and eloquent Historian of the Peninsular War." 

t His favourite race horse. 



MISCELLANEOUS SEBIES. 455 

467. 
[LARGE BOOTS.] May 2bth, 1800. 

MB. FRANCO. 

A gentleman then well known on the turf, of Jewish 
descent, which is indicated by the pigs. This was a 
private plate. 

468. 
CORPOREAL STAMINA. Ap-il ISth, 1801. 

LOBD CHOLMONDELET. 
469. 

A PRINCE OF THE OLD SCHOOL. 

March 11th, 1800. 

BOOTHBY CLOPTON. 

Boothby Clopton was an eccentric old beau, who fre- 
quented White's and Boodle's, where he was known by 
the sobriquet of Prince Boothby. He wasted a large 
fortune, after which, in a fit of mental aberration, he shot 
himself. 

470. 
PEN-ETRATION. August 6th, 1799. 

JOHN PENN, ESQ. 

A caricature of John Penn, Esq. of Spring Grardens 
and Stoke Park,* whose look bespoke the very opposite 
characteristic to that which the word penetration desig- 
nates. He was the author of Poems in 2 vols. 8yo. and 
founder of the Outinian lectures. 

Mr. Penn was the last proprietary and hereditary 
Governor of the Province (now State) of Pennsylvania. 
When the American Revolution broke out, he sold his quit- 
rents in that State for an hundred and thirty thousand 
pounds. He died June 21, 1834. 

* Stoke Tark was purchased by the Right Hon. Henry Labonchere in 1849. 



456 gillray's cakicaturks. 

471. 
HALF NATURAL. August Ut, 1799. 

SKEPPINQTON. 

This celebrated fop of the last age expired very recently, 
viz. on the 9th of December, 1850, in South Lambeth, at 
the advanced age of 82. In early life he was notoriously 
extravagant in dress, and is several times caricatured by 
Gillray for his foppish costume, as in the two plates before 
us. In person he was about the middle stature, with largo 
features, sallow complexion, and dark curly hair. His 
dress for many years consisted of a dark blue coat, with 
gilt buttons, a yellow waistcoat, white cord inexpressibles 
with large bunches of white ribbons at the knees, and 
short top boots, but of late years he became more mo- 
dernized in his dress. In his declining years, being 
severely afflicted with rheumatism, which bent him nearly 
double, he saw but little company. 

His association with the members of the drama com- 
menced at a very early age, and he was on terms of 
intimacy with John Kemble, Cook, Munden, Mrs. Siddons, 
and many others of high standing. He was the author 
of several successful pieces, one of which, the Sleeping 
Beauty, had a long run at Drury Lane. Such was his 
fondness for theatres, that he used often to visit four on 
the same evening ; and was never known tx) be absent 
at the first representation of a new piece, or the debut of 
a new performer. 

On being applied to by the publisher of the present 
volume for an explanation of some of the scenes in which 
ho figures prominent, he avoided the question, observing, 
that he had hoped such fooleries were forgotten, and was 
sorry to see they were about to bo disinterred. 



MISCELIANEOaS SERIES* 457 

472. 
''SO SKIFFY SKIPTON, WITH HIS WONTED 
GRACE/' Feb. lat, 1800. 

SKEFFINGTON. 

The same beau^ in full dress. The title of the print is 
a quotation from a political squib of the day. 

Another once very conspicuous personage, says the 
London correspondent of the " Liverpool Albion,'' who 
has just been suffered to drop into the grave, with a mere 
Une announcing his exit/is Sir Lumley Skeffington. He 
was almost the last of the roues of Carlton-house, being 
the glass of fashion in which the Begent dressed himself 
both before and after Brummel's time. Sir Lumley was 
the D'Orsay of the past age — the crack man about town, 
and his name was a sort of public property at Tattersall's, 
Almack's, the theatres, in fact, wherever men and women 
congregated. Many of his dramatic pieces had great 
popularity, and his taste in theatricals and clothes (he 
was a prime patron of the garment called " Spencers") 
was thus ridiculed in the '^English Bards and Scotch 
Reviewers," published forty years ago, viz. : 

*' Shall sapient managers new scenes produce 
From Cherrj, Skeffington, and Mother Grooee ? 
In grim array third Lewis' spectres rise, 
Still Skeffington and Goose divide the prize. 
And snre great Skeffington must claim oar praise, 
For skirtless coats and skeletons of plajs 
Renowned alike ; whose genius ne*er confines 
Her flights to garnish Greenwood's gay designs ; 
Nor sleep with ' Sleeping Beauties/ bat^ anon, 
In five facetious acts comes thundering on." 

The five-act affair to which Byron here alludes is '^Maids 
and Bachelors," the best known thing of Skeffington's, 
next to the "Sleeping Beauty,'* both of which pieces still 
keep the stage. Greenwood, above referred to, was a 
scene-painter at Drury Lane, and as such, as the noble 
satii'ist says, the author is much indebted to him. 



458 oillbay's caricatures. 

473. 
ALL BOND STEEET TEEMBLED AS HE STRODE. 

May 8th, 1802. 

COLONEL TOWNSEND. 

This is a portrait of Colonel Townsend, of the Grenadier 
Guards^ who was accastomed to walk up and down Bond 
Street in a haughty, swaggering manner, which acquired 
him the sobriquet of altitonant. 

474. 
PATTERN STAFF. Nov. 3rd, 1797. 

LORD WEYMOUTH. 

Said to be a back view of this Lord. 

475. 
A DASH UP ST. JAMESES STREET. Dec. 6th, 1 797. 

CAPTAIN CUNNINQHAM. 

An officer of the Coldstream Guards, who lost his lower 
jaw by a wound received in fighting against the enemies 
of his country. 

476. 

May 19th, 1800. 

CAPT. TOWNSEND. 

This is a portrait of Captain Samuel Lrwyn Townsend, 
of the first regiment of Grenadier Guards, who was one 
of the regular promenaders in St. Jameses Street. He 
died Oct. 21, 1849, at Walcot Place, Lambeth, in the 
75th year of his age. 

477. 
NAUTICUS. Oct. nth, 1791. 

BUKfl OF CLARENCE. 

A caricature portrait of the late king, when he was 
young. 



MISCELLANEOUS SEBIR8. 459 

478. 

AN ILLUSTRIOUS CHARACTER. Nov. let, 1802. 

DUKE 0? CLASENCE. 

Another picture of the same illustrioas personage. 

479. 
THE ROYAL LOUNGER. June 26th, 1804. 

DUKE OF CLARENCE. 

The same personage in another point of view. 

480. 

March lOth, 1802. 

THE PBINCE OF WALES. 
481. 

TAKING PHYSIC. . Feb. 6th, 1800. 

This and the three following subjects were merely 
etched bj GiUray from the designs of an amateur. They 
are not deficient in character. 

482. 
GENTLE EMETIC. Jan. 28th, 1804. 

483. 
BREATHING A VEIN. Jan. 28th, 1804. 

484. 
CHARMING WELL AGAIN. Jan. 28th, 1804. 

485. 
MRS. GIBBS, THE NOTORIOUS STREET-WALKEB 
AND EXTORTER. September 23rd, 1799. 

The character of the person here represented may be 



460 gtllray's caricatures. 

gathered from the inscriptions on the plate. She finally 
turned religious^ and died in a madhouse. 

486. 

COMFORT TO THE CORNS. Feb. 6th, 1800. 

An excellent example of Gillray's best attempts at the 
burlesque. 

487. 

BEGONE DULL CARE, I PRITHEE BEGONE 
FROM ME ! June \6th, 1801. 

The burthen of a well-known song, and an admirable 
specimen of Gillray's powers of personification. It would 
not be easy to imagine a better representative of one of 
the greatest persecutors of human happiness. 

488. 

HOUNDS FINDING. April 'Sth, 1800. 

This series of four sporting subjects was etched by 
Gillray from the designs of an amateur, whose name is 
indicated hieroglyphically at the comer. They are said 
to have been &vourites with King George, who was a 
great lover of the chase. 

489. 
HOUNDS IN FULL CRY. April 8th, 1800. 

490. 
HOUNDS THROWING OFF. April 8th, 1800. 

491. 
COMING IN AT THE DEATH. April 8th, 1800. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 461 

492. 

Plate 1. 

COCKNEY SPORTSMEN MARKING GAME. 

Nov. 12th, 1800. 

This and the three following prints form another series 
of sporting subjects^ a burlesque companion to the preced- 
ing. They are the work of another amateur^ who has 
only favoured us with his initials. They explain them- 
selves. Hornsey Wood was a celebrated haunt of the 
sportsmen of the city. 

493. 
Plate 2. 
COCKNEY SPORTSMEN SHOOTING FLYING. 

Nov. 12th, 1800. 

494. 
Plate 3. 
COCKNEY SPORTSMEN RECHARGING. 

N(yv. 12th, 1800. 

495. 
Plate 4. 
COCKNEY SPORTSMEN FINDING A HARE. 

Nov. 12th, 1800. 

496. 

VENUS AITIRED BY THE GRACES. 

Dec. 8th, 1800. 

A satire on some vulgar fashionable of the commence* 
ment of the present century. 



402 GILLRAY's CAK1CATURE8. 

497. 
DIDO IN DESPAIR. Feb. 6th, 1801 • 

LADY HAMILTON. 

A rather exaggerated picture^ as far as rotandity goes^ 
of the mistress of the celebrated Nelson. The attributes 
of the picture allude to circumstances of the life and cha- 
racter of the lady^ and to the antiqaarian pursuits of her 
husband. She is said to have sat to the artist for the 
positions given in the volume known as Lady Hamilton's 
Attitudes* 

498. 
A COGNOSCENTI CONTEJrPLATING THE BEAU- 
TIES OF THE ANTIQUE. Feb. 10th, 1801. 

SIR WILLIAM HAMILTON. 

A portrait of the celebrated antiquary and diplomatist, 
whose lady figures in the preceding print. It is not diffi- 
cult to guess the allusions in many of the articles he is 
contemplating. Lady Hamilton as Cleopatra^^ and Nelson 
as Mark Antony, with himself in the character of Claudius 
—he was a great lover of the table — are the pictures 
which adorn the walls. 

499. 
A PAIR OP POLISHED GENTLEMEN. 

March 10th, 1801. 

SKEFHNGTON. HON. MONTAGUE MATTHEWS. 

Another picture of Skeffington^ in company with a fop 
not much inferior to himself. It is insinuated that the 
principal polish of these two gentlemen was on their boots. 

500. 
AES MUSIC A. Feb. 16th, 1800. 

Another amateur design^ from the same artist as the 

* She is represented in the character of Cleopatra in Boydell's Plates to 
Shakespeare. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 463 

sporting series described before, as we learn from the 
Hieroglyphic in the comer. 

501. 
A WELCH TANDEM. June 2l8t, 1801. 

SIR WATKIN WILLIAMS WTNN, AND BROTHERS. 

These three Wynns were celebrated characters in high 
life in their day. The three goats refer to their Welsh 
parentage. 

502. 

WHAT CAN LITTLE T O DO ? 

May let, 1801. 

What can little T do ? 

Why drive a phaeton and two 1 1 

Can little T O do no more ? 

Tes, drive a phaeton and fonr till 

TOMMT ONSLOW (AFTERWARDS LORD CRANLET). 

A good likeness of one of the most celebrated whips of 
his day. The riders behind him are said to be Lord 
Kirkcudbright and another noted buck, then well known 
in fashionable circles. 

503. 
PAT CATTLE. Jan. 16th, 1802. 

DUKE OF BEDFORD. 

An allusion to the obesity of this noble Duke, as well 
as to his agricultural tastes — ^he being a great breeder of 
cattle. 

504. 
ELEGANCE DEMOCRATIQUB. A SKETCH POUND 

NEAE HIGH WYCOMBE. July 8th, 1799. 

A portrait of the Earl of Wycombe, son of the first 
Marquis of Lansdowne. He opposed the French war, 

30 



464 oillbat's caricatures. 

and was a supporter of all liberal measures. He snc- 

ceeded his father as Marquis of Lansdowne in ; and, 

dying without issue, was succeeded by his half-brother, 
Lord Henry Petty, the present Marquis of Lansdowne. 

505. 
ANACREONTICS IN FULL SONG. Bee. lat, 1801. 

A meeting of the Anacreontic Society, or of the New 
Beefsteak Club, of both which Captain Morris and the 
Prince of Wales appear to have been members. One of 
the grossest collection of songs, containing among others 
many written by Captain Morris, is known as the Ana- 
creontic collection. Prefixed to this volume, which is in 
three parts and without date, is a short account ef the 
Old and New Beefsteak Clubs, the Anacreontic Society, 
and the Humbug Club. We quote one passage. 

"His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales and the 
Duke of Orleans, are members of this club : the other 
contributory members are chiefly bon-vivant noblemen, 
military officers of rank, gentlemen of the learned pro- 
fessions, rich and respectable citizens, and other men of 
distinction in life.'' 

506. 
METALLIC TRACTORS. 

DB. PERONS. 

A Dr. Perkins was the author of this invention to core 
all diseases, which had extraordinary run, long enough 
for the inventor to pocket a considerable sum of money. 
Popular credulity seems to be the same in all ages. 

507. 
A LYONESS. July 13<A, 1801. 

MRS. LTON. 

A Jewish lady of the hon ion, the wife of a great loan 
contractor named Lyon, the Rothschild of his day. 



MISCSLULNEOUS SERIES. 465 

508. 
A BRAVURA AIR. MANDANE. Dec. 22nd, 1801. 

MBS. BILLINGTON. 

The most celebrated singer of her day, in one of hor 
favourite characters. She resided in Italy for a consider- 
able while for the improvement of her health and vocal 
powers. On her return to England there was as much 
excitement to hear her as there has lately been to hear 
Jenny Lind. The two great theatres competed to secure 
her, but eventually entered into a compromise by which 
she was engaged to perform alternately at each theatre, 
from Oct. 1801 to April 1802, and the proprietors re- 
spectively bound themselves to secure her £2000 each, 
including her benefit, a price unheard of in those days. 
She was at that time the only English vocalist who could 
act as well as sing. Mandane, in the opera of Artaxerxes, 
was her great character. 

509. 
MENTAL ENERGY. April ISth, 1801. 

LORD CLARE. 

This nobleman, whose* eccentric appearance is here 
caricatured, was celebrated chiefly as an Irish statesman, 
and was especially active at the period of the Union. 

510. 
A PINCH OP CEPHALIC. Jan. 2bth, 1802. 

The Parliamentary debates, even in those stirring times, 
required an antidote against the influence of Morpheus. 

511. 
A BOUQUET OF THE LAST CENTURY. 

Feb. Ut, 1802. 

THE DOWAGER LADY DACRE. 

30 * 



466 OILLRAT^S CARICATURES. 

512. 

LORDLY ELEVATION. Jan. 6th, 1802. 

EARL OF E3RECUDBRIGHT. 

Lord Kirkcudbright who was a very little man^ was 
remarkable for his vanity and foppery. He is here at his 
toilette^ raised on the only elevation he possessed^ that of 
his toilette. 

513. 

ADVANTAGES OP WEARING MUSLIN DRESSES ! 

Feb. 15th, 1802. 

Muslin dresses had become very fashionable at the 
period when this caricature was published^ and several 
disastrous results of accidental ignition gave to this print 
a peculiar air of truthfulness. It may be that those 
interested in the print trade encouraged the production 
of what was likely to remove prestige from its rival. 

514. 
TALES OP WONDER. Feb. Ist, 1802. 

A satire on the rage for the horrible which had been 
extensively spread by the publication of ^' The Monk,'' 
'' The Bravo of Venice/' and ''Tales of Wonder/' written 
by M. G. Lewis. 

515. 

DIANA RETURNED PROM THE CHASE. 

March 16th, 1802. 

THE MARCHIONESS OF SALISBURY. 

The Diana of Hatfield. Lady Salisbury was celebrated 
as a huntress^ and as one of the leading dames in fashion* 
able life. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 467 

516. 

BLOWING-UP THE PIC-NICS ; OR, HARLEQUIN 
QUIXOTE ATTACKING THE PUPPETS. 

April 2nd, 1802. 

MRS. BILLINOTON. OARRICK. LEWIS. EEMBLE. MRS. SID- 
DONS. SHERIDAN. LAD7 BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. LADT 
SALISBURY. COLONEL GRENVILLE. LORD CHOLMONDELET. 
LORD VALLETORT. 

The Pic-nic Society is understood to have originated 
with Lady Albina Buckinghamshire ; it was formed in the 
spring of 1802^ by a number of the fashionable stars of the 
^7> to perform farces and burlettas^ which were to be 
relieved with feasts and ridottos^ and a variety of other 
entertainments. The Society was very exclusive. Each 
member, previous to the performances, drew from a silk 
bag a ticket which was to decide the portion of entertain- 
ment which he was expected to afford. The performances 
took place in rooms in Tottenham Street. 

The regular theatrical performers took alarm at this 
scheme, which they imagined would draw from the stage 
much of the higher patronage on which it depended for 
support. A charge of immorality was also raised against 
them, and they became the butt of the attacks of many of 
the newspapers, among which the Post, Chronicle, Herald, 
and Evening Courier were prominent. The greater actors 
are here attacking the Pic-nics, led by Sheridan, who was 
said to be the great instigator of the newspaper attacks. 

517. 
THE PICNIC ORCHESTRA. April 23rrf, 1802. 

LORD VALLETORT. LORD CHOLMONDELET. LADT BUCKINGHAM- 
SHIRE. LADY SALISBURY. 

Another satire on the Pic-Nics, in which some of the 
leading musical members are represented in full character. 



468 oillbay's cabicatubes. 

518. 

GEEMANS EATING SOURKROUT. May 7th, 1803. 

A satire on German diet. From the inscriptions on 
the pot and platter^ it appears that the scene is laid at 
Weyler's in Castle Street, a noted house at that time 
for German diet^ and much frequented by Germans. 

519. 

THE COW . POCK ; OR, THE WONDERFUL 
EFFECTS OF THE NEW INOCULATION ! 

June 12th, 1802. 

DB. JENNEB. 

A graphic burlesque on the evils which it was presumed 
might arise from vaccination, which was gaining ground in 
defiance of the rooted prejudice of most of the faculty in 
favour of the small-pox. Dr. Jenner had discovered and 
presented this boon to mankind about six years before 
the publication of this plate. 

520. 

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES I NEW DISCOVERIES 
IN PNEUMATICKS! OR, AN EXPERIMENTAL 
LECTURE ON THE POWERS OF AIR. 

May 23rd, 1802. 

MB, THOLDAL. MB. DENYS. SIB J. C. HIPPBSLKY. (?) LADY 
C. DENYS. DB. GARNET. MB. (AFTEBWARDS SIB H.) DAVY. 

MB. d'israeli. count BUMFOBD. 

A burlesque on the Royal Institution^ which had been 
recently founded. Most of the figures are portraits of the 
more distinguished members of the Institution. The gen- 
tleman experimented upon is Sir J. C. Hippesley; the 
operator. Dr. Garnet. The bellows are held by Sir Hum- 
phry Davy, not then a baronet. To the extreme right (to 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 469 

the loft of Davy) Count Rumf ord is easily recognized ; and 
in the circle, beginning with him, are Mr. D'Israoli (in 
spectacles) ; Earl Gower (afterwards Marquis of Stafford) ; 
Lord Stanhope; Earl Pomfret; Sir Henry Englefield; 
Miss Lock (afterwards Mrs. Angerstein) ; Mr. Sotheby ; 
Mr. Denys (in spectacles) with his little boy ; back front 
view of his wife. Lady Charlotte Denys (daughter of Lord 
Pomf ret) ; Miss Denys ; Mr. Tholdal (a German in the 
suite of a foreign minister) ; and others who are either 
not portraits or are not now known. 

521. 

GOVERNOR WALL'S GHOST. July 2l8i, 1802. 

Captain Wall was Governor of Goree in Africa, and was 
subsequently tried and executed at Newgate for having 
during his governorship caused a private soldier to be 
wantonly flogged to death. His name was very unpopular 
with the London mob. The tall personage represented 
here was a great frequenter of the Cider Cellar in Maiden 
Lane, and bore so close a resemblance to the individual 
just mentioned, that he was commonly known by the 
nickname of " Governor Wall's Ghost,'' under which 
character his appearance here alarms an unfortunate 
fish-woman. Governor Wall reported the parliamentary 
debates, and was the first person who gave the real nances 
of the speakers. 

522. 

MART OP BUTTERMERE. November Ibth, 1802. 

A portrait of this raral beauty, whose fate excited so 
much commiseration. She was the daughter of old Mr. 
Robinson, who kept a small ale-house on the banks of the 
Lake of Keswick, in Cumberland, and was often called 
the Beauty of Buttermere. The disastrous event which 
brought her into public notice, was occasioned by a visit 



470 OILLBAY'S CABICATUSE8. 

of John Hatfield^ the notorious swindler, &c. to Keswick, 
on a fishing party, in August, 1802. Here he took up his 
residence at the house of Mary's father, calling himself 
the Hon. A. A. Hope, Member for Dumfries, and first 

paid his addresses to Miss D , a young lady of fortune, 

who was there at the same time. Failing of success with 
regard to her, in consequence of the interference of a gen- 
tleman, one of her friends, and fearing an exposure if he 
persisted, he made all haste to gain the hand of Mary, 
and married her publicly by license, at the parish church, 
October 2nd, 1802. He then persuaded some of the cre- 
dulous inhabitants to cash several of his drafts, and left 
the village on a tour, but returned shortly after, when Sir 
F. Vane granted a warrant for his apprehension, which 
obliged him to fly the place under the pretext of fishing 
on the lake, not however without getting another of his 
drafts cashed. Mary was now left at Buttermere, and in 
an old trunk, which belonged to her vicious husband, 
discovered a number of letters which disclosed a dark 
tissue of crimes and amongst others that of bigamy. 

The report of so great a man as Colonel Hope marrying 
a poor young woman in Cumberland was speedily contra- 
dicted in the public papers, and soon aftierwards an adver- 
tisement appeared, declaring him an impostor, swindler, 
and felon, and offering a reward of £50 for his appre- 
hension, giving an accurate description of his person. 
Within a few days he was apprehended near Brecknock, 
brought to London and lodged in Bridewell, and under- 
went several examinations before Sir R, Ford at Bow 
Street, where his long course of villany was brought to 
light. On Monday, August 15th, he was tried at Carlisle 
before Baron Thompson, on the charges of having used 
the name of the Hon. Alex. Aug. Hope for fraudulent 
purposes, and of having forged bills under the same name, 
was found guilty, and condemned to the gallows. Neither 
Mary nor another wife could be prevailed upon to pro- 



MISCELLANEOUS Sfi£I£S. 471 

secute him for bigamy, and upon this charge he accord- 
ingly escaped. He met his death with great calmness and 
resignation, having passed the time subsequent to his 
conviction in reading, writing, and the offices of religion. 
Happily for Mary, the child with which she was preg- 
nant by Hatfield was still-born. She bore an irreproach- 
able character as an affectionate daughter, and a modest 
and well-conducted woman. Her beauty, it is said, has 
been very much overrated; but that her gracefulness, 
expression, and accomplishments, were more than equiva- 
lent for any deficiency in form or feature. 

523. 
DILETTANTI THEATRICALS ; OR, A PEEP AT 
THE GREEN ROOM. Feh. 18th, 1803. 

VALLETORT. LADY CHOLMONDELEY. LORD CARLISLE. LORD 
DERBY. LADY SALISBURY. SPOONER. LORD SALISBURY. 
THE MISSES ABRAHAM. LADY BUCEINQHAMSHIRE. PRINCE 
OP WALES. MRS. PITZHERBERT. LADY JERSEY. 8KEFFING- 
TON. LORD KIRKCUDBRIGHT. QUEENSBERRY. O. HANOEB. 

Another satire on the Pic-nics, composed at the time 
when they were already sinking under a load of popular 
obloquy. It is a busy spirited scene, and the artist seems 
to have had in his eye Hogarth's well known picture of 
'^ Dressing in a Bam.'^ The list given above will explain 
the portraits. It is said that in one of these per- 
formances the bulky Lady Albina took the part of Cowslip, 
and that the no less huge Lord Cholmondeley actually 
performed that of Cupid. 

524. 
A GREAT MAN ON THE TURF ; OR, SIR SOLO- 
MON IN ALL HIS GLORY. July 7th, 1803. 

DUKE OP BEDFORD. 

This is understood to represent the Duke of Bedford. 
Sir Solomon was the name of a noted racer. 



472 GILLBAT^S CAEICATDBES. 

525. 

THE THREE MR. WIGGINS'S. Jum l&th, 1803. 

THE HON. MONTAGUE MATTHEWS. LOSD LLANDAFF. 

HON. GEORGE MATTHEWS. 

Lord Llandaff and his two brothers, a celebrated trio of 
fashionables, well known on the lonnge in Bond Street. 

526. 
THE BULSTRODE SIREN. AprU Uth, 1803. 

DUKE OF PORTLAND. MB8. BILUNGTON. 

Mrs. Billington was at this time residing with the Duke 
of Portland at his mansion at Bnlstrode. 

527. 
A HINT TO YOUNG OFFICERS. July 7th, 1804. 

LORD MOIRA. TOM SHERIDAN. 

The circnmstance allnded to in this plate, is as follows. 
Lord Moira, who was then Governor of Edinburgh 
Castle, severely scolded his servant one morning for not 
calling him in time for review. The man excused himself 
on the plea that Mr. Tom Sheridan, his lordship's aide- 
de-camp, never returned home till four or five o'clock in 
the morning, and that this was the cause of his over- 
sleeping himself. Lord Moira desired him not to sit up 
that night, as he would open the door himself. Accord- 
ingly, when Sheridan knocked, his lordship opened it. 
Sheridan felt the rebuke, made many apologies, and 
promised to be more regular in future. 

528. 
A BROAD HINT OF NOT MEANING TO DANCE. 

November 20ih, 1804. 

One of those imaginative sketches, which afford such 

admirable pictures of contemporary manners. This oud 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 473 

the three following are from designs by Mr. Brownlow 
North. 

529. 

COMPANY SHOCKED AT A LADY GETTING UP 
TO RING THE BELL. November 20th, 1804. 

A widow and her suitors^ who seem to have forgot 
their manners II the intensity of their admiration. 

530. 

AN OLD MAID ON A JOURNEY. Nov. 20th, 1804. 

The satire in this print is said to be both general and 
particular^ as the artist is supposed to have personified in 
his old maids the well known Miss Banks^ whose collec- 
tions have enriched the British Museum. 

531. 
FORTUNE HUNTING. Nov. 20th, 1804. 

Another of Brownlow North's sketches. 

532. 

THE THEATRICAL BUBBLE; BEING A NEW 
SPECIMEN OP THE ASTONISHING POWERS 
OP THE GREAT POLITICO PUNCHINELLO, 
IN THE ART OP DRAMATIC PUFFING. 

Jan. 7th, 1805. 

LOBD DEBBT. LOBD CARLISLE. SHERIDAN. MASTER BETTT. 
MBS. JORDAN. DUKE OF CLARENCE. FOX. 

On the young Roscius (Master Betty), whose appearance 
on the boards of Drury gave so great a lift to Sheridan's 
finances. The persons represented as spectators of Sheri- 
dan's skill in the bubble way^ were the great patrons of 
Betty's performances. 



474 oillray's cabicatubss. 

533. 
THE GUARDIAN ANGEL. April 22nd, 1805. 

PBINCESS CHASLOTTE. MRS. FITZHEBBEBT. STANHOPE. 

GBENVILLE. GBST. EBSKINE. CABLISLE. BUBDETT. 
FOX. NOBFOLK. SHEBIDAN. 

This parody on the Rev. Mr. Peters's picture is said to 
have been intended as a satire on a rumoured attempt of 
Mrs. Fitzherbert to convert the Princess Charlotte to the 
Catholic faith. The position given to the members of the 
celebrated '^ All the Talents '' Administration alludes to 
their efforts in favour of Catholic Emancipation. 

534. 

A COCKNEY AND HIS WIFE GOING TO 
WYCOMBE. June 10th, 1805. 

A picture of Cockney life at the beginning of the 

present century. 

535. 
POSTING IN IRELAND. April 8th, 1805. 

This happy burlesque on the pleasures of travelling in 
Ireland was also from the pencil of an amateur^ as arc tho 
two which follow. 

536. 
CLEARING A FIVE-BAR GATE. August 20th, 1805. 

537. 
POSTING IN SCOTLAND. May 25th, 1805. 

A worthy companion to No. 535. 

538. 
HARMONY BEFORE MATRIMONY. 

October 2bth, 1805. 
This and tho following are two of tho happiest of Gill- 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 475 

ray's fancy sketches, and have something Hogarthian in 
their cliaracter. 

539. 
MATRIMONIAL HARMONICS. October 25ih, 1805. 

540. 
ELEMENTS OP SKATEING. ATTITUDE! ATTI- 

TUBE IS EVERYTHING. November 24<7i, 1805. 

Four subjects in perfect accord with the season at which 
they were published, and no unfavourable samples of the 
artist's pencil. 

541. 

ELEMENTS OF SKATEING. THE CONSEQUENCE 
OF GOING BEFORE THE WIND. 

November 24<A, 1805. 

542. 
ELEMENTS OF SKATEING. A FUNDAMENTAL 
ERROR IN THE ART OF SKATEING. 

November 24<7i, 1805. 

543. 
ELEMENTS OF SKATEING. MAKING THE MOST 
OF A PASSING FRIEND IN A CASE OF EMER- 
GENCY. November 24th, 1805. 

544. 
MORNING PROMENADE UPON THE CLIFF, 

BRIGHTON. January 24</i, 1806. 

Another amateur production ; a picture of Brighton life 
in 1806. 

545. 
THE RAKE'S PROGRESS AT THE UNIVERSITY. 
—No. 1. October 22nd, 1806. 

" Ab me I what perils doth that youth enooimter, 
Who dares within the Fellows' bog to enter." 

This and the four following are a series of illustrations 



476 gilleay's caricatures. 

of University life, rather too broadly caricatured, and not 
among the best of Gillray's productions. 

546. 
THE HAKE'S PROGRESS AT THE UNIVERSITY. 
—No. 2. October 22nd, 1806. 

*' Ah me ! that thou the Freshman's Guide shonld'st read, 
Yet venture on the hallowed grass to tread." 

547. 
THE RAKE'S PROGRESS AT THE UNIVERSITY. 
—No. 3. October 22nd, 1806. 

'' The Master's wig the guilty wight appals 
Who brings his dog within the College walls.** 

548. 
THE RAKE'S PROGRESS AT THE UNIVERSITY, 
—No. 4. October 22nd, 1806. 

** Expulsion waits that son of Alma Mater 
Who dares to show his face in boot or guter." 

549. 
THE RAKE'S PROGRESS AT THE UNIVERSITY. 
No. 5. October 22nd, 1806. 

** Convened for wearing gaiters, sad offence I 
Expelled, nor e*en permitted a defence." 

550. 
THE SOUND OP THE HORN ! OR, THE DANGER 
OF RIDING AN OLD HUNTER. Dec. Ist, 1807. 
The design of an Amatear. 

551. 
CONNOISSEURS EXAMINING A COLLECTION 
OF GEORGE MORLAND'S. Nov. 16th, 1807. 

(?) ANGEBSTEIN. UITCHEI.L. CALEB WHITBTOSDi 0. BAJCEB. 

UOBTIHEB. 

An Exhibition of " Morlands." The artist was driyon 



MISCELLANEOUS SBBIBS. 477 

by his necessities to mannfactare many daabs, with which 
the market was at this time glutted. This print appears 
to be a satire on these paffed sales. Among the spectators 
may be observed Mr. G. Baker, of St. Paul's Churchyard, 
the well-known print collector, the Qnisquilios of Dibdin's 
Bibliomania. 

552. 

MOTHER GOOSE, OP OXFORD. May 12th, 1807. 

A well known Oxford character of the beginning of the 
century. 

553. 

DELICIOUS WEATHER. Feb. 10th, 1808. 

This series of pictures of the weather seems to have been 
the work of an amateur artist. In his latter years Gillray 
frequently etched the productions of other artists. 

554. 
DREADFUL HOT WEATHER. Feb. 10th, 1808. 

555. 
SAD SLOPPY WEATHER. . Feb. 10th, 1808. 

556. 
RAW WEATHER. Feb. 10th, 1808. 

567. 
FINE BRACING WEATHER. Feb. 10th, 1808. 

558. 
WINDY WEATHER. Feb. 10th, 1808. 



\ 



478 qillbat's cabicatubes. 

559. 

VERY SLIPPY WEATHER. Feb. 10th, 1808. 

A view of the shop of Gillray^s publisher, with the 
crowd usoallj assembled round the window. 

560. 

M^CENAS IN PURSUIT OP THE FINE ARTS. 

May 9th, 1808. 

THE MABQUIS OF STAFFOBD (tHE FIBST DUKE OF SUTHIBLAND). 

This noble patron of the fine arts, entering Christie's 
sale rooms on a cold wintry day. 

561. 
FAST ASLEEP. Nov. Ut, 1806. 

562. 
WIDE AWAKE. Nov. Ut, 1806. 

563. 
A VIEW OP NEWMARKET HEATH. June 9th, 1807 . 

DAVIS. 

A man well known on the turf by the epithet of '' Goose 
Davis.'' He is said to have received this name from the 
circumstance that having been transported in his younger 
days to the other side of the Pacific, he was bartered by 
one master to another for a goose. On his return ho 
became rich, and cut a figure on the turf. 

564. 
AN OLD ENCORE AT THE OPERA. 

April let, 1803. 

THE EABL OF OALLOWAT. 

A very constant attendant, even in his old age, at the 
Opera. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 479 

565. 

PARMER GILES AND HIS WIFE SHEWING OFF 
THEIR DAUGHTER BETTY TO THEIR NEIGH- 
HOURS ON HER RETURN FROM SCHOOL. 

• Jan. Ut, 1809. 

A caricature on the pretentions manners of the English 
farmers, who were now beginning to ape the aristocracy, 
and gave their children an education calculated for any- 
thing but the humble pursuits of their forefathers. 

566. 

VENUS A LA COQUILLE ; OR, THE SWAN-SEA 
VENUS. March 28th, 1809. 

This is said to represent Mrs. Jones, of Swansea^ a 
celebrated whip, frequently seen in Hyde Park, driving a 
curricle. It is a very correct representation both of her 
person and costume. One of her attendants is said to 
have been a particular favourite. 

567. 

THEATRICAL MENDICANTS RELIEVED. 

Jan. 15th, 1809. 

MBS. SIDDONS. KSMBLS. DUKE OF NOBTHUICBBRLAKD. 

When Covent Garden had been destroyed by fire, John 
Kemble, who had a great stake in it, solicited subscrip- 
tions for rebuilding it. The Duke of Northumberland, 
whose son Kemble had instructed in elocution, gave him 
the munificent present of ten thousand pounds. Kemble, 
as it is well known, insisted on pronouncing the word 
aches as though it were written aitcJies, which is ridiculed 
in the inscription underneath this picture. 

81 



480 OIUiR&t's CARICATTTBE8. 

568. 
LES INVISIBLES. 1810. 

A satire on fashionable dress in the year 1810. 

569. 
LA WALSE. LE BON GENRE. 1810. 

The walse was at this time new in England^ and just 
coming into fashion. 

570. 
PROGRESS OP THE TOILET.— THE STAYS.— 

Plate 1. Feb. 26th, 1810. 

A series of illustrations which form another satire of 
fashionable manners, shewing the way in which nature 
was beautified. 

571. 
PROGRESS OF THE TOILET. — THE WIG. — 
Plate 2. Feb. 26th, 1810. 

572. 
PROGRESS OF THE TOILET. — DRESS COM- 
PLBTED.— Plate 3. Feb. 26th, 1810. 

573. 
GRACE, FASHION, AND MANNERS.— FROM THE 

LIFE. 

An amateur sketch of throe young ladies, well known 
at the time, and said to have been three daughters of Lord 
Huntingtower. 

574. 

A PETTY PROFESSOR OP MODERN HISTORY, 
BROUGHT TO LIGHT. March 20th, 1810. 

FBOF. SMTTH. 

A caricature on the well-known and respected Professor 
of Modem History in the Unirersity of Cambridge. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERIES. 481 

575. 

COUNSELLOR O. P. DEFENDER OP OUR THE- 
ATRIC LIBERTIES. December bth, 1809. 

CLIFFOBD. 

"Counsellor CliflTord/' a barrister who was a well known 
frequenter of the Cider Cellar, was the leader of the cele- 
brated O. P. riots on the re-opening of Covent Garden 
Theatre at the end of 1809. He is represented here as 
the theatrical incendiary. The paper on the ground 
alludes to an action connected with the O. P. riots^ in 
which the Counsellor obtained a verdict of five pounds 
damages. 

576. 
A SQUALL. May IQth, 1810. 

577. 
A CALM. May 16th, 1810. 

These two scenes on the beach appear to bo only etched 
by Gillray. 

578. 
THE GRACES IN A HIGH WIND. May 26th, 1810. 

LADT GRACE TOLLEMACHE. LADT JAKE HALLIDAT. LAD7 

LOUISA MANNERS (AFTERWARDS COUNTESS OF DTSART.) 

The inconveniences of windy weather illustrated in the 
case of three fashionable beauties. 

579. 

A LITTLE MUSIC; OR, THE DELIGHTS OF 
HARMONY. May 20th, 1810. 

A most decidedly musical party. It is evident that the 
snoring of the old gentleman chimes in with the harmony 

31 * 



482 oillray's casicatubss. 

of the whole^ qnite as well as the canine and feline dao 
from the floor* 

580. 

MATINS AT D_WN— NG COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE. 

March 28th, 1810. 

The Master of Downing, Sir Bensie EEarwood, and his 
lady, an eccentric pair, who are said to have indulged in 
morning amusements of a somewhat singular character. 

581. 
BILLY THE GAMEKEEPER. April 23rd, 1810. 

BATES. 

One of the gamekeepers of George UI., said to be a 
&Yourite. 

582. 

A BARBER'S SHOP IN ASSIZE TIME. 

May Ibth, 1818. 

This was Gillray's last work on copper, and was not 
published till after his death. He is said to have worked 
at it during short lucid intervals of his mental derange- 
ment. The design, which is dated January 9th, 1811, is^ 
as stated, by Bunbury, but it contains many traces of 
Gillray's style, and forms a worthy conclusion to the series 
of his works. 



INDEX- 



Thefiguru refer to the number of the Plate. 



Abbott, Mr. 265, 354 
Abraham, the Misses, 523 
Achmutj, Colonel, 89 
Addington, Hon. Mr. 201, 260, 265, 

266, 267, 268, 272, 273, 274, 276, 

290, 293, 298, 300. 
Addington, Mr. J. H. 260 
A(ddingto)n, Master, 274 
Advantages of wearing Mnslin 

Dresses, 513 
Affability, 120 
Affrighted Centanr, and Lion Bri- 

tanniqne, 236 
Agricnltnre, Board of, 214 
Abithophel in the Dumps, 17 
Airis, GoTomor, 217 
Alecto and her train at the Gate of 

Pandemonium, 56 
All Bond Street trembled as he 

strode, 473 
Allied Powers nnbooting Egalite, 

246. 
Amherst, Lord, 367, 368 
Amsterdam in a dam'd predica- 
ment, 29 
Anacreontics in full song, 505 
Ancient Music, 23 
Anderson, .£neas, on the Embassy 

to China, 88 
Anecdote Ma^oniqne, 379*** 
Angel gliding on a Sunbeam into 

Paradise, 386 
Angerstein, Mr. 551 
Annual Register, extract from, 

279 
Anticipation, or the approaching 

fate of the French Conmiercial 

Treaty, 20 
Antisaccharites, 78 
Apotheosis of Hoche, 219 
Apotheosis of the Corsican Phoenix, 

353 
Apples (The) and the Horse-turds, 

296 
Archduke Charles, 411 
Archer, Lady, 65, 374, 383, 423, 
424, 425 



Arden, Pepper, 20, 23, 44, 132, 135, 

140, 155 
Argyll, Duke of, 317 
Armed Heroes, 276 
Armistead, Mrs. 395 
Ars Musica, 500 
Arundel Castle, painted windows in, 

394, 437 
Ashbridge, Mr. 23 
Assaut d'Armes, 375 
Asne, General, 223 
Atkinson, Christopher^ 10 
Austria, 126 
Austria, Emperor of, 29 
Austrian Bugaboo funking the 

French army, 81 
Autographs of Shakspeare, 451 

Baeenal, Mr. 6 

Baiser (Le) k la Wirtembourg, 171 

Baker, Mr. G. 551 

Ballynahinch, a new song, 182 

Balsamo, Joseph, 379**^ 

Banco to the Knave, 2 

Bandelnres, 48 

Bank Notes — Paper Money, 165 

Bank of England, 167 

Banks, Sir Joseph, 410 

Banks, Miss, 530 

Bantry Bay, Expedition to, 159 

Barburities in the West Indies, 49 

Barber's Shop in Assise Time, 582 

Barday, Mr. 318 

Barham, Mr. 161 

Barr^, Colonel, 8, 19, 23 

Barrington, Sir John, 257 

Barrington, Shnte, Bp. of Durham, 

448 
Barrymores (The Three), 389 
Bat-catching, 273 
Bates, Joshaa, 23 
Bates, Gamekeeper of George HI. 

581 
Bear (The) and his Leader, 317 
** Bed of Roses,'* 316 
Bedford, Duke of, 122, 136, 144, 

147, 155, 173, 175, 184, 188, 199, 



4(4 



IXDEX. 



20«. 209. 216, 229. 236. 257, 258. 

262. 291. 299. 310. 311. 313. 337, 

344. 351, 355, 366. 440, 503. 524 
Bemolort Dnke of, 356 
BeggiDg DO robbery, 158 
JJegone, diUI Cue, I pritbee begone 

from me ! 487 
Belle AMembl^ (La), 374 
Belle KsiiACToIe (La;. 419 
BenfieM, Mr. P. 401 
I^gal jTlie; LeTec, 89 
Btrkly, Mr. 235 
Bcttj, Mfliaer, 532 
Ikttj CftDning ReriTed. 377 
Bettj (tbe riiopwonum of BfzB. 

JIuxD|ihrcjR). 413 
Bfrxley, Lord, 164-See Vanrittart 
BillingtoD, Mrs. 508, 516, 526 
Billy the Gamekeqier. 5&1 
liirmiDgham TtfOt-t, 58 
Bifibop (The) of A Tnn^B Breeches, 

75 
•• Black Dick," 128 
Black IMck tnrxied Tailor, 26 
Blaqaiere, Mr. 89 
BIchHirigH of I'eacc — Curses of War, 

112 
Bliud Man*8 BnfF, 126 
Blood on Thunder fording the Red 

Sea, 30 
Blood of the mnrdered crj'ing for 

ven^caDce, 97 
Binwing-nii the Fic-Nicn, 516 
Blue and ISnfF Charity, 106 
IkMird of A^icultore, 214 
Board of (Vmtroul. 22 
Borrd)ardian conferring upon State 

AA'tiirs with One in Oftice, 381 
l^nnrt Kouge (Le), 169 
Ikwvillo, Od. 291,329 
Boflrille, Mr. 325, 327, 329, 330, 

349, 360. 354, 357 
BottonilcMK Pitt, 74 
Bouquet r>f the lant century, 511 
Bow to the Thn)ne, 43 
lk)ydell, Aldormau. 380, 382 
Ikiydell the Piiinter, 443 
Bravura Air, 508 
Breathini; a Tcin. 483 
Bridal Night (The), 170 
Brid|)ort, (Adiiiiml), 208 
Brigade Major, Weymouth, 1797, 

446 
•• BriHflot'H PrinciplcB of Justice," .'t2:i 
Britannia, 275. 387 
Britannia b<'twren Death and the 

I)<x*tors. ;M)1 
Britannia lietwcrn Sr}'na and Clia- 

r}'bdis. 102 



BriiL^b Butcher fcffly IT g John BoH 

with a *iibstitati> for bneaiL 13i> 
British Tars towicg the Daci^h fleet 

into harboar. .343 
Britton. Mr. 375 
Broad-boaomed Drooa 9tonnhig a 

hire. 345 
Broad-bnctomed nemispheres. .336 
Broad Hint of not mcacing to 

Dance. 52S 
Brothers. Kichard. the Prophet. 116 
Bmin in his bnat. 320 
Buckingham. Marquis of. 140. 298. 

319. 327. 328. 332. 3:J4. .135. .336. 

337. 338. 3.39, 344. 35u. 351. 355. 

356. 357. 366 
Buckingham, Marchioness of, 345 
Buckinghamshire. Lord. 423 
Bnckinghamihire. Lailr. 65. 72. 4oS. 

416. 42.3. 424. 425. 5'l6. 517. 523 
Bnller, Judge. 13. 378 
BnUtrode iThei Siren. 526 
Bunhury. Sir Charles. 466 
Buona]riirte heariog of Nelson's tic- 

t4>ry, 218 
Buonaparte learing Egypt. 254 
Bnona]>arte Fort}'-eight hourv after 

landing. 292 
Bunnai<irte. 248. 250. 262, 269. 274. 

276, 280, 281. 282. 284. 286. 287. 

288, 295. 300. 301. .305. 308. 314. 

315, 316, 323. 324, 327. 340. 343 
Burch. Captain. 434. 445 
Burdett. Sir Francis. 196. 201. 2<>6, 

209. 210. 218, 229, 257. 258. 261. 

262. 263, 267, 290. 29.3, 299. 311. 

313. 314. 325, 327. 329. 330. .331. 

333, :W6. 338. 339, 344, 349, 350. 

351, :>54, .355, 357, 533 
Burgess, Dr. 418 
Burgess of Warwick Lane, 418 
Burke, Mr. 7, 8, 15, 16, 20. 28, 31. 

32, 35, 36, 39, 41, 45, 52, 53. 70, 

96, 99, 124. 127, 140, 144, 155. 

157, 158: his death, 158. 206 
Burranl. Sir Henry, 446 
Bur>', Ladv Charlotte, 400 
Bute, J^rrof. 21 
Butler. Binliop. 5, .34 
Bvng. Mr. 143, 187, 327, .332, 336, ,350 
Byron, Lord, 174, 244 

' Cabinctical Balance, 308 
Cagliostro, tJic Ini])ostor, 379*** 
Calm (A). 577 
Camden, Marquis:, 44 
(^unbaccrt's, 250 

Camclfunl. Lord, account of, 154. 
201, 259 



I 



INDEX. 



485 



Campbell, Lady Charlotte, 400 
Caneing in Conduit Street, 154 
Canning. Mr. 155, 160, 174, 258, 

273, 298, 332, 335, 339, 340, 341, 

343, 344, 351, 354, 355, 356 
Style of hia Oratory, 343 ; 

his character of Pitt, 305 
Carlisle, Earl of, 6, 155, 290. 291, 

298, 311, 337, 340, 344, 355, 523, 

532, 533 
Caroline, Princess, of Brunswick, 115 
Castlereagh, Lord, 316, 327, 332, 

336, 339, 340, 341, 343, 351, 354, 

355; remarks on, 351 
Catch the living Manners as they 

Rise, 399 
Cathcart, Lord, 177, 460 
Catherine of Russia, 256 
Catholic Emancipation Bill, 335 
Catholic Priest (A), 368 
Cavendish, Sir Henry, 6 
Chancellor of the Inquisition mark- 
ing the Incorrigible, 99 
Characters in High Life, 404 » 
Charlemont, Lord, 6 
Charlotte, Queen, 18, 23, 24, 39, 43, 

67, 61, 66, 78, 79, 80, 86, 86*, 

110, 115, 120, 123, 170 
Charlotte, Princess, birth of, 142, 

533 
Charlotte Corday, 105 
Charming well again, 434 
Charon's Boat, 339 
Chartres, Colonel, 450 
Chatterton, the Poet, 451 
Chelsea Pensioner (A), 379 
Chevy Chace, 216 
Childe Harold, Stanza of, 349 
China, Embassy to, 88 
Cholmondelcy, Lord, 257, 370, 468, 

516-17, 523 
Church Militant, 5 
Cintra, Convention of, 349, 350 
Citizens visiting the Bastille, 217 
Clare, Lord, 182, 207, 509 
Clarence, Duke of, 80, 121, 170, 176, 

299, 314, 332, 344, 477, 478, 479, 

532 
Clarke, Mrs. Mary Ann, 352, 354 
Clavering, General 352 
Clearing a Five-bar Gate, 536 
Clifford, Counsellor, 330, 331, 350, 

357, 675 
Clopton, Boothby, 469 
Coalition Ministry, 17 
Cobbctt, Mr. 325. 327, 329, 330,336, 
338, 349, 354, 355, 357, 358, 365 
Cobbett, William, Life of, 358—365 



Cochon (Le) et aes denx Petites St. 

Cecilias, 392 
Cochrane, Lord, 333 
Cockney Sportsmen, 492—495 
Cockney (A) and his Wife goiog to 

Wycombe, 534 
Cognoscenti (A) contemplating the 

Beauties of the Antique, 498 
Cole, Mrs. 450 
Coleridge, Mr. 174 
Combe, Mr. Harvey, 255, 318 
Comfort to the Corns, 486 
Comforts of a Bed of Roses, 316 
Comforts of a Rumford Stove, 459 
Coming in at the Death, 491 
Commemoration at Oxford, 366 
Committee (The), a new song, 10 
Company shocked at a Lady getting 

up to ring the bell, 529 
Concannon, Mrs. 423 
Confederated Coalition, 290 
Connoisseur examining a Cooper, 84 
Connoisi«eurs examining a Collection 

of George Morland, 551 
ConoUy, Mr. 6 
Consequences of a successful French 

Invasion, 178 — 181 
Constitution, 250 

Contemplations upon a Coronet, 430 
Convention, 350 
Conway, General, 8 
Cooper, Sir Grey, 2, 381 
Cooper, Mr. 331 
Coote, Major-General, 202 
Copenhagen, bombardment of, 343 
Copenhagen House, 134 
Comer near the Baink, 428 
Comwallis, Lord, 89 
Comwallis, Archbishop, 5 
Corporeal Stamina, 468 
Corsican Carcase-batcher's Reckon- 
ing-day, 284 
Corsican Pest (The), 285 
Cotton. Sir Charles, 350 
Counsellor O. P. 575 
Count Roupee, 401 
Country Concert (A), 449 
Coup de Maitre (Le), 203 
Courtney, Mr. 193, 337, 344 
Coventry, Lady, 416 
O)w-Pock (The), or wonderful 

effects of the new Inoculation. 519 
Coxc's Walpole, Extracts from, 303 
Cranley, Lord, 502 
Crowe, Rev. W. 366 
Crown and Anchor, dinner at> 173 
Crown ( The ) and Anchor Libel burnt 
by the Common Hangman, 139 



486 



INDEX. 



Camberland, Dnke of, 352 
CunniDgham, Capt 476 
Cnpid, 234 
CurtiB, Admiral, 128 
Curtis, Sir W. 291 
Cymon and Iphigenia, 422 

Dacre, the Dowager Lady, 511 

Dagger Scene, 96 

Daily Advertiser (The), 152 

Danish fleet taken, 343 

Dash up St. James's Street, 475 

Danphin (The) of France, 64 

Davics, Gen. 445, 447 

Davis, •« Goose," 663 

Davy, Sir Humphry, 520 

Death of the Great Wolf, 140 

Death of the Corsican Fox, 280 

Death of Admiral ^Jclson in the mo- 
ment of Victory, 306 

Decent Story, 412 

De Grasse, French Admiral, 3 

D'Eon, Mademoiselle la Chevalicrc, 
375 

Delacroix, M. 156 

Delicious Dreams, 341 

Delicious Weather, 563 

Democracy ; or Sketch of the Life 
of Buonaparte, 252 

Democrat (A), or Reason and Philo- 
sophy, 98 

Democratic Levelling, 146 

Denmark, Crown Prince of, 343 

Dent, Mr. 145 

Denys, I^ady C. 520 

Denys, Mr. 529 

Derby, Earl oC<^,39, 114, 118, 119, 
141, 155, 162, 187, 206, 216, 2:29, 
2^, ^61, 262, 290, 291, 299, 309, 
811, 313, 314, 320, 337, 344, 429, 
432, 623, 532 

Derby, Countess of, 429 

Demicre Ressource (La). 384 

Design for the Naval Pillar, 261 

Despair, 267 

Destruction of the French Colossus, 
213 

Destruction of the French Gun- 
boats. 282 

Diable Boiteauz, 307 

JMana returned from the Chase, 515 

Dickinson, Mr. 265, 266 

Dido Forsaken, 28 

1 )iflo in l)pf)i>air. 497 

Dflettanti Theatricals 523 

D'isrueli, Mr. 520 

Diplomatique (Un) Settling affairs 
at St Stephen's, 436 



Disciples catching the Mantle, 351 

Discipline k la Kenyon, 424 

Dissolution, or the Alch}'mist, 150 

Doctor Sangrado curing John Bull 
of Repletion, 274 

•* DoffDcnt," 145 

Dog Tax (The). 145 

Dreadful Hot Weather, 554 

Dudly, Bate, 371, 383, 400 

Duel between Pitt and Tiemey, 201 ; 
between Bnrdett and Pauli, 331 

Duet (A), 396 

Dumonriex, General, 51 

Dumourier dining in State at St. 
James's, 101 

Duncan, Admiral, 208 

Dundas, Mr. 20, 22, 23, 28, 36, 
39, 44, 68, 77, 79, 92, 96, 124, 
126, 127, 132, 135, 138, 140. 145, 
149, 157, 158, 159, 160, 168, 172, 
178, 184, 198, 201, 202, 206, 258, 
290— See MehriUe 

Dundas, Mr. defends Sir John 
Jervis, 161 

Dundas, head of, 155 

Dundas, Sir David, 177, 350 

Dunning, Mr. 2, 7 

Eden, Hon. Catharine Isabella, 164 

Effingham, Ladv, 368 

Effusions of a Pot of Porter, 249 

Egyptian Sketches, 221 

Eldon, Jjord Chancellor, 96, 202, 340, 
344, 351, 356, 365 ; his letters to 
Sir Wni. Scott. 335. 366 ; on the 
( )xford Chancellorship, 356, 366 

Election Troops bringing in their 
accounts, 37 

Election candidates, 333 

Elegance Democratique, 504 

Elements of Skatcing, 540 — 543 

" Elijah's Mantle," 305, 310 

Eliot, Mr. 164 

EUenborough, Lord, 308,312,314, 
322, 323, 328, 332, 335, 336, 337, 
340 

Elliott, Mr. 333 

End of tlie Irish Farce of Catholic 
Emancipation, 299 

End of the Irinh Invasion, 159 

Enfant (L') Tmuve, 345 

Enter Cowslip, 403 

Kqiiestrian Elegance, 462 

Erskine, Lord, 118, 119, 122, 139, 
155, 15^ 160. 162, 168, 172, 191, 
206, 209, 210, 216, 229, 256, 257. 
262, 269, 290, 291, 293. 298. 299, 
30.3, 305, 308, 310, 311, 312, 314, 



INDEX. 



487 



823, 332, 335, 336, 337, 339, 340, 
344, 361, 365, 366, 533 

Esplanade (The), 177 

Evans, Mr. 451 

Exaltation of Pharaoh's Daughters, 
425 

Excrescence (An) — a Fnngns, 59 

Exhibition of a Democratic Trans- 
parency, 229 

Exit Libert^ k la Francoise ! 248 

Explanation (The). 201 

Extirpation of the Plagnes of 
Egypt, 207* 

Fall of the Wolsey of the Woolsack, 
82 

Fall of Icams, 334 

Fanner Giles and his wife shewing 
off their Daughter Betty, 565 

Farren, Miss, 429, 430, 432 

Fashionable Mamma, 415 

Fast asleep, 661 

Fat Cattle, 503 

Fatigues of the Campaign in Flan- 
ders, 100 

Fighting for the Donghill, 212 

Fine bracine; Weather, 557 

Finishing Touch (the), 383 

First Kiss these Ten Years, 271 

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward, 207 

Fitzherbert, Mrs. 28, 32, 33, 47, 48, 

115, 299, 314, 319, 375, 385, 623, 
633 

Fitzpatrick, Right Hon. Col. 6 

Fitzpatrick, General, 291 

Flanoel Armour — Female Pa- 
triotism, 104 

Flemish Characters, 397, 398 

Flood, Mr. 6 

Flower, Sir C. 350 

Folkestone, Lord, 354, 357 

Following the Fashion, 402 

For improving the Breed, 408 

Fortune Hunting, 531 

Foster, Captain, 183 

Fox, Charles, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 1 1, 12, 14, 
15, 16, 17, 20, 27, 28, 31, 32, 35, 
36, 39, 52, 53, 66, 57, 58, 65, 74, 
76, 77, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98, 100*, 
101, 102, 106, 111, 113, 114, 116, 

116, 119, 122, 127, 132, 136, 137, 
138, 139, 141, 142, 143, 146, 146, 
147, 148, 162, 155, 157, 159, 160, 
162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 172, 
173, 175, 178, 184, 186, 198, 199, 
200, 203, 206, 208, 209, 210, 215, 
216, 229. 231, 255, 257, 261, 263, 
268, 269, 272, 274, 275, 290, 291, 



293, 298, 299, 300, 303, 305, 308, 
309, 310, 311, 312, 314, 315, 316, 
317, 318, 319, 321, 323, 33.% 336, 
340, 351, 366, 395, 423, 441, 632, 
533 

Fox, Mr. his speech at the Whig 
Club, 198; at the Shakspeare Ta- 
vern, 255 ; his visit to France, 
269 ; his domestic habits, 199 

Fox (Head of), 327 

Fox (Monument of), 326 

Fox, Mrs. 316, 319 

Fox, General, 114 

" Fox's Martyrs," 17 

France, burlesqued, 4, 126 

Frauds, Sir Philip, 35, 38, 43, 49 

Franco, Mr. 467 

French Consular Triumvirate, set- 
tling the new Constitution, 250 

French Commercial Treaty, 20 

French Democrats surprising the 
Royal Runaway, 64 

French Generals retiring on account 
of their health, 245 

French Habits, 185—196 

French Hailstorm, 109 

French Invasion, 278 

French Livasion, Consequences of, 
178—181 

French Liberty — British Slavery, 94 

French mounted Riflemen, 227. 

French Tailor fitting John Bull with 
a Jean de Bry, 466 

French Telegraph making signals 
in the dark. 111 

French Volunteers marching to the 
Conquest of Great Britain, 277 

Friend of Humanity and Knife 
Grinder, 174 

Friend (The) of the People and his 
petty new Tax Gatherer, paying 
John Bull a visit, 321 

Frying Sprats, 66 

Funeral Procession of Miss Regency, 
47 

Funeral (The) Procession of Broad- 
Bottom, 328 

Galloway, Lord, 461, 564 
Gambier, Admiral, 343 
Gardiner (Admiral), 208 
Garnet, Dr. 520 
Garrick, David, 516 
Genera of Patriotism, 147 
Genius of France triumphant, 112 
Genias (The) of iiYance nursing 

his darling, 287 
Genlis, MacUime, 207 



488 



INDEX. 



Gentle Emetic, 482 

Gentle manners, with affections 

mild, in wit a man, simplicity a 

child, 465 
Gentleman of the Conrt of Louis 

XVI. ; Gentleman of the Conrt 

of Egalit^, 1799, 455 
George III. 3, 7, 14, 18, 23, 24, 29, 

36, 36, 39, 43, 67, 61, 67, 74, 78, 

79, 80, 82, 84, 86, 110, 116, 120, 

123, 132, 141, 170, 177, 280, 286, 

288, 300. 302, 314, 331, 336, 337, 

346, 350, 351, 355, 368 
George III., Extract from autograph 

letter of, 277, 351 
George III. and Fox, 198 
George, Chevalier de Saint, 376 
Georgey in the Coal-hole, 463 
Greorgcy a Cock-horse, 426 
German Dancing-master, 369 
German Luxury, 444 
German Nonchalance, 270 
Germans eating Sourkrout, 518 
Giant Factotum amusing himself, 1 60 
Gibbs, Mrs. the notorious street- 
walker and extortioner, 485 
Gillray and George III. 84 
Gillray*s last work, 682 
Ginetti. Mr. 89 
Gloria Mundi, 11 
Glorious reception of theAmb&((sador 

of Peace, on his entry into Parift, 156 
Gloucester, Duke of, 34, 170 
Gloucester, Duchess of, 34 
Gloucester, Prince William of, 34, 

170, 407 
God save the King, in a bumper, 125 
Good Shot, 83 
" Golgotha, or the Place of Skulls," 

356 
** Goose Davis,** 563 
Gordon (Duchess of) and Daughters, 

440 
Gordon, Lord George, 25 
Gordon Knot (The), 440 
Gout (The), 454 
Governor WalFs Ghost, 621 
Grace before Meat, 368 
Grace, Fashion, and Manners, 573 
Graces in a high wind, 678 
Grafton, Duke of, 8, 36, 44, 118, 

119, 122, 127, 132, 155, 185, 356 
Grand Coronation Procession of 

Napoleon the First, Emperor of 

France, 294 
Grattan, Mr. 6, 299, 357, 438 
Great Britain, Con<iue8t of, 277, 278 
Great Man (A) on the Turf, 524 



Great South Sea Caterpillar traos- 
formed into a Bath Butterfly, 410 

Great Stream from a petty Fountain, 
313 

Grenville, Lord, 44, 82, 83, 129, 132, 
135, 155, 157, 158, 159, 168, 268, 
298, 299, 307, 308, 310, 311, 312, 
313, 314, 317, 318, 319, 322, 323, 
327, 332, 333, 335, 336. 337, 338, 
339, 340, 343, 344, 345, 349, 351, 

355, 356, 366, 533 ; sketch of his 
life, 83, 366 

Grenville, Lord, body of, in a hearse, 
328 

Grenville, Right Hon. Thomas, 345 

Grenville, Col. 616 

Grey, Lord, 122, 148, 168, 172, 201, 
290, 291, 293, 298, ,303, 305, 308, 
310, 311, 313, 314, 340, 351, 355, 

356, 366, 633 ; sketch of his ca- 
reer, 351 — See Hotoick 

Grev, Sir Charles, 161 
Grey, Mr. 161 
Grote, Mr. 164 
Guadalonpe surrenders, 161 
Guardian Angel, 533 
Guillotin, Joseph Ignace, 175 
Gunning, General, 376, 377 
Gunning, Mrs. 376, 377 
Gunning, Miss, 376, 377 
Gunning, General, (Groom of) 377 
Guy Vaux, 7 
Guy Vaux discovered, 63 

Habits of new French Legislators, 

185—196 
Hacknev Meeting (A), 143 
Half Natural, 471 
Halhed, Mr. defends Brothers the 

Prophet, 116 
Hall, J. 106, 160 
Halliday, Lady Jane, 578 
Hamilton, Duke of, 216, 462 
Hamilton, Lieut-Gen. Sir Robert, 

381 
Hamilton, Sir William, 498 
Hamilton. Lady, 497, 498 
Handwriting (The) uiwn the Wall, 

281 
Hanger, Colonel, 32, 162, 257, 262, 

323, 423, 426, 437, 463, 623 
Hanging — Drowning, 138 
Hanover seized by Prussia, 316 
'' Hansard *s Debates,'* Extract from, 

316 
Harmony before Matrimony. 538 
Harmony, the Delights of, 579 
Har])ic8 deiiling the Feast, 233 



INDEX. 



489 



Htrwood, Sir Beusie, 580 

IlasliiDg, Baron de, 436 

Hastings, Warren, 30, 31, 35, 36, 
39, 43 

Hatfield, the Swindler, 522 

Hawkesbory, Lord, 260, 261, 262, 
266, 266, 268, 272, 273, 274, 276, 
276, 290, 299, 336, 339, 341, 344 

Her Royal Highness the Duchess of 
York, 71 

Hercules Reposing, 231 

Hero of the Nile, 211 

Heroes recruiting at Kelsey's, 434 

Heroic Charlotte la Corde upon her 
trial, 106 

High Change in Old Bond Street, 4 1 7 

High FlylDg Candidate (The), 326 

High German method of destroying 
Vermin at Radstadt, 242 

Hint to Modem Sculptors, as an Or- 
nament to a fnture Square, 436 

Hint to Young Officers, 627 

Ilippesley, Sir J. 620 

Hobart, Lord, 260 

Hobart, Hon. Mrs. 374, 384— See 
Buckinghamshire 

Holland, Lord and Lady, 269 

Holland, Lord, 126, 299, 319, 327 

Homer ringing his verses to the 
Greeks, 441 

Honi soit qui mal y pense, 19 

Hood, Lord, 37 

Hood, Sir Samuel, 326, 327, 329 

Hope, 266 

Hopes of the Party, 67 

Hoppner, the Painter, 133 

Home, Mr. — See Tooke 

Horrors of the Lrish Union, 216 

Hounds finding, 488 

Hounds in full cry, 489 

Hounds throwing off, 490 

How to Ride with elegance through 
the streets, 379* 

Howard, Lady Elizabeth, 394 

Howe, Lord, 26, 109, 128, 208, 290 

Howick, Lord, 319, 323, 328, 333, 
336, 336, 337, 339, 343, 349, 351 
See Orey 

Humphrey, Mrs. 413 

Huntingtower, Daughters of Lord, 
673 

Hurd, George HI.'s letter to. on Bo- 
naparte's projected iuvasion, 277 

Hustings (The), 161 

lliittner,Mr. 88 

Tcjirns, fall of, 3.34 

lllut^trious Character (An), 478 



Impeachment (The), or Father of the 
Gang turned King's Evidence, 62 

Impeachment of Lord Melville, 303 

Improvement in Weights and Mea- 
sures, 214 

Independence, 243 

Inexpressible air of Dignity, 237 

Infanterie Fran^aise en Egypt, 223 

Installation of Lord Grenville, 366 

Insurrection de Plnstitut Amphibe, 
222 

Integrity retiring from Office, 268 

Introduction of Citizen Volpone and 
his suite at Paris, 269 

Introduction of the Pope to the Con- 
vocation at Oxford, 366 

Invisibles (Les), 568 

Ireland, Samuel, 451 

Irish Fortune Hunters, 1 

Irish Gratitude, 6 

Irish Volunteers, 6 

Jack a both sides, 14 

Jansen, the Dancing Master, 369 

Jeffrey, Mr. 413 

Jeffries, Hon. Miss, 374 

Jeffs, Miss, 23 

Jekyll, Mr. 202, 233, 258 

Jekyl, 0)1. 446 

Jenkinson, Mr. 44, 165 — See Liver' 

poolj Lord 
Jeuner, Dr. 519 
Jersey. Lady, 523 

Jervis, Sir John,161 — See Si.Vineent 
Johnes, Rev. Samuel, 24 
John Bull, 126, 130, 149, 157, 158, 

166, 212, 264, 283, 307 
John Bull baited by the Dogs of 

Excise, 44 
John Bull bothered, 93 
John Bull ground down, 124 
John Bull and his dog Faithful, 148 
John Bull evading the Hat Tax, 169 
John Bull and the Alarmist, 283 
John Bull and the Sinking Fund, 332 
John Bull offering httle Boney fair 

Play, 227 
John Bull taking a Luncheon, 208 
John Bull's Pn>gres8, 103 
Johnston, General, 394 
Johnston, Lady Cecilia, 374, 390, 

392, 394 
Jones, Gale, 134 
Jones, Tyrwhitt, 243, 257, 268, 267, 

291 
Jones. Mrs. of Swansea, 666 
Jordan. Mrs. 80. 121, 176, 314, 532 
Josephine, the Empress, 281, 324 



490 



INDEX. 



Jabflee (The), 8 

Judge Thamb, 13 

Keen-d^hted Politician wanning bis 
Imagination, 129 

Kemble, Mr. 451, 616, 567 

Kenyon, Lord, 127, 424 

Keppel, Admiral, 2, 3, 7 

Kick at the Broad Bottoms, 335 

Kien Long, the Emperor, 88 

King (the) of Brobdingnag and Gul- 
liver, 286, 288 

Kinnaird, Lord, 303 

Kirkcudbright, Lord, 257, 502, 512, 
523 

Knave (the) wins all, 65 

Knight, Bir. Payne, 451 

Lady Godiva, 416 

Lady putting on her cap, 409 

Lafayette, Gen. 269 

Landing of Sir John Bull and hia 
Family at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 46 

Lansdowne, Marquis of, 19, 21, 23, 
36, 39, 77, 116, 118, 119, 122, 
127, 132, 140, 141, 155, 186, 199, 
202,209, 257,291 

[Large Bootel, 467 

Lauderdale, Lord, 114, 118, 119, 
132, 147, 155, 162, 187, 199, 290, 
314, 322, 323, 328, 332, 335, 336, 
337, 339, 340, 344, 349, 351, 354 

Lavater's Physiognomy of Fox, 199 

Lawrence, Dr. 159, 290 

Law Chick (The), 253 

Leaving off Powder, 117 

Le Bmn, 250 

Le Marchant, Sir Denis, 375 

Leinster, Duke of, 207 

Lewis, Mr. 516 

Lieutenant-Governor Gallstone in- 
spired by Alecto, 50 

Life of William Cobbett, written by 
himself, 358 — 365 

Light expelling darkness, 119 

Lilliputian Substitutes equipping for 
Public Service, 260 

Lincoln, Bishop of, 339 

Lion's Share (The), 161 

Little Music (A,) 579 

Liverpool, Lord, 314, 332, 340, 343, 
351, 355 

Llandaff, Lord, 379, 525 

Lonsdale, Lord, 69 

London Corresponding Society 
alarmed, 197 

London, Bishop of, 366 

liOnjr, Sir C 140 

Lord of the Vincvard, 1 2 

Lord Longbow, the alarmist, dis- I 



covering the miseries of Lreland' 

182 
Loss of the Faro Bank, 423 
Lothian, Marquis of, 47 
Loughborough, Lord, 23, 47, 92, 

127, 132, 135, 140, 258 
Louis XVI. of France, 29, 64, 79 
Lover's Dream, 115 
Loyal Address, 349 
Loyal Souls, 445 
Loyal Toast (The), 173 
Lyon, Mrs. 507 
Lyoness (A), 507 

Macartney, Lord, 88 

Macdonald, Solicitor-Cieneral, 20, 23 

Mack, General, 304 

Macklin, Mr. 443 

Mackintosh, Sir J., his character of 
Pitt, 305 ; of Canning, 343 

Maden, Sir Fred. 451 

Maecenas in pursuit of the Fine Arts, 
560 

Magnanimous Ally (The), 256 

Magnanimous Minister (The), chas- 
tising Russian perfidy, 315 

Mahon, Colonel, 195, 289 

Main waring, Mr. 143 

Making Decent, 310 

" Malagrida," Lord, 202 

Malagrida driving Post, 77 

Malcolm, Rev. J. P. on Dress, 385 

Malmesbury, Lord, 156 ; Extracts 
from his Diary, 351 ; his Embassy 
to Paris, 156 

Mamaluck et Hnssard Republican, 
226 

Mamaluke Chief, supposed repre- 
sentation of, 228 

Man of Lnportance, 239 

Maniac Ravings, 279 

Manners, General, 465 

Manners, Lady Gertrude, 404 

Manners, Lady Louisa, 578 

Mansfield, Lord, 308 

Mara, Madame, 23 

March to the Bank, 25 

Margaret's Ghost, 376 

Marie Antoinette, 64 

Market Day, 36 

Markham, Archbishop, 5 

Marlborough, Duke of, 237, 377 

Marriage of Capid and Psyche, 432 

Mars, 232 

Martin, Mr. 267 

Martinique captured, 161 

Mary of Buttermere, 522 

Maseres, Baron, 329 

Mason, the Poet, 451 



INDSX. 



491 



Matins at D — ^wn— ng College, Cam- 
bridge, 680 
Matrimonial Harmonics, 539 
Matthews, Admiral, 379* 
Matthews, CoL S. 67 
Matthews, Hon. George, 525 
Matthews, Hon. Mont^;ae, 499, 626 
Mawbej, Sir J. 23, 38 
Meeting of the Monied Interest, 216 
Meeting of Unfbrtanate Citoyens, 

197 
Mellish, Mr. 327 
Melville, Lord, account of, 303, 320 

— See Dwndas 
Mental Energy, 509 
Metallic Tractors, 506 
Midas transmuting all into Paper, 

168 
Middlesex Election, 1804, 291 
Military Caricatorist, 447 
MUitary Sketch of a GUt Stick, 460 
Miller, Mr. 89 

Mini6e, Mrs. Margaret, 376, 377 
Mitchell, Mr. 651 
Mitford, Sir John, 269 
Modem Belle going to the Booms at 

Bath, 414 
Modem Elegance, 400 
Modem Grace, 431 
Moira, Lord, 47, 182, 184, 195, 216, 
229, 239, 257, 294, 299, 302, .308, 
309, 310, 311, 314, 319, 323, 328, 
332, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 
344, 351, 356, 627 
Monkey race in Danger, 241 
Monsey, Dr. Messenger, 379 
Moore, Peter, 329 
Monstrosities of 1799, 452 
Monstrous Craws at a New Coalition 

Feast, 24 
Montagu, Rt Hon. Fred. 39 
Monuments lately discovered on 

SaUsbury Plain, 373 
More Pigs than Teats, 311 
'* Morland's," Exhibition of, 551 
Morning aitier Marriage, 33 
Morning Promenade upon the Cliff, 

Brighton, 644 
Mormng Ride, 289 
Morris, Captain, 441, 505 
Mother Goose of Oxford, 552 
Monnt-Edgcnmbe, Lady, 374, 388, 

424 
Mulgrave, Lord, 341 
My Poll and my Partner Joe, 420 

Napier, Hon. George, 466 
Napier, Sir Cha& 466 



Napier, Sir Wm. 466 
Napoleon, Emperor, 308, 336, 353, 
356; Coronation of, 294— See 
BuoncLparie 
Nassalen, Count, 433 
National Assembly petrified, 55 
National Parachute, 264 
Natural Crop, 371 
Nauticus, 477 
Necker, 214 

Neither War nor Peace, 16 
Nelson, Loi^, 1 54, 207*, 208, 2 1 1 , 498 
Nelson's Victory, 209 
Nelson, armorial ensigns of, 211 
New Dynasty (The), 338 
New Pantheon of Democratic My- 
thology, 230 
New Speaker (The) between the 

Hawks and Buzzards, 253 
New Way to pay the National Debt, 

18 
News from Calabria, 324 
Nicholas, Mr. 173 

Nicholls, l^ir. 184, 194, 199, 206, 
216, 229, 234, 257, 258, 261, 262, 
264 
Nicol, Mrs. 380 

NizhUy Visitors atSt.Anne'sHill,207 
Noble Lord (A) on an approaching 

Peace 21 
Norfolk,' Duke of, 36, 39, 114, 118, 
119, 122, 127, 143, 156, 173, 184, 
185, 198, 199, 206, 209, 216, 229, 
257, 258, 261, 262, 290, 291, 299, 
332, 342, 344, 356, 371, 391, 394 
Norfolk, Duke of, at the Hackney 

Meeting, 143 
North, Sir Dudley, 174 
North, Loid, 2, 12, 15, 16, 20, 28, 

31,32,35 
North, Mr. Brownlow, 528 
Northumberland, Duke of, 217, 329, 

567 
Notorious Characters, No. I, 451 
Nugent, Lord, 345 
Nuptial Bower, 164 
Nursery (The), 268 

O'Connor, Arthur, 207, 269, 314 
Ogilvie, Mr. 207 

Oh ! listen to the voice of Love, 458 
Oh ! that this too solid flesh would 

melt, 421 
Old Encore at the Opera, 564 
Old English Gentleman pestered by 

servants wanting places, 355 
Old Maid on a Journey, 530 
Onslow, Earl, 132 



492 



INDEX. 



Onslow, Tommy, 502 

Operatical Reform, 448 

Opening of the Budget, 1 57 

Opposition Telegraphs, 202 

Orange, William, Prince of, 29, 247, 
433 

Orde, Sir J. 154 

Orleans, Duke of, 18, 207 

Ornaments of Chelsea Hospital, 379 

Ostend, Expedition to, 202 

Overthrow of the Repahlican Babel, 
364'" 

Oxford University, election of Chan- 
cellor in, 356, 366 

Pacific entrance of Earl Wolf into 
Blackhaven, 69 

Pacific Overtures, 314 

Pactia de Rhodes, 227 

Paddy on Horseback, 1 

PaUle D'Avoine, 372 

Paine, Tom, 54, 91 

Pair of Polished Gentlemen, 499 

Pandora opening her Box, 352 

Pantagruers victorious return to the 
Court of Gargantua, 110 

Parasols for 1795, 405 

Paris Beau (A), 108 

Paris Belle (A), 107 

Parisot, Mademoiselle, 448 

Parr, Dr. 249, 257 

Patent Bolsters, 385 

Patriotic Regeneration, 118 

Patriots deciding a point of honour, 
331 

Patriotic Petitions on the Peace Con- 
vention, 350 

Patriots amusing themselves, 74 

Pattern Staff, 474 

Patteson, Rev. E. 451 

Paul, Emperor, 256 

Paull, Mj. 325, 326, 327, 329, 330, 
331, 333, 336, 350 

Peep at Christie*8, 429 

Peep into the Shakespeare Gallery, 
382 

Pen-etration, 470 

Penn, John, Esq. 470 

Percival, Mr. 214, 340, 341, 351, 
352, 354, 356 

Perkins, Dr. 506 

Perring, Rev. Mr. 382 

Perry, Mr. E. S. 6, 366 

Peter Pindar's Epistle to Lord Lons- 
dale, 69 ; quotations from, 23, 31, 
120, 378 

Peter III. of Russia, 256 

Petit Souper a la Parisicnnc, 87 



Petre, Lord and Lady, 368 

Petty, Lord Henry, 299, 305,310, 
311, 312, 313, 314, 317, 318, 319, 
321, 323, 385, 336, 337, 339, 340, 
344, 349, 350, 355, 366 — See 
Lcmsdowne 

Petty Professor of Modem History, 
574 

Phaeton Alarmed, 340 

Phantasmagoria, 272 

Phoenix Park offered to Grattan, 6 

Physical Aid, or Britannia recovered 
from a Trance, 275 

Pic-nic Society, 516 

Pic-nic Orchestra, 517 

Pig in a Poke, 38 

Pigs possessed (The), 337 

Pig's Meat, 206 

Pillars of tlic Constitution, 342 

Pinch of Cephalic, 510 

Pitt, Mr. 18, 20, 22, 23, 27, 28, 36, 
37, 39, 43, 44, 51, 57, 58. 68, 72, 
76, 77, 82, 86*, 92, 93, 96, 100*, 
102, 110, 118, 119, 121, 125, 126, 
127, 130, 131, 132, 135, 137, 138, 
139, 140, 141, 145, 146, 148, 149, 
150, 151, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 
164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 170, 172, 
175, 178, 184, 198, 201, 206, 214, 
249, 258, 262, 264, 290, 293, 295, 
298, 299, 300, 302, 305, 307, 314, 
316, 340, 351, 366 

Pitt, Mr. his affection for his nieces, 
146 ; proposal of marriage to, 
164 ; character of, 305 ; and 
Sheridan, 293 

Pity the Sorrows of a Poor Old 
Man, 144 

Pizarro contemplating the Product 
of his new Peruvian Mine, 244 

Plaisirs du Menage, 367 

Plumper for Paull, 330 

Plum-pudding in danger, 295 

Political Amusements for young 
Gentlemen, 259 

Political Banditti assailing the Sft- 
viour of India, 31 

Political Candour, 305 

Political Dreamings, 262 

Political Mathematician shaking the 
brood-bottomed Hemispheres, 336 

Political Ravishment, 167 

Polonius, 123 

Pope (The), 328 

Popham, Sir Home, 202 

Porson, Professor, 451 

Portland, Duke of, 6, 12, 14, 361, 
335, 341, 355, 526 



INDEX. 



493 



Portrait of an Irish Chief, 438 

PoBting in Ireland, 535 

Posting in Scotland, 537 

Posting to the Election, 327 

Power of Beauty, 390 

Pruetor Urbanns, 224 

Preliminaries of Peace, 261 

Preparing for the Grand Attack, 263 

Presages of the Millennium, 127 

Presentation (The), 'or the Wise 
Men's Offering, 142 

Price, Dr. 45, 58 

Priestley, Dr. 57, 58, 74, 91, 101, 

102, 106 
Prince William of Orange, 433 
Prince of the Old School, 469 
Princess Royal, 170, 171 
Princesses (The), 78, 288, 302 
Progress of the Toilet, 570—572 
Promenade en Famille (La), 176 
Protection of the King's Person, BiU 

for, 143 
Provis, Miss, 443 
Proof (A) of the refined feelings of 

an amiable Character, 153 
Promised horrors of the French In- 
vasion, 155 
Prophets of the Hebrews, 116 
Prussia, King of, 315 
Pnltcney, Sir William, 195, 216 
Punch cures the Gout, the Cholic, 

and the Tisick, 453 
Push-pin, 439 
Pylades and Orestes, 433 

Quassia, triumph of, 318 

Queen Charlotte, 288, 302, 368 — See 

Charhtte 
Queensbeny, Duke of, 47, 257, 439, 

523 
Questions and Conmiands, 34 



Rake's Progress at the University, 

545—549 
Raw Weather, 556 
Real Cause of the present High 

Price of Provisions, 122 
Reception in Holland, 247 
Reception of the Diplomatique and 

his suite at the Court of Pekin, 

88 
Reconciliation (The), 302 
Reeves, John, 139, 365 
Regency Bill, 47 
Reid, Major, 446 
Republican Attack (The), 132 
Republican Hercules defending bis 

Countr}', 163 



Republican Rattlesnake fascinating 

the Bedford Squirrel, 136 
Retribution — Tarring and Feather- 
ing, 137 

Reynolds, Sir J. 380, 392, 443 

Hegardez Moi, 370 

Richmond, Duke of, 2, 7, 19, 23, 44, 
140; his Head, 155 

Riflemen, French, 227 

Rights of Man, 54 

Robinson, Mrs. 372, 378 

Rob>on, Mr. 267 

Rockingham, Marquis of, 2, 6 

Roche, Sir Boyle, 6 

Rodney introducing de Grasse, 3 

Rodney, Admiral, 3, 4 

Rolle, Mr. 28 

Rolliad, Extract from the, 38 

Rose, Sir George, 37, 44 

Rosiere, M. 448 

Ross, Colonel, 69 

Royal Ball-fight (The), 141 

Royal Lounger, 479 

Rumford, C^unt, 459, 520 

Russia, 126 

Russia, Catherine of, 29, 51, 76 

Rutland, Duchess of, 404 



Sad Sloppy Weather, 555 

Salute (The), 442 

Salisbury, Lord, 123, 170, 288, 372, 
523 

Salisbury, Lady, 372, 515, 616, 517, 
523 

Sampson overcome by a Philistian, 
379** 

Sandwich Carrots I Dainty Sand- 
wich Carrots, 427 

Sandwich, Lord, 3, 36, 427 

Sans Culottes feedmg Europe with 
the bread of liberty, 95 

Schwallenberg, Madame, 23, 386 

Scientific Researches I New Dis- 
coveries in Pneumaticks, 520 

Scotch Harry's News, 79 

Scotch Pony, conmionly called a 
Galloway, 461 

Scott, Sir Walter, quotations from, 
174, 198 

Scott, Sir WUliam, 202, 356, 365 
366 * 

Search Night, or State Watchmen. 

184 
Sensibility's Tear, 441 
Shakspeare sacrificed, 380 
Shnkspeare Autographs, 451 
Shakspeare Gallery, 380 
Shadow of a Duke, 406 



494 IN 

Shelbnnie, Lord, 7, 11, 14, lOO* 
Sheridan, Mr. liO, 31, 36, 48, S3, 93, 
56, 67, S6, 74, 77, 93, 95, 96, lUl, 
103, 106, 113, 114, lis, 116, lie, 
119, 1T2, 137, 133, 137, 139, 141, 
U3, 145, 146, 147, 14B, 156, 159, 
160, IBS, 16.1, 168, 173, 173, 175, 
178, 104, 308, 809, 810, 839, S44, 
353, 357, 358, 361, 363, 363, 37a. 
37S, 383, 391, 393, 398, 399, 3U5, 
308, 310, 311, 313, 313, 314, 31V, 
833, 336, 337, 338, 3S9, 330, :)3-2. 
.133, 3J5, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341. 
344, 349, 3fiO, 351,433,441, 516, 

SheridBD's attack on Pitt, 393; hia 
speech ia Wcatminnter llall. 344 t 
conveniation with Ireland, 451 

ShcndHn, Mrd. 392 

SlicHdan, Tom, 5S7 

Shippen, Mr. 303 

Stuiae at St. Anne's Hill, 199 

Shnckliorongh, Sir JuhD, 193,310, 



316,3: 

SiddotiH, Mm. 516, 967 

Sidmollth, 198, 839, 303, 307, 308, 
310, 311, 313, 314, 317, 319, 330, 
332, 333, 3SS, 332, 335, 336, 337, 
.139,349,351,356,366 

Siege <Xe ta Colonne de Pump^e, 330 

Sioyes, M. 880 

Sin, Death, and the Devil, 86* 

Sinclair, Sir John, 814, 816, 889, 
835 

Skateing, Elementu of, S40 — 643 

SkofflngOn, Sir Lnmlej, 857,471, 
4T8, 499, 533 

Sketch of tho interior of St. Ste- 
phen's u it now Htandu, 86S 

Sketch cif a Monnincnt of Dixap- 
poiulod Ja^tice, 318 

Slice of GloBter Cheese (A), 407 

Sleep Walker (The), 13 

Slough uf Despond, 90 

Smelling oot a Rat, 45 

Siiiithiwn, Sir Hagh, 816 

Smyth, rrufcmor, 574 

Sneyd. Dr. 416 

" So Skiffy Skipton, with his wonted 
pitce," 478 

Soldier"- Rctnm, 60 

Sound of the Horn, 560 

Soiithcy the Poet, 174 

Soathey, Kev. Cathbert, 174 

Sovereifcnty of the People, 198 

SpaniKh Potriota attacking thelTrcnch 
hiindilti, 346 

S|uni«h Bull Fi|jht, 346 



Speaker <The), 311 
Spencer, Earl, 337, 344 
Spencer and a Thrcadpaper, 39.t 
Sphere (A) Projecting against a 

Plane, 78 
Spooner, Mr. 633 
Spoating, 395 
Squall (A), S76 
St. Anne's Hill, 199 
St. Cedlia, 393 
St. George, ChcTalier de, 375 
St. George and tlio Dragon, 4 
St. George'n Vulunteera chaij^ng 

down Bond Street, 183 
St. Lncia taken, 161 
St. Vincent, Karl of, 154, 166, 208, 
391, 3U3, 338, 337, 339, 340, 343, 
344,350,361, 355 
StacI, Madame de, 164 
Stafford, Marqnis of, 890, 3S6, 660 
Staggering Bobs, a Tale for Scotch- 
men, 437 
Stahremberg, Count, 370 
Standing Diob at Boodle's, 464 
Standi^h, Sir Frank, 464 
Stanhope, Earl, 56, 106, 113, 114, 
116, 118, 119, 188, 187, 138, 141, 
146, 155, 168, 165, 187, 816, SS7, 
390, 899, 309, 380, 333, 533 
StHDhope, Karl, Marriage cf Iiii 

Daugbler, 146 
Stanhope, Lady Hester, 161 
Staunton, Sir Goorge, BS 
State of the War, 841 
I State Jugglers, 39 
State Waggoner and John Bnll, 248 
StatiHtical History of Scotland, 314 
Stoevens, George, 380 
Stonii Kiting; theltepablican flotiU* 

in Danger, 176 
Start, Mr. 139, 239, 357 
Substitutes for Bread, 135 
Sultan (The), 39 
Supplementary Militia, 133 
Sorrender of "Ulm (The), 304 
Suftsc:^, Dnke of, 449 
Suwarrow-Komniskoy, Field Mar- 

slia], Count, 840, 856 
Swan-SM, Vonus, 566 
"Swinigh Mnltitudc," 110. 306 
Sydney, S-ord. 88, 36, 39, 44 
Symirtomi" of deep tJiinking, 466 

Tnlilcfl Turned (The), 166 
Taking Physic, 431 
Tales of Wonder, 614 
Talleyrand, Prince. 75. 388, 384, 
308,314,333,334,338 



IKDIZ. 



495 



Taming of the Shrew, 51 

Tarleton, Col. 216, 261 

Taylor, Michael Angelo, 96, 106, 
114, 119, 155, 159, 160, 162, 168, 
172, 187, 206, 210, 215, 216, 229, 
253, 261, 262, 290 

Ti^lor, Mr. marries Lord Stanhope's 
Daughter, 146 

Taylor, Mr. W. Stanhope, 146 

Teignmoath, Lord, 89 

Temperance enjoying a frugal meal, 
86 

Temple, Lord, 259, 290,308,311, 
314, 319, 323, 327, 332, 333, 834, 
335, 336, 337, 339, 340, 344, 345, 
350, 354, 355, 356, 357, 366 

Tentanda Tia est qua me qnoque 
possim tollere humo, 366 

Thanet, Lord, 299 

Theatrical Mendicants relicTed, 667 

Theatrical Bubble, 532 

Thelwall,Mr. 134, 155, 159, 162,365 

Thcologie & la Turque, 225 

There's more ways thm one, 27 

Thirty Tears have I liyed in this 
Parish of Coyent Garden, &c450 

Tholdal, Mr. 520 

Thorahill, Mr. 38 

Thomdon Hall, entertainment at,S68 

Thornton, Colonel, 406 

Thoughts on the English Govern- 
ment, 139 

Three (The) Bir. Wiggins's, 585 

Thunderer (The), 378 

Thurlow, Lord Chancellor, 2, 28, 27, 
30, 35, 36, 39, 42, 43, 44, 68, 82, 
86» 

Thicknesse, Philip, 60 

Tichfield, Marquis of, 341 

Tiemey, Mr. 174, 175, 184, 190, 199, 
201, 206, 210, 215, 216, 229, 233, 
255, 257, 258, 259, 261, 262, 265, 
273, 291, 293, 305, 310, 311, 313, 
314, 336, 337, 340, 344, 355 

Tiddy-Doll,the great French Ginger^ 
bread Baker, drawing out a new 
Batch of Kings, 309 

Titianus Redivivus, 443 

Tirailleur Francais, etchevalleger de 
I'Arm^ du Pacha de Rhodes, 227 

Toasting MufSns, 67 

Toilet, Progress of the, 570—572 

ToUemache, Xady Grace, 578 

Tom Paine's nightly Pest, 91 

Tomline, Dr. 146 

Tooke, Bir. William, 259 

Tooke, Home, 57, 58, 106, 162, 184, 
189, 216, 259, 263, 291, 311, 318, 



814, 325, 327, 380, 838, 886, 338, 
339, 344, 350, 354, 357 ; skotch of 
his life, 259 

Topham, Major, 37, 378 

Townshend, Xx>rd John, 37 

Townshend, Colonel, 473, 476 

Townshend, "Mi, 355 

Treason and Sedition Bills, 139, 143 

Tree of Liberty— with the Devi! 
tempting John Bull, 200 

Tree of Liberty must be planted im- 
mediately, 168 

Triumph of Quassia, 818 

Triumphal Procession of little Panll 
the Tailor upon his new Goose, 325 

Trotter's Memoirs of Fox, Extracts 
from, 269, 310, 319 

Trois Magots, 389 

True British Tar, 121 

True Reform of Parliament, 357 

Tub for the Whale, 212 

Turner, Sir Charles, 153 

Twin Stars, CTastor and Pollux, 235 

Twopenny Whist, 413 

Ulm, surrender of, 804 
Uncorking Old Sheny, 293 
Uniform (A) Whig, 70 
Union Club (The), 257 
United Lrishmen m Training, 204 
United Irishmen upon Duty, 205 
United Lrishmen, Society of, 207 
University, Rake*s Progress at the, 
545—649 



10 



Committee framing a Report, 



Valley of the Shadow of Death, 847 
Valletort, Lord, 516, 517, 528 
Van Butchell, Martin, 384 
Vancouver, Captain, and his brother, 

154 
Vansittart, Mr. 260, 310, 832— See 

BeoBUy 
Venetian Secret, 443 
Venus k la Coquille, 566 
Venus attired by the Graces, 496 
Venus, trying on the Cestus of, 394 
Vestal of —93, 394 
Very slippy weather, 659 
Vestris, the Dandng Master, 370 
Vices overlooked in the New Pro- 
clamation, 80 
Vienna, Omvention of, 315 
View of Newmarket Heath, 668 
View of the Hustings in Covent 

Garden, 329 
Vimiera, battle of, 350 

32 



496 



nrDBz. 



Visit to Piccadilly, 40 
Visiting the Sick, 319 
Voluptnftry under the horron of 

digestion, 85 
*' Vortigem and Rowena," 451 
Vulture of the Constitution, 41 

Waithman, Alderman, 350 
Wales, Prince of, 18, 84, 28, 32, 33, 

48, 65, 80, 85, 115, 124, 142, 155, 

170, 202, 257, 289, 302, 312, 319, 

372, 375, 378, 435, 480, 523 
Wall, Governor, 521 
Walpole, Sir Kobert, anecdote of, 

303 
Walpole, Lord, 337 
Walpolo, Horace, 5, 375, 400 
Walpole, Gen. 232, 261, 262 
Walse (La), Le Bon Genre, 569 
Waltzer de Mouchoir, 467 
War, 15, 16 

Wardle, Col. 352, 354, 357 
Warley Common, review on, 368 
Warren, Admiral, 208 
Watson, Mr. 89, 413 
Watson, Col. 450 

Weather, Hctures of the, 553 — 559 
Weird Sisters, 68 
Welch Tandem, 531 
Wellesley, Sir Arthur, 300 
Wellington, Duke of, 201, 350 
Weft, Benj. K.A. 443 
W — st^r Just-asses a Braying, 9 
Westminster Conscripts under the 

Training Act, 323 
Westminster Hunt, 35 
Westminster Scrutiny, 214 
Westmorehmd, Earl, 132 
What a Cur 'tis, 128 
What can UtUe T O do ? 

502 
Whig Club, 139, 173, 198 
Whitbread, Mr. 318, 320, 829, 335, 

337, 339, 340, 344, 351, 354, 355, 

357 



Whiteford, Caleb, 551 
Whitworth, Lord, 279 
Wide Awake, 562 
Wife or no Wife, 32 
Wilkes, Mr. 2, 161, 162, 259 
WUberforce, Mr. 49, 127, 140, 160^ 

164, 172, 201, 272, 290, 298, 302^ 

305, 320, 352 
Windham, Mr. 140, 145, 159, 160^ 

262, 290, 293, 298, 299, 305, 308^ 

310, 311, 313, 314, 319, 332, 333^ 

335, 336, 337, 339, 340, 344, 349^ 

350, 351, 352, 355, 366 
Windham, head of. 155. 
Windy Weather, 558 
Windsor, Mrs. 489 
Wine Duty, or the Triumph of Bno 

chus and Silenus, 149 
Wirtemberg, Prince of, 170, 171 
Wirtemberg, King of, 408 
Wishart, Mr. 353, 354 
Witch upon a Mount's Edge, 388 
Wolcot, Dr.— See Peter Pvndar 
Wolf, death of the, 140 
Wolfe, General, 19 
Woodbridge, Robert, 385 
Woodfall, the Printer, 259 
Woollett, the artist, 380 
Worn out Patriot, 355 
Wounded Lion, 303 
Wray, Sir Cecil, 57, 58 
Wright, Sir Sampson, 379«* 
Wycombe, Earl of, 504 
Wynn, Sir Watkin Williams, 23, 40^ 

366, 390 ; and his brothers, 501 
Wynn, Lady, 40 

Yarmouth, Lord, 323 
York, Duke of , 60, 61, 62, 63, 80^ 
100, 110, 170, 207, 352, 354, 44i 
York, Duchess of , 40, 60, 61, 62, 63,71 
York, Archbishop of, 366 
York, Charles, 260 
York Minuet, 62 
York Reverence, 63 



THE BND. 



«. VOJUIAV, PIUVTia, lUIDVIV I.AVI, COTWT OABDSM. 



3436-2